Revision Notes (Part - 1) - Self and Personality Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Psychology Class 12

Humanities/Arts : Revision Notes (Part - 1) - Self and Personality Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Revision Notes (Part - 1) - Self and Personality Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Psychology Class 12.
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Facts That Matter

Self refers to the totality of an individuals conscious experiences, ideas thoughts and feelings with regard to her self or him self.

  • The study of self and personality help us to understand ourselves as well as others.
  • The structure of self can be understood in terms of identity of the intended and the development of personal and social self.
  • Personal identity refers to those attributes of a person that make him/her different from others.
  • Social identity refers to those aspects of a person that link him/her to a social or cultural group or are derived from it.

Self refers to the totality of an individual’s conscious experiences, ideas, thoughts and feelings with regard to himself or herself.

  • Subject:Who does something (actor).Self actively engages in the process of knowing itself.
  • Object:Which gets affected (consequence).Self gets observed and comes to be known.
  • Kinds of Self:(i) Formed as a result of the interaction of the biological self with the physical and sociocultural environment.(ii) Biological self developed |is a result of our biological needs.
  • Personal Self:Primarily concerned with oneself.Emphasis comes to be laid on those aspects of life that relate only to the concern the person, such as personal freedom, personal responsibility, personal achievement, or personal comforts.
  • Social/Familial/Relational Self Emerges in relation with others.Emphasises such aspects of life as co-operation, unity, affiliation, sacrifice, support or sharing. This self values family and social relationship.
  • Self-concept is the way perceive ourselves and the ideas we hold about our competencies and attributes. A person’s self-concept can be found out by asking the person about himself herself.
  • Self-esteem is the value judgement of a person about himself/herself.
  1.  Assessment present a variety of statements to a person and ask him/her to indicate the extent to which those statements are true for him or her.
  2. By 6 to 7 years, children have formed self-esteem in four areas—academic, social and physical/athletic competence, and physical appearance become more refined with age.
  3. Overall self-esteem: It is the capacity to view oneself in terms of stable disposition and combine separate self-evaluations into a general psychological image of oneself.
  4. Self-esteem has a strong relationship with our everyday behaviour. Children with low self-esteem in all areas often display anxiety, depression, and increasing anti-social behaviour.
  5. Warm and positive parenting helps in development of high self-esteem among children- allows them to know they are accepted as competent and worthwhile.

• Self-efficacy is the extent to which a person believes they themselves control their life outcomes or the outcomes are controlled by luck or fate or other situational factors.

  1. A person who believes that he/she has the ability or behaviour required by a particular situation demonstrates high self-efficacy.
  2. The notion of self-efficacy is based on Bandura’s social learning theory. He showed that children and adults learned behaviour by observing and imitating others.
  3. People’s expectations of achievement also determine the type of behaviour in which they would engage, as also the amount of risk they would undertake.
  4. Strong sense of self-efficacy allows people to select, influence, and even construct the circumstances of their own life; also feel less fearful.
  5. Society, parents and own positive experiences can help in the development of a strong sense of self-efficacy by presenting positive models during the formative years of children.

• Self-regulation refers to the ability to organize and monitor one’s own behaviour.

  1. People who are able to change their behaviour according to the demands of. the environment are high on self-monitoring.
  2. Self-control is learning to delay or refer the gratification of needs.
  3. Will-power is the ability to respond to situational pressure with resistance and control over ourselves.
  4. Self-control plays a key role in the fulfilment of a long-term goal.
  5. Indian culture tradition provides certain effective mechanisms (fasting in vrata or roza and non-attachment with worldly things) for developing self-control.

• Techniques of self-control:

  1. Observation of own behaviour: provides necessary information that may be used to change, modify or strengthen certain aspects of self.
  2. Self-instruction: instructs ourselves to do something and behave the way we want to.
  3. Self-reinforcement: rewards behaviours that have pleasant outcomes.

Culture And Self:

  • Indian

Shifting nature of boundary between self and other (individual self and social self).
Does not clear dichotomies.
Collectivistic culture: Self is generally not separated from one’s own group; rather both remain in a state of harmonious co-existence.

  • Western

Boundary is relatively fixed.
Holds clear dichotomies between self and other, man and nature, subjective and objective.
Individualistic Culture: Self and the group exist as two different entities with clearly defined boundaries; individual members of the group maintain their individuality.


• Personality refers to unique and relatively stable qualities that characterized an individual’s behaviour across different situation over a period of time.

