Electro-Convulsive Therapy (Ect)
(i) Mild electric shock given via electrodes to the brain of the patient to induce convulsions.
(ii) The shock is given by the psychiatrist only when necessary for the improvement of the patient.
(iii) Not a routine treatment and is given only when drugs are not effective
Factors Contributing to Healing:
- Techniques adopted by the therapist and the implementation of the same with the client, e.g., CBT for an anxious client—relaxation procedures and cognitive restructuring contribute to the healing.
- The therapeutic alliance, which is formed between the therapist and the patient/ client, has healing properties, because of the regular availability of the therapist, and the warmth and empathy provided by the therapist.
- Catharsis: A process of emotional unburdening by a client when he/she is being interviewed in the initial sessions of therapy to understand the nature of the problem.
- Non-specific Factors: These factors occur across different systems of psychotherapy and across different clients/patients and different therapists.
(i) Patient Variables (motivation for change, expectation of improvement).
(ii) Therapist Variables (positive nature, good mental health, absence of unresolved emotional conflicts).
Ethics in Psychotherapy:
- Informed consent needs to be taken.
- Confidentiality of the client should be maintained.
- Alleviating personal distress should be the goal of all attempts of the therapist.
- Integrity of the practitioner-client relationship is important.
- Respect for human rights and dignity.
- Professional competence and skills are essential.
F. ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES Yoga:
- An ancient Indian technique detailed in the Ashtanga Yoga of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras.
- Refers to only the asanas (body posture component) or to pranayama (breathing practices).
- Techniques enhance well-being, mood, attention, mental focus, and stress tolerance.
- Reduces the time to go to sleep and improves the quality of sleep.
- Proper training by a skilled teacher and 30-minute practice everyday maximises the benefits.
- Meditation refers to the practice of focusing attention on breath or on an object or thought of a mantra.
A. Sudarshana Kriya Yoga (SKY)
(i) Rapid breathing techniques induce hyperventilation.
(ii) Beneficial, low risk, low cost.
(iii) Used as a public health intervention technique to alleviate PTSD in survivors of mass disasters.
(iv) Reduces depression (research conducted at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS).
(v) Reduces stress levels in substance abuse patients, e.g., alcoholics.
B. Kundalini Yoga
(i) Effective in treatment of mental disorders and OCD.
(ii) Combines prandyama (breathing techniques) with chanting of mantras.
C. Vipasana Meditation
(i) Mindfulness-based meditation; no fixed object or thought to hold to attention.
(ii) Person passively observes the various bodily sensations and thoughts that are passing through in his or her awareness.
(iii) Helps prevent repeated episodes of depression.
(vi) Helps patients process emotional stimuli better and prevents biases in the processing of these stimuli.
Rehabilitation of the Mentally 111:
- Aim: to empower the patient to become a productive member of society to the maximum extent possible.
- Many patients suffer from negative symptoms such as disinterest and lack of motivation to do work or to interact with people—rehabilitation is required to help such patients become self-sufficient.
- In rehabilitation, the patients are given:
(i) Occupational Therapy: teaches skills such as candle making, paper bag making and weaving to help them to form a work discipline
(ii) Social Skills Training: Develops interpersonal skills through role play, imitation and instruction; objective is to teach the patient to function in a social group.
(iii) Cognitive Retraining: Improves the basic cognitive functions of attention, memory and executive function.
(iv) Vocational Therapy: Once the patient improves sufficiently, gains skills necessary to undertake productive employment.
Words That Matter
- Alternative Therapy: Alternative treatment possibilities to the conventional during treatment or Psychotherapy, e.g. yoga, Meditation etc.
- Behaviour Therapy: Therapy based on the principles of behaviouristic learning theories in order to change the maladaptive behaviour.
- Biomedical Therapy: Refer to medicines which are prescribed to treat Psychological disorders.
- Client-centered (Rogerian) Therapy: The therapeutic approach developed by Carl Rogers in which therapist helps clients to clarify their true feeling and come to value who they are.
- Cognitive Therapies: Forms of therapy focused on changing distorted and maladaptive patterns of thought.
- Counselling: A board name for a wide variety of procedures for helping individuals achieve adjustments, such as the giving of advice, therapeutic discussion, the administration and interpretation of tests, and vocational assistance.
- Counselling Interview: An interview whose purpose is counselling or providing guidance in the area of personality, vocational choice, etc.
- Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT): Commonly called ‘shock treatment’. A biological treatment for unipolar depression in which electrodes attached to a patient’s head send an electric current through the brain, causing a convulsion. It is effective in the treatment of cases of several depression that fail to respond to drug therapy.
- Empathy: Reacting to another’s feelings with an emotion response that is similar to the other’s feeling.
- Free Association: A psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes verbally any thought, feeling or image that comes to mind, even if it seems unimportant.
- Gestalt Therapy: An approach to therapy that attempts to integrate a client’s thoughts, feelings and behaviour into a unified whole.
- Humanistic Therapy: A therapy in which the underlying assumption is that people have control over their behaviour, can make choices about their lives, and are essentially responsible for solving their own problems.
- Modelling: A process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others.
- Psychodynamic Therapy: First suggested by Frend. Therapy based on the premise that the primary sources of abnormal behaviour are unresolved past conflicts and the possibility that unacceptable unconscious impulses will enter consciousness.
- Psychotherapy: The use of any psychological technique in the treatment of mental/ psychological disorder or maladjustment.
- Rational Emotive Therapy (RET): A therapeutic system developed by Albert Ellis. It seeks to replace irrational problem-provoking outlooks with more realistic ones.
- Rehabilitation: Restoring an individual to normal or a satisfactory a state as possible, following an illness, criminal episode, etc.
- Resistance: In psychoanalysis, attempts by the patient to block treatment.
- Self-actualisation: A- state of self-fulfillment in which people realise their highest potential in their own unique way.
- Systematic Desensitisation: A form of behavioural therapy in which phobic client learns to induce a relaxed state and then exposed to stimuli that elicit fear or phobia.
- Therapeutic Alliance: The special relationship between the client and the therapist; contractual nature of the relationship and limited duration of the therapy are its two major components.
- Transference: Strong positive or negative feelings toward the therapist on the part of individual undergoing psychoanalysis.
- Unconditional Positive Regard: An attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what the other person says or does.