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**CIVIL & STRUCTURAL**

**Q.101. The minimum percentage of steel in R.C.C. slab using mild steel reinforcement in given by :(a) 0.35%(b) 0.12%(c) 0.15%(d) 0.30%**

The mild steel reinforcement in either direction in slabs shall not be less than 0.15 percent of the total cross-sectional area. However, this value can be reduced to 0.12 percent when high strength deformed bars or welded wire fabric are used.

(a) Volcanic Scoria

(b) Granite

(c) Magnetite

(d) Barite

As granite is strongest rock, we can use it for high strength concrete.

(a) Fat lime

(b) Quick lime

(c) Slaked lime

(d) Hydraulic lime

Ans.

- Also known as high calcium lime, pure lime, rich lime or white lime.
- Suitable for
**whitewashin****g**and plastering.**Hydraulic lime** - Also known as the water lime as it sets underwater.
- Contains silica, alumina and iron oxide in small quantities.
- Suitable for making mortar and used for masonry construction.
**Quicklime** - Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime or lime.
- Calcium oxide is a key ingredient for the process of making cement.
- Used for Plaster work and under water construction.
**Slaked lime** - Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), traditionally called slaked lime.
- It has many names including hydrated lime, builders’ lime, slack lime, cal, or pickling lime.
- Used in road construction, to improve the quality of excessively plastic subgrade soils.

**Q.104. Which one of the following has least bearing capacity ?(a) Loose gravel(b) Hard rocks(c) Soft rocks(d) Compact gravelAns.** (a)

Loose gravel has least bearing capacity among Hard rocks, Soft rocks and Compact gravel.

(а) Bearing stress and working stress

(b) Yield stress and working stress

(c) Tensile stress and working stress

(d) Compressive stress and working stress

Factor of safety = Yield stress/Working stress

Solution.

- For lined canals, the freeboard is measured from the Full supply level to the top of the lining.
- For unlined canals, the freeboard is measured from the Full supply level to top of the bank

**Q.107. The property of a material by which it gets permanent deformation under a load which is not recovered after removal of load is called(a) Elasticity(b) Rittleness(c) Ductility(d) PlasticityAns. **(d)

The property of a material by which it gets permanent deformation under a load which is not recovered after removal of load is called Plasticity.

Q.108. The concrete having a slump of 6.5 cm,is said to be:

(a) Plastic

(b) Dry

(c) Earthmoist

(d) Semi-plastic

Ans.

The concrete having a slump of 6.5 cm, is said to be plastic.

Q.109. Capillary rise is a phenomenon that is attributed to the following property of fluid

(a) Vapour pressure

(b) Viscosity

(c) Density

(d) Surface tension

Ans.

(а) 0.98

(b) 0.95

(c) 0.96

(d) 0.97

Ans.

The value of C

(a) IS 100μ sieve where at least 90% (by weight) should be retained

(b) IS 90μ sieve where at least 90% (by weight) should pass

(c) IS 90μ sieve where at least 95% (by weight) should pass

(d) IS 100μ sieve where at least 90% (by weight) should pass

σ : resultant stress

P : Axial load

A : Detomator

∈ : Strain

E : modulous of elasticity

(a)

(b) σ . ∈

(c) PΔ

(d)

Strain energy due to gradually applied axial load is given by

Now axial deformation due to sudden applied axial load is twice the axial deformation due to gradually applied axial load.

Hence, Strain energy due to suddenly applied axial load will be

**Q.113. The maximum permissible stress for hand driven river in axial tension is :(a) 250N/mm ^{2}(b) 80N/mm^{2}(c) 90 N/mm^{2}(d) 100 N/mm^{2}**

(a) Retarder

(b) Accelerator

(c) Air entraining agent

(d) Plasticizer

Ans.

Calcium chloride (CaCl

Schedule of Rate is a list of rates of various items of works. This type of document contains detailed description of all items of work excluding their quantities, along with the current rates.

Specific gravity of liquid It is the ratio of specific weight (or mass density) of a liquid to the specific weight of standard fluid (pure water) at a standard temperature.