  1. Derived from persona (Latin), the mask used by actors in Roman theatre for changing their facial make-up.
  2. Once we are able to characterize someone’s personality, we can predict how that person will probably behave in a variety of circumstances.
  3. An understanding of personality allows us to deal with people in realistic and acceptable ways.

Features of Personality:

  1.  Personality has both physical and psychological components.
  2. Its expression in terms of behaviour is fairly unique in a given individual.
  3. Its main features do not easily change with time.
  4. It is dynamic in the sense that some of its features may change due to internal or external situational demands; adaptive to situations.

Approaches to Study Personality

  • Type Approaches

1.Hippocrates (Greek Physician)

(i) Proposed a typology of personality based on fluid or humour.
(ii) Classified people into four types (i.e., sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholic and choleric); characterised by specific behavioural features.

2. Charak Samhita (Treatise on Ayurveda)

(i) Classifies people into the categories of vata, pitta and kapha on the basis of three humoural elements called tridosha.
(ii) Each refers to a type of temperament, called prakriti (basic nature) of a person.

3. Typology of personality based on the trigunas, i.e. , sattva, rajas, and tamas.

— Sattva guna—cleaniness, truthfulness, dutifulness, detachment, discipline.
— Rajas guna—intensive activity, desire for sense gratification, dissatisfaction,envy, materialism.
— Tamas guna—anger, arrogance, depression, laziness, helplessness
All the three gunas are present in every person in different degrees—the dominance of . any guna leads to a particular type of behaviour.

4. Sheldon

Using body built and temperament as the main basis for classification:
(i) Endomorphic (fat, soft and round)—relaxed and sociable.
(ii) Mesomorphic (strong musculature, rectangular, strong body build)—energetic and courageous.
(iii) Ectomorphic (thin, long, fragile)—brainy, artistic and introverted.
— Limited use in predicting behaviour—simple and similar to stereotypes.

5. Jung

Grouped people into two types, widely recognized.
(i) Introverts: People who prefer to be alone, tend to avoid others, withdraw themselves in the face of emotional conflicts, and are shy.
(ii) Extraverts: Sociable, outgoing, drawn to occupations that allow dealing directly with people, and react to stress by trying to lose themselves among people and social activity.

6. Friedman and Roesenman

Tried to identify psycho-social risk factors and discovered types.
(i) Type-A (susceptible to hypertension and coronary heart disease): Highly motivated, impatience, feel short of time, be in a great hurry, and feel like being always burdened with work. Such people find it difficult to slow down and relax,
(ii) Type-B The absence of Type-A traits.
Moris continued this research and identified:
(iii) Type-C (prone to cancer): Co-operative, unassertive patient, suppress negative emotion, show compliance to authority.
(iv) Type-D (prone to depression).
Personality typologies are usually too simplistic as human behaviour is highly complex and variable. Assigning people to a particular personality type is difficult. People do not fit into such simple categorization schemes so neatly.

Trait Approaches

A trait is considered as a relatively enduring attribute or quality on which one individual differ another. They are:
Relatively Stable over Time
— Generally consistent across situations.
— Their strengths and combination vary across individuals leading to individual differences in personality.

1. Allport’s Trait Theory (Gordon Allport)

(i) Individuals possess a number of traits—dynamic in nature and determine behaviour.
(ii) Analysed words people use to describe themselves—provided a basic for understanding human personality—and categorized them into—
— Cardinal Traits: highly generalized disposition, indicates the goal around . which a person’s entire life revolves, e.g., Hitler’s Nazism.
— Central Traits: less pervasive in effect, but still quite generalized disposition. e.g., sincere.
— Secondary trai least generalized characteristics of a person, e.g., likes mangoes.
(iii) The way an individual reacts to a situation depends on his/her traits.
(iv) People sharing the same traits might express them in different ways.

2. Personality Factors (Raymond Cattell)

(i) Identified primary traits from descriptive adjectives found in language.
(ii) Applied factor analysis, a statistical technique to discover the common structure on which people differ from each other.
— Source or Primary Traits (16): stable, building blocks of personality— described in terms of opposing tendencies.
— Surface Traits: result out of the interaction of source traits.
(iii) Developed Sixteen Personality Factor (16PF) Questionnaire for the assessment of personality.

