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# Routing III - Module 8 Routing Notes | EduRev

## : Routing III - Module 8 Routing Notes | EduRev

``` Page 1

Module
8

Routing
Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur
Page 2

Module
8

Routing
Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur

Lesson
28

Routing III

Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur
Page 3

Module
8

Routing
Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur

Lesson
28

Routing III

Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur
Objective
To introduce some protocols useful for routing in large networks like Internet.

8.3.1 Border Gateway Protocol
Border Gateway protocol (BGP) is an inter-autonomous system protocol that first
appeared in 1989. BGP is based on path vector routing. A need was felt to
introduce a new protocol for routing between autonomous systems (AS) because
the previous two protocols were found lacking in certain aspects needed for
routing in the internet.
Distance vector routing is not a good candidate because there are occasions
when the route with the smallest hop count is not necessarily the preferred route.
For example we may not want a packet to pass through a particular AS that is
not secure even though it is the shortest route. Also distance vector routing does
not specify the actual path used. A router that received the distance vector may
be fooled if the shortest path is actually calculated through the receiving router
itself.
Link state routing is also not good because an internet is usually too big for this
routing method. To use link state routing for the whole internet would require
each router to have a huge link state database. It would also take a long time to
calculate its routing table using the Dijkstra’s algorithm. BGP uses path vector
routing.

Path Vector Routing and Path Vector Messages
Each entry in the routing table contains the destination network, the next router
and the path to reach the destination which is usually defined as an ordered list
of autonomous systems that a packet should travel to reach its destination. The
autonomous boundary routers advertise the reachability of the routers in their
own AS. The AS boundary router receives this information via the interior routing
algorithm such as RIP or OSPF.
Each router verifies that the information received is consistent with its routing
policy and updates its routing table if satisfied. It modifies the message before
sending the message to the next neighbor. After all the paths come in from the
neighbors, the router that has to select a path to a destination router in another
AS, examines them to see which is the best. It checks the remaining routes and
selects the best possible, taking into consideration the various routing policies
that it has to follow.

Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur
Page 4

Module
8

Routing
Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur

Lesson
28

Routing III

Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur
Objective
To introduce some protocols useful for routing in large networks like Internet.

8.3.1 Border Gateway Protocol
Border Gateway protocol (BGP) is an inter-autonomous system protocol that first
appeared in 1989. BGP is based on path vector routing. A need was felt to
introduce a new protocol for routing between autonomous systems (AS) because
the previous two protocols were found lacking in certain aspects needed for
routing in the internet.
Distance vector routing is not a good candidate because there are occasions
when the route with the smallest hop count is not necessarily the preferred route.
For example we may not want a packet to pass through a particular AS that is
not secure even though it is the shortest route. Also distance vector routing does
not specify the actual path used. A router that received the distance vector may
be fooled if the shortest path is actually calculated through the receiving router
itself.
Link state routing is also not good because an internet is usually too big for this
routing method. To use link state routing for the whole internet would require
each router to have a huge link state database. It would also take a long time to
calculate its routing table using the Dijkstra’s algorithm. BGP uses path vector
routing.

Path Vector Routing and Path Vector Messages
Each entry in the routing table contains the destination network, the next router
and the path to reach the destination which is usually defined as an ordered list
of autonomous systems that a packet should travel to reach its destination. The
autonomous boundary routers advertise the reachability of the routers in their
own AS. The AS boundary router receives this information via the interior routing
algorithm such as RIP or OSPF.
Each router verifies that the information received is consistent with its routing
policy and updates its routing table if satisfied. It modifies the message before
sending the message to the next neighbor. After all the paths come in from the
neighbors, the router that has to select a path to a destination router in another
AS, examines them to see which is the best. It checks the remaining routes and
selects the best possible, taking into consideration the various routing policies
that it has to follow.

Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur
Types of Messages:
BGP uses four different types of messages: open, update, keep-alive and

To create a neighborhood relationship, a router running BGP opens a connection
with a neighbor and sends an open message. If the neighbor accepts the
neighborhood relationship, it responds with a keep-alive message. The update
message is used by the router to remove previously advertised routers, to
announce a new route to a destination or both. A notification message is sent
by a router whenever an error condition is detected or a router wants to close the
connection.

8.3.2 flow-based routing
The algorithms studied so far take only the topology into account. They do not
consider the load. In this section we will study a static algorithm that uses both
topology and load for routing. It is called flow-based routing.
In some networks, the mean data flow between each pair of nodes is relatively
stable and predictable. For example, in a corporate network for a retail store
chain, each store might send orders, sales reports, inventory updates, and other
well-defined types of messages to known sites in a predefined pattern, so that
the total volume of traffic varies little from day to day. Under conditions in which
the average traffic from i to j is known in advance and, to a reasonable
approximation, constant in time, it is possible to analyze the flows mathematically
to optimize the routing.

The basic idea behind the analysis is that for a given line, if the capacity and
average flow are known, it is possible to compute the mean packet delay on that
line from queuing theory. From the mean delays on all the lines, it is straightfor-
ward to calculate a flow-weighted average to get the mean packet delay for the
whole subnet. The routing problem then reduces to finding the routing algorithm
that produces the minimum average delay for the subnet.

To use this technique, certain information must be known in advance. First the
subnet topology must be known. Second, the traffic matrix must be given. Third,
the line capacity matrix specifying the capacity of each line in bps must be
available. Finally, a (possibly tentative) routing algorithm must be chosen.

Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur
Page 5

Module
8

Routing
Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur

Lesson
28

Routing III

Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur
Objective
To introduce some protocols useful for routing in large networks like Internet.

8.3.1 Border Gateway Protocol
Border Gateway protocol (BGP) is an inter-autonomous system protocol that first
appeared in 1989. BGP is based on path vector routing. A need was felt to
introduce a new protocol for routing between autonomous systems (AS) because
the previous two protocols were found lacking in certain aspects needed for
routing in the internet.
Distance vector routing is not a good candidate because there are occasions
when the route with the smallest hop count is not necessarily the preferred route.
For example we may not want a packet to pass through a particular AS that is
not secure even though it is the shortest route. Also distance vector routing does
not specify the actual path used. A router that received the distance vector may
be fooled if the shortest path is actually calculated through the receiving router
itself.
Link state routing is also not good because an internet is usually too big for this
routing method. To use link state routing for the whole internet would require
each router to have a huge link state database. It would also take a long time to
calculate its routing table using the Dijkstra’s algorithm. BGP uses path vector
routing.

Path Vector Routing and Path Vector Messages
Each entry in the routing table contains the destination network, the next router
and the path to reach the destination which is usually defined as an ordered list
of autonomous systems that a packet should travel to reach its destination. The
autonomous boundary routers advertise the reachability of the routers in their
own AS. The AS boundary router receives this information via the interior routing
algorithm such as RIP or OSPF.
Each router verifies that the information received is consistent with its routing
policy and updates its routing table if satisfied. It modifies the message before
sending the message to the next neighbor. After all the paths come in from the
neighbors, the router that has to select a path to a destination router in another
AS, examines them to see which is the best. It checks the remaining routes and
selects the best possible, taking into consideration the various routing policies
that it has to follow.

Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur
Types of Messages:
BGP uses four different types of messages: open, update, keep-alive and

To create a neighborhood relationship, a router running BGP opens a connection
with a neighbor and sends an open message. If the neighbor accepts the
neighborhood relationship, it responds with a keep-alive message. The update
message is used by the router to remove previously advertised routers, to
announce a new route to a destination or both. A notification message is sent
by a router whenever an error condition is detected or a router wants to close the
connection.

8.3.2 flow-based routing
The algorithms studied so far take only the topology into account. They do not
consider the load. In this section we will study a static algorithm that uses both
topology and load for routing. It is called flow-based routing.
In some networks, the mean data flow between each pair of nodes is relatively
stable and predictable. For example, in a corporate network for a retail store
chain, each store might send orders, sales reports, inventory updates, and other
well-defined types of messages to known sites in a predefined pattern, so that
the total volume of traffic varies little from day to day. Under conditions in which
the average traffic from i to j is known in advance and, to a reasonable
approximation, constant in time, it is possible to analyze the flows mathematically
to optimize the routing.

The basic idea behind the analysis is that for a given line, if the capacity and
average flow are known, it is possible to compute the mean packet delay on that
line from queuing theory. From the mean delays on all the lines, it is straightfor-
ward to calculate a flow-weighted average to get the mean packet delay for the
whole subnet. The routing problem then reduces to finding the routing algorithm
that produces the minimum average delay for the subnet.

To use this technique, certain information must be known in advance. First the
subnet topology must be known. Second, the traffic matrix must be given. Third,
the line capacity matrix specifying the capacity of each line in bps must be
available. Finally, a (possibly tentative) routing algorithm must be chosen.

Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur
Distance vector routing was used in the ARPANET until 1979, when it was
replaced by link state routing. Two primary problems caused its demise. First,
since the delay metric was queue length, it did not take line bandwidth into
account when choosing routes. Initially, all the lines were 56 kbps, so line
bandwidth was not an issue, but after some lines had been upgraded to 230 kbps
and others to 1.544 Mbps, not taking bandwidth into account was a major
problem. Of course, it would have been possible to change the delay metric to
factor in line bandwidth, but a second problem also existed, namely, the
algorithm often took too long to converge, even with tricks like split horizon. For
these reasons, it was replaced by an entirely new algorithm now called link state
routing. Variants of link state routing are now widely used. The idea behind link
state routing is simple and can be stated as five parts.

Each router must do the following
1. Discover its neighbors and learn their network addresses.
2. Measure the delay or cost to each of its neighbors.
3. Construct a packet telling all it has just learned.
4. Send this packet to all other routers.
5. Compute the shortest path to every other router.

8.2.4 Hierarchical routing
As networks grow in size, the router’s routing tables grow proportionally. Not only
is router memory consumed by ever increasing tables, but more CPU time is
needed to scan them and more bandwidth is needed to send status reports about
them. At a certain point the network may grow to the point where it is no longer
feasible for every router to have an entry for every other router, so the routing will
have to be done hierarchically, as it is in the telephone network. When
hierarchical routing is used, the routers are divided into what we will call regions,
with each router knowing all the details about how to route packets to
destinations within its own region, but knowing nothing about the internal
structure of other regions. When different networks are connected together, it is
natural to regard each one as a separate region in order to free the routers in one
network from having to know the topological structure of the other ones. For huge
networks a two-level hierarchy may be insufficient; it may be necessary to group
the regions into clusters, the clusters into zones, the zones into groups and so
on, until we run out of names for aggregations. As an example of a multi-level
hierarchy, consider how a packet might be routed from Kharagpur to Los
Angeles, USA. The Kharagpur router would know the detailed topology within
West Bengal but would send all out-of-state traffic to the Kolkata router. The
Version 2 ECE, IIT Kharagpur
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