Hence it is dimensionless.**Q.118. To construct a massive dam the type of cement used is :****(a) Blast furnace slag cement****(b) Low heat cement****(c) Rapid hardening cement****(d) Ordinary Portland cement****Ans. **(b)

Q.119. The size of a fillet weld is indicated by:**(a) Size of the plate****(b) Side of the triangle of fillet****(c) Throat of the fillet****(d) Length of fillet weld****Ans. **(b)**Solution.**

The size of a fillet weld (S) depends on side of the triangle of fillet.**Q.120. In limit state method of design, for bars in compression the values of bond stress shall be .****(a) Decreased by 25%****(b) Increased by 20%****(c) Decreased by 20%****(d) Increased by 25%****Ans. **(d)**Solution.**

For bars in compression, the values of bond stress for bars in tension shall be increased by 25 percent.**Q.121. The main gas liberated from an anaerobic sludge digestor is :(a) NH _{3}(b) CO(c) C0_{2}(d) CH_{4}Ans. **(d)

During the anaerobic digestion approximately 70% of the methane (CH

Spacing of stirrup in a rectangular beam increased at the centre of the beam.

Q.124.

The beam shown in Fig. is :

(a) Free cantilever beam

(b) Single overhanging beam

(c) Doubel overhanging beam

(d) Proper cantilever beam

An overhanging beam is one in which the supports are not situated at ends i.e. one or both the ends project beyond the supports. Thus it is single overhanging beam.

(a) Effective length is equal to Actual length

(b) Is very large

(c) Is equal to its radius of gyration

(d) Is supported on all sides throughout its length

Ans.

Slenderness ratio is given by λ = 1/r

The radius of gyration (r) of a section is given by

(a) C

(b) C

(c) C

(d) C

Ans.

Bouge’s compounds (% age) | Contribution |

C_{4}AF | 08 - 14 (about 9%) |

C_{3}A | 05 - 11 (about 10.5%) |

C_{2}S | 25 - 40 (about 32%) |

C_{3}S | 25 - 50 (about 40%) |

**Q.127. Which of the following has least carbon content ?(a) Wrought Iron(b) Cast Iron(c) Mild steel(d) Pig steelAns.** (a)

Material | Carbon content in %age |

Steel | 0.25 - 1.5 |

Wrought iron | 0.0 5 -0.1 5 |

Cast iron | 1.7-4.5 |

Pig iron | 3.5 -4.5 |

**Q.128. When R is the radius of the curve (in meters), D is the degree of curve (in degrees) and length of the chord is 30m, then the relation between R and D is :(a) R = 5400/D(b) R = 1520/D(c) R = 1720/D(d) R = 4500/DAns. **(c)

Solution.

Radius of curve (R) and degree of curve (D)

D°/360 = 1/2πR

- For 30 m chain length (1 = 30 m)

Degree of curve, D° =

Radius of curve, R = - For 20 m chain length (1 = 20 m)

**Q.129. The floor area includes the area of the balcony upon(a) 25%(b) 85%(c) 75%(d) 50%Ans.** (d)

Floor area of a building is the sum area of floor in between walls and consists of floor of all rooms verandahs passages corridors staircase room, entrance halls, kitchen, store, bath and latrine etc. The floor area includes the area of the balcony upto 50%.

(a) Linear

(b) Non-linear

(c) Asymptotic

(d) All of the above

Ans.

As the graph of indicates that the increase in the strength of concrete with time is non-linear.

**Strength-gain curve**

**Q.131. Generally concrete cubes are tested measure concrete’s(a) Compressive strength(b) Tensile strength(c) Twisting strength(d) None of the aboveAns. **(c)

Generally concrete cubes are tested to measure concrete’s characteristic compressive strength of 150 mm cube after 28 days.

(a) Critical section

(b) Under reinforced section

(c) Over feinforced section

(d) Economic section

Ans.

In a singly reinforced beam, if the stress in concrete reaches its allowable limit earlier than the steel reaches its permissible limit, the beam section is called over reinforced section.

(a) Shear force

(b) Stress

(c) Strain

(d) Modulus of elasticity

Ans.

Strain is dimensionless quantity, i.e.

(a) 70 kg

(b) 50 kg

(c) 60 kg

(d) 65 kg

Ans.

Weight of one bag of cement = 50 kg

Unit weight of cement bag = 1440 kg/m

Volume of one bag of cement =

(a) No unit-diversion less

(b) m

(c) m/sec

(d) Kg-m/sec

Ans.

f = Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient has dimensionless [M°Z°T°]

(a) 2.5 times the volume of steel

(b) 0.5 times the volume of steel

(c) Equal volume compared to amount of steel rustad

(d) Twice the volume of steel

Ans.

