Raw Material for Organic Chemical Industries (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Chemical Technology

Chemical Engineering : Raw Material for Organic Chemical Industries (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

The document Raw Material for Organic Chemical Industries (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev is a part of the Chemical Engineering Course Chemical Technology.
All you need of Chemical Engineering at this link: Chemical Engineering

Raw Material for Organic Chemical Industries 

Introduction

Chemical process industry play an important role in the development of a country by providing a wide variety of products, which are being used in providing basic needs of rising population which is 6.4 billion globally and 1.2 billion in India in 2012. Chemical process industries uses raw material derived from petroleum and natural gas, salt, oil and fats, biomass and energy from coal, natural gas and a small percentage from renewable energy resources. Although initially manufacture of organic chemicals initially started with coal and alcohol from fermentation industry, however later due to availability of petroleum and natural gas dominated the scene and now more than 90% of organic chemicals are produced from petroleum and natural gas routes. However, rising cost of petroleum and natural gas and continuous decrease in the reserves has spurred the chemical industry for alternative feedstock like coal, biomass, coal bed methane, shale gas, sand oil as an alternate source of fuel and chemical feedstock. 

Energy Resources 

Energy play vital role an important role for the development of any country and to meet the challenges due to increasing population it has become one of the very important to optimize its use and look for alternative energy resources. Coal remains the dominant source of energy meeting 52.4% of India’s prime energy needs while oil and natural gas met 41.6% of energy requirement in 2008-09. Power sector accounted for 77% of the non-coking coal off-take. As per planning commission projections till 2032, coal will continue to have a dominant share meeting over 50% of primary commercial requirement [Dutta, 2011]. World and India Energy consumption scenario is given in Figure M-I 2.1 [Hindu Industrial directory, 2007]. The world energy consumption had projected to increase by 58% over a 24 year period from 2001 to 2025. The total energy use projected to grow from 404 in 2001 to 640 quadrillion BTU in 2025 [Energy outlook, 2003]. India’s requirement for fossil fuels by 2030 is estimated by various agencies is in the range of 337 to 462 million tones of oil, 99 to 184 million tones oil equivalent of gas and 602 to 954 million tones of coal Indian energy’s [Hindu industrial directory, 2007]. 

Raw Material for Organic Chemical Industries (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRevRaw Material for Organic Chemical Industries (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

World 74.5 Bnbbl OE                        India 2.7 Bnbbl OE 

Figure M-I 2.1: Indian Energy Scenario 

Sources: Hindu industrial directory, 2007

Raw Materials for Organic Chemical Industries 

Although initially manufacture of organic chemicals initially started with coal and alcohol from fermentation industry, however later due to availability of petroleum and natural gas dominated the scene and now more than 90% of organic chemicals are produce from petroleum and natural gas routes. However, rising cost of petroleum and natural gas and continuous decrease in the reserves as spurred the chemical industry for alternative feedstock like coal, biomass, coal bed methane, shale gas, sand oil as alternate source of fuel and chemical feedstock. Table M-I 2.1 gives the details of raw materials for chemical process industries. Raw materials for chemical industries are classified as primary raw materials and basic intermediates. Although major organic chemicals are produced from petroleum feed stock, however alternative raw materials are available which are getting attention. Detail of feedstock for organic chemical industries is shown in Figure M-I 2.2.  Table M-I 2.2 shows the details of natural gas and petroleum fractions as petrochemicals feedstock. Alternative Routes to Principal Organic Chemicals is given Table M-I 2.3 

Table M-I 2.1: Raw Material for Chemical Process Industries Primary Raw Materials: 

Gaseous

Natural gas, condensate, refinery gases, coal Bed methane, gas hydrate

Liquids

Naphtha, kerosene, gas oil, middle distillates

Solids

Coal, coke, wax, residues

Oils and fats

Tallow and coconut oil, palm oil and other oil

Biomass

Alcohol, paper, energy,

Salt

Chlorine, caustic soda, soda ash

Sulphur

Sulphuric acid, fertilizer,

Lime stone

Cement, lime

 Basic Intermediates: 

Paraffins

Methane , propane, butane and higher hydrocarbons

 

Ethylene, propylene, butadiene , alcohol, vinyl chloride

Olefins and derivatives

Ethylene, propylene,, butadiene , alcohol, vinyl chloride

Aromatics

Benzene Toluene Ethyl benzene, Xylenes, Naphthalene

Secondary Intermediates:

Monomer: Caprolactam, adipic acid, hexamethylene diamine, terephthalic acid and acrylonitrile for synthetic fibres, intermediates for dye stuff industry and pesticides.

