• The World Wide Web provides services like chatting, emailing, video conferencing, e-learning, e-shopping, e-reservation, e-groups and social networking.
Electronic Mail or E-Mail
• Definition: Email is simply the short form of “electronic mail”. It is a system of receiving, sending, and storing electronic messages.
• Reasons behind popularity:
→ A person from any age group and from any background can use it and the delivery of the message is instant.
→ The speed is much higher than the speed of the traditional postal or the courier service.
• How is e-mail service used?
→ Messages include text, images and numerous types of formatted documents sent by electronic mail normally reach a recipient’s account within seconds.
• Protocols used in e-mail Service:
→ Users receive and send messages using standardized protocols that make it possible for emails to travel between computers.
A protocol is a set of rules that are needed for communication.
→ There are three types of protocols used by e-mail service:
♠ Simple message transfer protocol (SMTP): This enables the actual sending of messages.
♠ Post Office Protocol (POP)
♠ IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)
POP and IAMP allows the users to retrieve information instantly.
• Important parts of Email
→ Message body: The body of the message may consist of words, number, attachments, special characters or anything you want to insert in the letter.
→ E-mail address: The address of the person(s) to whom you want to send the message.
An e-mail address consists of four parts:
♠ The username: The username is the name given by the user (the recipient) as per his/her choice. In the example 'editor' is the username.
♠ The symbol: This symbol ‘@’ is pronounced as ‘at the rate’ and this remains same in every email address.
♠ The hostname: The hostname is also called the domain name. In the example, hostname is ‘cbse’.
♠ The top level domain: In the example, .com is TLD which means commercial.
→ Field associated with an e mail Message: The email client may typically consist of four important fields:
♠ To: field is used to write the email address of the person to whom the message is to be sent.
♠ Cc: field is optional and is used to send a message to multiple additional addresses.
♠ Bcc: field is also optional and is used to send a message to multiple additional addresses.
♠ Subject: field is used to mention short title for what is included in the body of the message.
• The difference between Cc and Bcc: field is decided in terms of visibility.
→ The address in Bcc: field is termed as blind carbon copy, the addresses mentioned in this field are not visible to the recipients of the “To:” and the “Cc:” fields.
• Definition: The electronic chat is the communication between two or more individuals using their computers.
• The communication occurs through typed text messages.
• The group chats can be ongoing or scheduled for a particular time and duration. Also, two users can chat when they are using the Internet and the platform at the same time.
• Several browser interfaces provide the chat facility these days such as Instant messaging, Windows, Skype and ICQ.
• With the invent of 3G technology not only text data but video data can also be streamlined at the same time.
• Definition: The video conferencing is a conference between two or more people sitting at various
remote locations around the world.
• In video conferencing, several computer networks relay the information through the Internet.
• Each of the end user has a camera known as Webcam as well microphone to capture the video data and the voice data in real time and this is transmitted over Internet.
• Now a days, smart phones and tablets has the capability of capturing the video data as well voice data. Therefore, it is possible to conduct video conferencing from any part of the world not necessarily connected to Internet through wires.
• Multipoint videoconferencing allows three or more participants to sit in virtual conference room and communicate, as though they are all sitting together.
• Advantages of Video Conferencing:
→ Reduced traveling cost: The video conferencing lowers the distance by showing the receiver on the monitor and it takes least amount of time to conduct talks between the two users.
→ Increased productivity: The people meet in the virtual world where the discussions takes place instantly without meeting each other and the decisions about a problem are thus made faster.
→ Going Green: Since conferencing between people is possible even without travelling from one place to another through video conferencing, a lot of petrol or fuel is saved.
• Disadvantages of Video Conferencing:
→ Technical issues: Since the video conferencing depends heavily on the availability of a high speed internet connection, the technical issues of such types can delay the discussions among the participants sitting in different locations.
→ Lack of personal contact: It is difficult to judge a person through the video or a virtual interview.
• Definiton: E-Learning is a method of providing guidance and/or delivering information to students of university or the employees of companies.
• Advantages of E-Learning:
→ Class work can be scheduled around work and family
→ Reduces travel time and travel costs for off-campus students
→ Students may have the option to select learning materials that meets their level of knowledge and interest.
→ Students can study anywhere; they only need access to a computer and Internet connection
→ Self-paced learning modules allow students to work at their own speed
→ Flexibility to join discussions in the bulletin board threaded discussion areas at any hour, or visit with classmates and instructors remotely in chat rooms
→ E-Learning can accommodate different learning styles and facilitate learning through a variety of activities
→ Develops knowledge of the Internet and computer skills that will help learners in their career.
• Disadvantages of E-Learning:
→ Learners with low motivation or bad study habits may fall behind
→ Without the routine structures of a traditional class, students may get lost or confused about course activities and deadlines
→ Students may feel isolated from the instructor and classmates
→ Instructor may not always be available when students are studying or need help
→ Slow Internet connections or old computers may make accessing course materials frustrating
→ Managing computer files and online learning software can sometimes seem complex for students with beginner level computer skills
→ Lab work is difficult to simulate in a virtual classroom.
• Definition: E-Reservation System is an online reservation system that enables hotels, resorts, property owners, operators, theater operators and transport companies to maximize revenues without having to put human booking agents.
• Businesses benefit from E-reservation as:
→ Increases direct sales as immediate confirmation is provided
→ Reduces administrative costs as less human agents are required
→ Helps manage inventory better as more visibility to the customer
→ Provides global access to the customers without the capital expenditure to set up local offices.
• Definition: On-line shopping is the purchase of products and services over the Internet using a desktop or laptop of other smart device.
• Benefits of E-Shopping:
→ Reduces time for customers as they can do a search from the comfort of their home and compare prices
→ Reduces major infrastructure cost to the businesses
→ Helps move products faster as the products move from manufacturer to the customer skipping unnecessary storage.
→ Businesses benefit from immediate funds availability and mostly customers pay for the product through e-payment online.
• Disadvantages of E shopping:
→ Customers are not able to touch and feel the products
→ Businesses have to manage the logistics of delivering products just-in-time
→ The access of this shopping depends entirely on availability of Internet. This limits a large population who does not know to use the technology i.e. the remote areas.
→ Businesses have to continually protect against fraud and returning of the products sold.
• Examples: Home Shop 18, Naaptol .com, Yebhi.com etc.
• The most important interface component of E-Shopping portal are:
→ Customer website interface
→ Order management and inventory control.
→ Shipment Interface with various logistics organizations
→ Payment gateway for financial interface for payment processing
→ Customer service and support with live agents for complaints and help.
• Definition: Social Networking is a platform that helps people to connect with others and build a social relation.
• In these sites where people can search / choose to make friends, post pictures and photos, comment on each other’s activities
• Social networking site allows a user to share ideas, activities, events, and interests among the people.
• An individual can share text information, photos, data files or even videos.
• Many people now a days use social networking sites to market their business and thus reach the potential customer.
• Definition: E groups are a list of emails, users that can share information among each other.
• A single administrator can maintain that group and hence provide the entire set of users to communicate between each other.
• Only the users within the group have the access and any user who is not in the group will not get the permission to access.
|1. What are web services in information and computer technology?|
|2. How do web services work?|
|3. What are the advantages of using web services?|
|4. What are some examples of web services?|
|5. How can web services be secured?|