Steel corrodes in exposure of air and moisture and rust has 2.5 times the volume of steel.

(a) N 23°30'W

(b) W 23°30'N

(c) N 66°30'W

(d) S 113°30'N

Ans.

Reduced bearing or Quadrantal bearing is the angle which a line makes from North or South Pole whichever may be near. It’s value is from 0° to 90°.

Hence, In the quadrantal bearing system, a whole circle bearing of 293°30' can be expressed as N66°30'W.

(i) Time of transit

(ii) Wate cement ratio

(iii) Gradign of aggregate

(iv) Strength of aggregate

(v) Aggregate cement ratio

(a) (iii), (iv), (v)

(b) (i), (ii), (iv)

(c) (ii), (iii), (v)

(d) (ii), (iii)

Ans.

(a)

(b) 10

(c) 20

(d) 40

Ans.

Slenderness

Now, radius of gyration,

Hence slenderness,

(a) 60%

(b) 30%

(c) 40%

(d) 50%

Ans.

The percentage of the fine aggregate

(a) Assistant Engineer

(b) Executive Engineer

(c) Superintending Engineer

(d) Chief Engineer

Ans.

Administrative head of public work department who is directly responsible to government is Chief Engineer.

**Q.142. The load factor applied to wind and seismic loads in design of steel structures is :(a) 2.2(b) 1.3(c) 1.5(d) 1.8Ans.** (b)

The load factor applied to wind and seismic loads in design of steel structures is 1.3.

(a) 16 mm

(b) 6 mm

(c) 8 mm

(d) 12 mm

Ans.

The minimum diameter of longitudinal reinforcement in RCC column should not be less than 12 mm.

(a) 1 : 2 : 4

(b) 1 : 1 5 : 3

(c) 1 : 3 : 6

(d) 1 : 1 : 2

Ans.

(a) Workability of concrete

(b) Heat of hydration

(c) Rate of hydration

(d) Durability of concrete

Ans.

The fineness of cement is responsible for the rate of hydration and hence the rate of gain of strength and also the rate of evolution of heat.

(a) Theodolite surveying

(b) Tacheometry

(c) Trigonometrical levelling

(d) Plane table surveying

Ans.

Plane table surveying requires least office work and least calculation.

(a) Air entrainign agents

(b) Workability admixture

(c) Accelerators

(d) Retarders

Admixtures which results in early setting and hardening of concrete are called accelerators.

(a) Meta morphic

(b) Volcanic

(c) Plutonic

(d) Sedimentary

Ans.

Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. Igneous rock may form with or without crystallization, either below the surface asintrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks.

- Volcanic rocks are rocks formed when lava cools and solidifies on the earth’s surface.

Ex-Basalt. - Plutonic rocks are rocks formed when magma cools and solidifies below the earth’s surface. Ex-Granite.

**Q.149. In open channels 9 maximum velocity occurs :(a) Just below the free surface(b) At the surface(c) Near the channel bottom(d) In the mid-depth of flowAns. **(a)

Open channels, maximum velocity occurs Just below the free surface which is shown in fig.

Shear force at fixed end,

S

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) WL

Ans.

Solution.

Simply supported beam with UDL

B.M. at section X is given by

For maximum value of M , put

∴

∴ x = 1/2

Thus

Q.152. The relationship between void ratio ‘e’ and porosity ‘n’ is :

(a)

(b) e = n(l + e)

(c)

(d)

Ans.

Solution.

Relationship between void ratio ‘e’ and porosity 'n' -

∴ n = e(l - n)

∴

Q.153. When l cm on a map represents 10 m on the ground, the representative fraction of the scale is :

(a) 1/10000

(b) 1/10

(c) 1/100

(d) 1/1000

Ans.

Solution.

R.F. (Representative Fraction) which is always written with the map distance as 1 and is independent of any unit of measure.

Hence 1 cm on a map represents 10 m on the ground, the representative fraction of the scale is

RF = 1/1000

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Ans.

Solution.

Orientation and shear stress diagram of T-beam is preferred to resist bending is shown in figure.

Q.155. The total energy line lies over the hydraulic gradient line by an amount equal to :

(c) Velocity head, v

(d) Datum head, z

Ans.

Solution.

Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL)

It is the line which joins the peizometric head at various points in flow.

Peizometric head = ( P/w + Z)

The line which joints total energy is known as TEL.

