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Revision notes of Security Threats and Safe, Information & Computer Technology, Class 9 | Information & Computer Technology (Class 9) - Notes & Video PDF Download

Introduction
• With the increasing use of the internet, there is also increase in threats to the computers.
• The main objectives of these threats is to destroy the data and to steal the vital information stored
in computers.

Viruses
• A computer virus is a program usually hidden within another simple program.
• These programs destroy data and perform other malicious actions by producing copies of itself and inserting them into other programs or files.
• These are created with a specific target in mind such as data theft or destruction of software.
• Viruses are of different types but a common virus is macro virus.
• Macro Virus: It is series of programming steps that are stored in a single location.

→ These can be embedded in the program files.
→ These viruses created with the intention of fooling the user can deceive them in sharing confidential information.
→ The virus using macro files are most popular as they are:
♠ Easy to write.
♠ Can infect more people faster as they exchange documents and data frequently
♠ Can easily infect any computer capable of running Office and Internet.

→ Macro viruses can corrupt data, create new files, move text, flash colors, insert pictures, send files across the Internet, and format hard drives.
→ Macro viruses modify registries, forward copies of it through emails, look for passwords, copy documents, and infect other programs.
→ Examples of Macro Viruses: Wazzo, W97M etc.

Worms
• Worms are computer programs that replicate copies of themselves.
• They are very similar to viruses however many difference are present between them.
• Difference between Worms and Viruses
→ Viruses often, but not always, contain some functionality that will interfere with the normal
use of a computer or a program however, worms exist as separate entities; they do not attach themselves to other files or programs.

• Some examples of the worst Worms that impacted we are:
→ Jerusalem is one of the earliest worms that spread in 1987. It used to delete files that were executed on each Friday the 13th.

→ In 1991, thousands of machines running MS-DOS were hit by a new worm, Michelangelo. The virus would overwrite the hard disk or change the master boot record of infected hosts.

→ In 2007 Storm Worm hit the computers.The worm gather data on the host machine, to sending infected emails to others.

• Worm mainly spreas through email attachments.

Trojan Horses
• A Trojan horse is a program that claims to rid your computer of viruses but instead introduces viruses into the system.
• The Trojan program does not attach itself to the files like a virus nor replicate itself like a worm but it does provide unauthorized access to user’s computer.
• These mostly spread through internet downloads and online gaming programs.
• The software makes infected computer slow and will exhibit pop-ups from time to time. Eventually, the computer will cease to operate, or crash.
• The best way to avoid the Trojans is to adopt safe download practices. Always download any program from trusted source.
• Examples: I love you

Spyware
• A Spyware is a program used to spy on the computer system. This program will try to get all the confidential and sensitive information such as your bank account numbers, passwords etc.
• Spyware can also change the configuration of your computer, generally without obtaining your consent first.
• SpyWare software covertly install the software during the installation of other software that is being downloaded such as music or video or a file-sharing program.
• After installation, the Spyware monitors user activity on the Internet and transmits that information in the background to someone else.
• SpyWare have the ability to monitor keystrokes, scan files on the hard drive, snoop other applications, such as chat programs or word processors.

• Examples are CoolWebSearch, Internet optimizer and Zango.

 Malware
• Malware is short for “malicious software.” 
• Malware is any kind of unwanted software that is installed without your adequate consent.
• Malware damage the data or functionality of the computer or network.
• Virus, Trojans etc are examples of Malware.

Spams
• The term “spam” refers to unsolicited commercial email (UCE) or unsolicited bulk email (UBE). 
• Spam simply means irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of recipients.
• Unsolicited email mostly contains advertisements for services or products.

• Most common spam includes:
→ Phishing scams, a very popular and dangerous form of email fraud
→ Foreign bank scams or advance fee fraud schemes
→ Other “Get Rich Quick” or “Make Money Fast” (MMF) schemes
→ Quack health products and remedies.

• Spam email clogs your email accounts and uses unnecessary server space.

• It is never possible to completely stop the Spam email because Internet is a public platform. However precaution can be taken while looking at an unknown email addresses.

Hackers and Crackers
• Hackers and crackers are the software programmers who use dubious ways to get control over your computer and systems.
• Their main objective is to gain control over a computer so that they can get the sensitive confidential information.
• They use information against you by stealing money, personal data, pictures, bank details and government military information, so on and so forth.
• Hackers were the gifted programmers who gain access to the systems or network to show case the security loopholes to the administrators.
• Crackers have an end goal of destroying data and network for personal monetary gains.

AntiVirus Tools
• Anti Virus tools are the software programs that help us detect the virus in emails or files and hence protect our computers.
• These tools can detect virus, worms, Trojans as well as spyware and adware.
• They block us from visiting unsafe websites, and also downloading unsafe programs from such websites.
• They protect us from identity thefts and threats from phishing websites.

• Examples are Norton, Mcafee, K7, Quickheal etc.

Data Backup and Security
• The basic principal on data back up is very simple, just make another copy of the data and keep it elsewhere than on the same computer.
• This guarantees that once the data on your computer gets corrupted due to a threat, you can reload the data again on your computer once it has been rectified.
• We can use external hard drives and smart devices are to back up the data.
• Some guideing principles to use the computers securely:

→ Using Security software such as Norton antivirus, Symantec etc.
→ Never share passwords
→ Beware of email attachments form unknown sources
→ Do not randomly download material from websites which has not been checked for security
→ Never propagate hoax or chain emails
→ Always logout your laptop or computer
→ Restrict remote access
→ Frequently back up important data and files
→ Use encryption or sites that use encrypted data

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FAQs on Revision notes of Security Threats and Safe, Information & Computer Technology, Class 9 - Information & Computer Technology (Class 9) - Notes & Video

1. What are the common types of security threats in information and computer technology?
Ans. Common types of security threats in information and computer technology include malware attacks, phishing scams, data breaches, ransomware attacks, and social engineering attacks.
2. How can malware attacks affect information and computer technology systems?
Ans. Malware attacks can infect computers and networks, causing data loss, system crashes, and unauthorized access to sensitive information. They can also slow down computer performance and compromise the overall security of the system.
3. What is social engineering and how does it pose a threat to information and computer technology?
Ans. Social engineering is a tactic used by hackers to manipulate individuals into revealing sensitive information or performing actions that could compromise the security of information and computer technology systems. It can involve techniques such as phishing emails, phone scams, or impersonation to deceive people into sharing passwords, login credentials, or other confidential information.
4. How can organizations protect themselves from data breaches?
Ans. Organizations can protect themselves from data breaches by implementing strong security measures such as firewalls, encryption, and access controls. Regularly updating software and systems, conducting security audits, and providing employee training on data protection are also essential steps to prevent data breaches.
5. What are the best practices for safe internet browsing to prevent security threats?
Ans. Some best practices for safe internet browsing include using strong and unique passwords, being cautious of suspicious emails or links, keeping software and antivirus programs up to date, avoiding downloading files from unknown sources, and regularly backing up important data. Additionally, using secure and encrypted connections (such as HTTPS) and enabling two-factor authentication can further enhance online security.
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