Raw Material for Organic Chemical Industries (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Raw Material for Organic Chemical Industries (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Figure M-I 2.2: Feed Stock for Organic Chemical Industries 

 

Table M-I 2.2: Natural Gas and Petroleum Fractions as Petrochemicals Feedstock  

Petroleum

Fractions and

Natural Gases

Source

Composition

Intermediate

Processes

Intermediate

Feedstock

Refinery

Gases

Distillation,

catalytic

cracking,

catalytic

reforming

Methane, ethane,

propane, butane,

BP upto 25 oC

Liquefaction,

cracking

LPG, ethylene propylene, butane, butadiene.

Naphtha

Distillation and

thermal & catalytic cracking, visbreaking

C4-C12

hydrocarbon,

BP 70 - 200 o C

Cracking,

reforming,

alkylation,

disproportiona­

tion,

isomerisation

Ethylene,

propylene,

butane,

butadiene,

benzene, toluene,

xylene

Kerosene

Distillation and

secondary

conversion

processes

C9-C10

hydrocarbon, BP 175-275 o C

Fractionation to

obtain C10-C14 range

hydrocarbon

Linear n C10 - n

C14 alkanes

Gas Oil

Distillation of

crude oil and cracking

C10-C25

hydrocarbons BP 200-400 o C

Cracking

Ethylene,

propylene,

butadiene,

butylenes

Wax

Dewaxing of

lubricating oil

C8-C56

hydrocarbon

Cracking

C6-C20 alkanes

Pyrolysis

Gasoline

Ethylene

cracker

Aromatic, alkenes, dienes, alkanes, cycloalkane

Hydrogenation

distillation,

extraction,

crystallisation,

adsorption

Aromatics

Natural Gases

& Natural Gas Condensate

Gas fields and

crude oil stabilisation

Hydrogen,

methane, ethane, propane, pentane, aromatics

Cracking,

reforming,

separation

Ethylene, propylene, LPG, aromatics, etc.

Petroleum

Coke

Crude oil

Carbon

Residue

upgradation

processes,gasifi-

cation

Carbon electrode, acetylene, fuel

Table M-I 2.3: Alternative Routes to Principal Organic Chemicals  

Chemicals

Petroleum Source

Alternate Source

Methane

Natural gas,

Refinery light gases (de-methaniser overheads)

Coal, as by-product of separation of coke

oven gases (1920-30) or of coal hydrogenation (1930-40)

Ammonia

Methane

Light liquid hydrocarbons

From coal via water gas (1910-20)

Methyl

alcohol

Methane

Light liquid hydrocarbons

From coal via water-gas (1920-30); from methane (from coal) by methane-stream and methane oxygen processes (1930-40)

Ethylene

Pyrolysis of gaseous liquid

hydrocarbons

Dehydration of ethyl alcohol (original route). By-product in fractional distillation of coke oven gas (1925-35). Hydrogenation of acetylene (1940-45)

Acetylene

Ethane

Calcium carbide (original process). methane from coal by partial combustion and by arc process(1935-45)

Ethylene

glycol

Ethylene

From ethylene made as above (1925). In America, from coal via carbon-monoxide and formaldehyde (1935-40)

Ethyl alcohol

Synthetic ethyl alcohol ,

Fermentation of molasses (original route)

Acetaldehyde

Co-product of paraffin gas oxidation. Direct oxidation of ethylene

Fermentation of ethyl alcohol, or acetylene from carbide (1900-10)

Acetone

Propylene

Wood distillation (original process). Pyrolysis

of acetic acid (1920-30) or by acetylene- stream reaction (1930-40)

Glycerol

Propylene

By-product of soap manufacture (original process)

Butadiene

2-Butenes

Butane

Synthetic ethyl alcohol

By-product of ethylene by pyrolysis of liquid hydrocarbons

Ethyl alcohol (1915); acetaldehyde via 1:3- butanediol (1920-30); acetylene and formaldehyde from coal via 1:4-butanediol (1940-45); from 2:3-Butanediol by fermentation (1940-45)

Aromatic

hydrocarbons

Aromatic-rich and naphthenic- rich fractions by catalytic reforming and direct extraction or by hydro-alkylation

By-products of coal-tar distillation

 Source: Masood, R. “Role of Raw material in Petrochemical industry” Chemical Industry news, July 2002 
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Free

,

Raw Material for Organic Chemical Industries (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

,

Sample Paper

,

Important questions

,

study material

,

Objective type Questions

,

Extra Questions

,

MCQs

,

ppt

,

Viva Questions

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Exam

,

Raw Material for Organic Chemical Industries (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

,

mock tests for examination

,

Summary

,

past year papers

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

video lectures

,

pdf

,

Raw Material for Organic Chemical Industries (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

,

Semester Notes

,

practice quizzes

;