Total head = P/w + V

Hence, the total energy line lies over the hydraulic gradient line by an amount equal to Velocity head, v

Q.156. Diameter of a rivet hole is made larger than the diameter of the river by

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Ans.

(a) Direction

(b) Grade

(c) Speed

(d) Class of vehicle

Ans.

Solution.

A flyover segregates traffic with respect to Grade. A highway grade separation is achieved by means of vertical level.

Separation of intersecting roads by means of a bridge thus eliminating all crossing conflicts at the intersection.

(a) Electric Motor + Pump

(b) Hydraulic Turbine + Generator

(c) Hydraulic Turbine + Electric Motor

(d) Generator + Pump

Ans.

Solution.

For producing electricity, following combination of machines will be required Hydraulic turbine +Electric motor.

Q.159. Irrigation efficiency o f an irrigation system is the ratio of

(a) Water reaching the farm to water delivered from the source

(b) Crop yield to total amount of water used in a field

(c) Water actually stored in root zone to water delivered to the farm

(d) Water actually utilised by growing crops to water delivered from the source

Ans.

Solution.

Irrigation efficiency of an irrigation system is the ratio of Water actually utilised by growing crops to water delivered from the source.

(a) 2.09

(b) 0.8

(c) 0.9

(d) 1.09

Ans.

Solution.

The specific gravity of bitumen is 1.09.

Q.161. The ratio of normal stress to normal strain within elastic limits is called :

(a) Young’s Modulus

(b) Shear Modulus

(c) Poisson’s Ratio

(d) Bulk Modulus

Ans.

Solution.

The ratio of normal stress to normal strain within elastic limits is called Young’s Modulus.

The ratio of direct stress to volumetric strain within elastic limits is called Bulk Modulus.

The Ratio of shear stress to shear strain within elastic limits is called Modulus of Rigidity.

The ratio of lateral strain to linear strain is called Poisson’s ratio.

(a) Alluvial

(b) Cohesive

(c) Expansive

(d) Marine

Ans.

Solution.

Gravel and sand are fragmented sediments of rock are transported by river or stream are settled on river bed and surrounding regions. These are Alluvial or Fluvial soil.

Q.163. The shape of Bending Moment Diagram in a beam subjected to only Uniformly Distributed Load (UDL) is :

(a) Constant

(b) Cubic parabola

(c) Parabola

(d) Triangular

Ans.

Solution.

To prevent sulphate attack in concrete, for preparing concrete mix , water pH must be within 6-9.

(a) 7 -1 0

(b) 4 - 6

(c) 5 - 7

(d) 6 - 9

Ans.

Solution.

To prevent sulphate attack in concrete, for preparing concrete mix , water pH must be within 6-9.

(a) Not equal to one

(b) Less than one

(c) Greater than one

(d) Equal to one

Ans.

Solution.

Froude number

Where V = mean velocity of flow

D = hydraulic depth

- If F
_{r}< 1, Flow is sub critical or streaming or tranquil. It is a stable type of flow. - If F
_{r}= 1, Flow is critical. - If F
_{r}> 1, Flow is supercritical or shooting flow or Torrential flow.

**Q.166. The permissible bending stress in working stress method of design of column base is considered equal to :(a) **0.87 fy

(b)

(c)

(d)

Ans.

Ans.

The minimum thickness of the flat lacing bars shall not be less than

- 1/40
_{th}of the effective length of single 40 lacing. - 1/60
_{th }of the effective length of double 60 lacing.

**Q.168. The most accurate instrument for measuring horizontal and vertical angles is :(a) **Theodolite

(b)

(c)

(d)

Ans.

(а) m

(b) lump-sum

(c) m

(d) m

Ans.

Solution.

The quantity of wood for the shutters of doors and windows is calculated in m

(a) 234 m

(b) 150 m

(c) 216 m

(d) 225 m

Ans.

Solution.

The Plinth area should be calculated for the covered area by taking external dimension of the building at the floor level.

Hence Plinth area = (14.7 + 0.3) m x (14.7 + 0.3) m

= 225 m

Q.171. The counter lines can cross one another on map only in the case of :

(а)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Ans.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Ans.

(a) Junk value

(b) Salvage value

(c) Scrap value

(d) Book value

Ans.

Solution.

(a) P

(b) P

(c) P

(d) P

Ans.

Absolute Pressure = Atm Pressure + Gage Pressure

Absolute Pressure = Atm Pressure - Vacuum Pressure

(а) To resist shear stress

(b) Tension member

(c) Compression member

(d) Flexural member

Ans.

