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Social environment as a two way process
Social environment emerged from interaction between bio physical ecology and human interventions. This is a two way process — Just as nature shapes society, the society shapes nature.
(a) Nature affects society : Nature affects in such a way that human schedule, their wearing style and their living style are according to the nature of the Region.
(b) Society affects nature : Society affects nature through urbanization and industrialization
Human action has modified ecology.
Natural and Man-made Environmental Disasters :
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population’s resilience, or ability to recover and also on the infrastructure available.
In a man-made disaster the element of human intent or negligence leads to human suffering and environmental damage. In it man has direct hand in the occurrence of the disaster. For eg: Dropping of Atom bomb on Hiroshima, Bhopal Gas Tragedy.
Environmental problems are also social problems:
Environment-Society conflicts : Different social groups stand in different relationships to the environment and approach it differently, e.g. A forest department geared to maximising revenues from supplying large volumes of bamboo to the paper industry will view and use forest very differently from an artisan who harvests bamboo to make baskets. Their varied interests and ideologies generate environmental conflicts.
Thus environmental crises have their roots in social inequality.