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Revision Notes: Major Landforms of the Earth - Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 6 - Class 6

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Mountains
  • A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth surface.
  • There are permanently frozen rivers of ice. They are called glaciers.
  • Mountains may be arranged in a line known as the range.
  • The Himalaya, the Alps and the Andes are mountain ranges.
  • There are three types of mountains—Fold Mountains, Block Mountains and Volcanic Mountains.
  • The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps are young fold mountains.
  • The Aravalli range in India is one of the oldest fold mountain systems.
  • Block Mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically.
  • Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic activity, e.g. Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa.
Plateaus
  • A plateau is an elevated flat land.
  • The Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus.
  • The Tibet plateau is the highest plateau in the world.
  • The African plateau is famous for gold and diamond mining.
  • The lava plateaus are rich in black soil that are fertile and good for cultivation.
Plains
  • Plains are large stretches of flat land.
  • Most of the plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries.
  • In India, the Indo-Gangetic plains are the most densely populated region of the country.
Landforms and the People
  • Humans have been living in different kinds of landforms in different ways.
  • Sometimes, natural calamities such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, storms and floods cause widespread destruction.

The surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. Mountains, plateaus and plains are different landforms of the earth. A mountain is a natural elevation of the earth surface. There are three types of mountains—Fold mountains, Block mountains and Volcanic mountains. A plateau is an elevated flat land. It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area. A plateau may have one or more sides with steep slopes.

  • The Deccan plateau is one of the oldest plateaus.
  • The Tibet plateau is the highest plateau in the world.
  • Plains are large stretches of flat land. Some plains are extremely level while others may be slightly rolling and undulating.
  • Plains are generally thickly populated regions of the world.
  • Human habitation is found on different kinds of landforms. But population varies on these landforms. Mountains are generally not thickly populated. But plains are the regions where the thick population is found.
  • The land is precious. We must not use it in a wasteful manner. Construction work of any type should not be carried on fertile land. Also, we should not throw garbage on land. It is our duty to take care of the land or any other natural gift. If we do this we will be conscious citizens.

Erosion: The wearing away of the earth’s surface is known as erosion.
Mountain: A mountain is a natural elevation of the earth surface.

Glacier: Some mountains have permanently frozen river of ice. They are called glaciers.
Range: When mountains are in an arranged line, it is called a range.
Horsts and graben: The uplifted blocks are known as horsts and the lowered blocks are known as graben.
Storehouse: A building where things are stored or kept.
Terraces: One of the series of flat areas of ground which are cut into the side of a hill like steps in order to grow crops there.
Flora: The plants of a particular area.
Fauna: The animals living in an area.
Plateau: A plateau is an elevated flat land. It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area.
Plain: A plain is a vast stretch of flat land where the thick population is found.

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