Solution.

In a structure, cables and wires are used generally as tension member.

(a) 5°20' south

(b) 5°20' east

(c) 5°20' west

(d) 5°20' north

Ans.

Solution

True Bearing = Mag. Bearing ± Mag. Declination

+ ve for eastern declination

- ve for western declination

Now, Magnetic declination

= 185°20' - 180° = 5°20' W

(a) 25

(b) 150

(c) 125

(d) 60

Ans.

Solution.

The unsupported length between end restraints shall not exceed 60 times the least lateral dimension of a column.

(а) Reduced level of bench mark - back sight

(b) Reduced level of bench mark + back sight

(c) Reduced level of bench mark + fore sight

(d) Reduced level of bench mark + Intermediate sight

Ans.

Solution.

The height of instrument is equal to Reduced level of bench mark + back sight.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Ans.

(a) 25%

(b) 18%

(c) 20%

(d) 22%

Ans.

Solution.

Water absorption of three different class of bricks are given below:

(b) Decreased shrinkage

(c) Increases shrinkage

(d) Does not cause any change in shrinkage

For a given aggregate ratio increasing the water cement ratio increases shrinkage and decreases strength.

Q.183. Granite is a rock that is by nature

(a) Metamorphic

(b) Volcanic

(c) Plutonic

(d) Sedimentary

Ans.

(a) 1

(b) Negative

(c) Zero

(d) Non-Plastic (NP)

Ans.

(a) Least radius of gyration

(b) Axis of load

(c) Perpendicular to the axis of load

(d) Minimum cross-section

Ans.

Solution.

Compression members always tend to buckle in the direction of the Least radius of gyration. The radius of gyration (r) of a section is given by

Where I = moment of inertia

A = area of the section

(a) 0.004

(b) 0.001

(c) 0. 002

(d) 0.003

Ans.

Solution.

In the absence of test data, the approximate value of the total strain for design may be taken as 0.003.

As per IS 456-2000. In the absence of test data, the approximate value of the total shrinkage strain for design may be taken as 0.0003

(a) Segregation

(b) Flooding

(c) Bleeding

(d) Creeping

Ans.

Solution.

Separation of water or water sand cement from a freshly mixed concrete is known as bleeding

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Ans.

Solution.

Moment of inertia of the cross-section given rectangular section about its base -

By parallel axis theorem

About its base

Now

∴

Ans.

(a) Blue

(b) White

(c) Yellow

(d) Red

Ans.

Solution.

Zinc oxide is a pigment having colour white. Some of examples of pigments used to produce the desired colours are

Pigment | Colour |

Zinc oxide | White |

Lamp black and ivory black | Black |

Prussian blue, indigo | Blue |

Chrome yellow, yellow orchre | Yellow |

Burnt umber, burnt siena | Brown |

Vermilion, red lead | Red |

Copper sulphate | Green |

**Q.191. The correction for sag is :(а) **Some times additive and sometimes subtractive

(b)

(c)

(d)

Ans.

(a) Visco -elasticity

(b) Vicidity

(c) Creep

(d) Relaxation

Ans.

Solution.

The permanent deformation of concrete with time under steady load is called creep.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Ans.

(a) 75 mm

(b) 4.75 mm

(c) 30 mm

(d) 60 mm

Ans.

Solution.

The size of aggregate is more than 75 mm then it is known as cyclopean aggregate.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Ans.

Solution.

The centrifugal force on a car moving on a horizontal circular curve

Where P = centrifugal force, kg

W = weight of the vehicle, kg

V - speed of vehicle, m/sec

(a) Life in year-Scrap value/Original cost

Ans.

Solution

Using straight line method annual depreciation (D)

(a)

(b) R + T

(c) T - R

(d)

Ans.

**Solution.**

Width of step beam =**Q.198. Segregation in the concrete occurs when:(a) Cement gets separated from mixture due to excess water(b) Cement fails to give adequate binding quality(c) Water is driven out of concrete at a faster rate(d) Coarse aggregate tries to separate out from the finer material.Ans. **(d)

Segregation in the concrete occurs when coarse aggregate tries to separate out from the finer material.

(a) mm

(b) mm

(c) mm

(d) mm

Ans.

Solution.

Moment of Inertia is also called the second moment of area and its unit is mm

(a) Ambient temperature

(b) 15°C

(c) 20°C

(d) 27°C

Ans.

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