3. Eysenck’s Theory (H.J. Eysenck)

(i) Reduced personality into, two broad dimensions which are biologically and genetically based and subsume a number of specific traits.
— Neuroticism (anxious, moody, touchy, restless) us. Emotional stability (calm, even tempered, reliable)—the degree to which people have control over their feelings.
— Extraversion (active, gregarious, impulsive, thrill seeking) vs. Introversion (passive, quiet, caution, reserved)—the degree to which people are socially outgoing or socially withdrawn.
(ii) Later proposed a third dimension, Psychoticism (hostile, electric, and antisocial) vs. Sociability, considered to interact with the other two dimensions.
(iii) Developed Eysenck Personality Questionnaires to study dimensions of personality.

Revision Notes (Part - 1) - Self and Personality Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

    Revision Notes (Part - 1) - Self and Personality Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRevRevision Notes (Part - 1) - Self and Personality Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRevRevision Notes (Part - 1) - Self and Personality Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
(iv) Useful in understanding the personality profile of people across cultures
(v) Consistent with the analysis of personality traits found in different languages and methods
• Psycho-dynamic Approach (Sigmund Freud)

A Levels of Conciousness

  1.  Conscious—thoughts, feelings and action of which people are aware.
  2. Preconscious-—mental activity which people may become aware only if they attend to it closely.
  3. Unconscious—mental activity that people are aware of.

(i) A reservoir of instinctive or animal drives—stores all ideas and .wishes that arise from sexual desires.
(ii) Cannot be expressed openly and therefore are repressed or concealed from conscious awareness.
(iii) Constant struggle to find a socially acceptable way to express unconscious awareness.
(iv) Unsuccessful resolution of conflicts results in abnormal behaviour Approaches to the Unconscious

  1. Free Association—a method in which a person is asked to openly share all the thoughts, feelings and ideas that come to his/her mind.
  2. Dream Analysis.
  3. Analysis of Errors—mispronunciations, forgetting.

Psycho-analysis is a therapeutic procedure, the basic goal which is to bring repressed unconscious material to consciousness, thereby helping people to live in a more self-aware and integrated manner.

B Structure of Personality

  1.  Freud gave an imaginary division of mind it believed in internal dynamics which can be inferred from the ways people behave.
  2.  Three competing forces—i.e. id, ego and superego influence behaviour relative strength of each structure determines a person’s stability.

• Id:

  1.  Source of a person’s instinctual energy—deals with immediate gratification of primitive needs, sexual desires and aggressive impulses.
  2.  Works on the pleasure principle, which assumes that people seek pleasure and try to avoid pain.
  3. Demanding, unrealistic and does not care for moral values, society, or other individuals.
  4. Energised by instinctual forces, life (sexual) instinct (libido) and death instinct.

• Ego:

  1. Seeks to satisfy an individual’s instinctual needs in accordance with reality.
  2. Works on the reality principle, and directs the id towards more appropriate ways of behaving.
  3. Patient and reasonable.

• Superego:

  1. Moral branch of mental functioning.
  2. Tells the id and ego whether gratification in a particular instance is ethical
  3. Controls the id by internalising the parental authority the process of socialisation. According to Freud personality is Biological determined. It is instinctive. Life instinct and death instinct determine behaviour.

• Life instinct is dominant in human behaviour.

C Ego Defence Mechanisms

  1.  A defence mechanism is a way of reducing anxiety by distorting reality unconsciously.
  2. It defends the ego against the awareness of the instinctual reality.
  3. It is normal and adaptive; people who use mechanism are often unaware of doing so.

(i) Repression: Anxiety provoking behaviours or thoughts are totally dismissed by the unconscious. ‘
(ii) Projection: People attributes their own traits to others.
(iii) Denial: A person totally refuses to accept reality.
(iv) Reaction Formation: A person defends against anxiety by adopting behaviours opposite to his/her true feelings.
(v) Rationalisation: A person tries to make unreasonable feelings or behaviour seem reasonable and acceptable.

D Stages of Personality/Psychosexual Development (Five Stage Theory of Personality)

  1. The core aspects of personality are established early, remain stable throughout life, and can be changed only with great difficulty.
  2. Problems encountered at any stage may arrest development, and have long-term effect on a person’s life.

Revision Notes (Part - 1) - Self and Personality Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Revision Notes (Part - 1) - Self and Personality Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Revision Notes (Part - 1) - Self and Personality Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Revision Notes (Part - 1) - Self and Personality Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Revision Notes (Part - 1) - Self and Personality Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
• Oedipus Complex (Male)
Love for mother, hostility towards the father, and fear of punishment or castration by the father.
Accepts his father’s relationship with his mother and models his own behaviour after his father.

• Electra Complex (Female)
Attaches her love to the father and tries to symbolically marry him and raise a family.
Identifies with her mother and copies her behaviour as a means of getting (or sharing in) her father’s affection.

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