SST Set - 1 (Q.19 to 36)
Q.19. What is the code of conduct of Legislators outside the Legislature?
Ans : (1) Information given to members in confidence or by virtue of their being members of Committees of Parliament should not be divulged to anyone nor used by them directly or indirectly in the profession in which they are engaged, newspapers or proprietors of business firms and so on.
(2) A member should not try to secure business from Government for a firm, company or organisation with which he is directly or indirectly concerned.
(3) A member should not give certificates which are not based on facts.
(4) A member should not make profit out of Government residence allotted to him by sub-letting the premises.
(5) A member should not unduly influence the Government officials or the Ministers in a case in which he is interested financially either directly or indirectly.
(6) A member should not receive hospitality of any kind for any work that he desires or proposes to do from a person or organisation on whose behalf the work is to be done by him.
(7) A member should not in his capacity as a lawyer or a legal adviser or a counsel or a solicitor appear before a Minister or an executive officer exercising quasi-judicial powers.
(8) A member should not proceed to take action on behalf of his constituents on some insufficient or baseless facts.
(9) A member should not permit himself to be used as a ready supporter of anybody’s grievances or complaints.
(10) A member should not endorse incorrect certificates on bills claiming amounts due to him.
(11) A member should not elicit information from Government in an unauthorised manner by inducing a subordinate to give information which in the course of his normal functions he should not do. Nor encourage any such person to speak to him against his senior officials on matters of public importance and policy.
(12) A member should not write recommendatory letters or speak to Government officials for employment of business contacts for any of his relations or other persons in whom he is directly or indirectly interested.
Q.20. What are the punishment given to the Legislators for breach of code of conduct?
Ans : The House has the right to punish its members for their misconduct. It exercises its jurisdiction of scrutiny over its members for their conduct whether it takes place inside or outside the House. It has also the power to punish its members for disorderly conduct and other contempts, whether committed within the House or beyond its walls.
In the case of misconduct or contempts committed by its members, the House can impose these punishments; admonition, reprimand, withdrawal from the House, suspension from the service of the House, imprisonment, and expulsion from the House.
Q.21. Write short notes on :
(1) Kundah Hydro electric Project (2) Talcher Hydro electric Project (3) Neyveli Lignite Power Project (4) Kobra Thermal Power Project
Ans : (1) Kundah Hydro electric Project
This project in Tamilnadu has 8 storage dams on the Kundah and its tributaries in the Nilgiri hills and has a total installed capacity of 535 mw.
(2) Talcher Hydro electric Project
Situated in Orissa, this power station has an installed capacity of 250 mw. This project is based on cheap coal available from the Talcher coalfield.
(3) Neyveli Lignite Power Project
This is associated with the Neyveli Lignite Project in the South Arcot district of Tamilnadu. It is based on lignite produced in the area. Its installed capacity is 600 mw which is fed to the Tamilnadu State Power Grid.
(4) Kobra Thermal Power Project
Located near the Korba coalfields in Bilaspur district (Madhya Pradesh), it has a total installed capacity of 300 mw. It feeds power to the various places in Bilaspur and Raipur divisions of Madhya Pradesh.
Q.22. "The present day geomorphological divisions of the sub-continent have evolved in the course of long geographical destroy". Elaborate the above statement.
Ans : Indian Sub-continent is divided into three physiographic regions at macro level. These have been evolved in the course of a long geological history. The present day topography is the result of interaction of different courses over a long period.
1. The Plateau : The peninsular plateau is an old crystal block lifted in the pre-cambrian (1600 million years ago). It has been compared to a horst lifted above sea level. It has been a part of the super continent Gondwana land. Many structural changes occurred in the evolution of the plateau. Such as:
(i) Aravallies mountains were uplifted in Palaeozoic times.
(ii) Nallamalai range of the south was folded during the same period i.e. Vindhyan period.
(iii) Faulting along with vertical movements occurred in the river valleys of Godavari, Mahanadi, Narmada and Tapti.
(iv) Along with faulting, subsidence took place along the Malabar Coast.
(v) After that, extensive lava flow resulted in the formation of Deccan plateau.
(vi) Arabian sea was formed due to subsidence along the west coast.
(vii) Similarly western parts were formed as a result of the tilting of the peninsular plateau.
2. The Himalayas : The Himalayas are young fold mountain system. This region was occupied by the tethys geogyncline as late as Mesozoic times (270 million years back). The sediments deposited in the tethys sea were folded to form the Himalayas during the tertiary period. The Himalayas and its mountain ranges were gradually uplifted spreading over millions of years. The Himalayas were uplifted in three stages; —Central Himalayas, Potwar region and the Siwalik ranges. The mountain building movements occurred in different stages. The first uplift was marked during oligocene period. The second phase too place in the post-Pliocene period. It has been observed that the Himalayas are still rising. Most of the present relief is the result of weathering and erosion by different agents.
(3) The Plains : The great plains of India lie in between the Himalayas and the plateau. It has been formed by filling of a marine depression by sediments brought down by the Himalayan rivers. This depression is derived to exit as a ‘foredeep’ formed by the subsidence of the northern flank of the plateau. The depression has been filled gradually. Rajmahal and Garo hills have been regarded as the boundaries of this depression and this gap has been filled by the Ganges alluvium in Bengal.
Q.23. What are the difference between Himalayan and Peninsular rivers?
Ans : There are significant differences in the drainage features and hydrological characteristics between the Himalayan and the Peninsular systems of rivers. They are:
(i) The Himalayan rivers are still actively shaping their valley and adjusting their course due to the youthful topography of the Himalyas. These are called antecedent rivers; their courses are older than the mountain ranges. Since the mountain range got uplifted, the rivers have maintained their paths by butting deep gorges, for example: the Indus, the sutlej and the Brahmaputra.
The Peninsular rivers have a senile (old) topography. Here the rivers have adjusted with the topography. These rivers flow through broad valley and gentle slopes.
(ii) The Himalayan rivers have no evidence of superimposed and rejuvenated topography. Consequently the rivers make water falls only at those points where structural differences exist.
Peninsular rivers have several evidences of rejuvenation and superimposed topography. It leads to superimposed drainage and resurrection on the courses of the Godavari, the Krishna, the Cauvery etc.
(iii) Well developed dendritic pattern of drainage (a very good network like a tree) is found in the Himalayan system. The river system of the Great Plain are free to develop their course in alluvial sediments.
The Peninsular rivers follow the major trend lines and joints in the crystalline rocks. Their course do not shift except in a few cases in the lower reaches. Peninsular rivers are obstructed by dykes and quartz veins.
(iv) The Himalayan rivers are longer and perennial; fed by the melting snow and monsoonal rainfall.
The Peninsular rivers are shorter and rain fed and thus seasonal in nature. While the small rivers are non-perennial the larger rivers have low discharge during summers.
(v) The Himalayan rivers have large command areas as against the smaller command areas of the peninsular rivers.
(vi) The Himalayan rivers are better suited for irrigation as they are perennial and canals can be easily dug on the alluvial low lands.
The rivers of the peninsular are better placed in terms of hydro electric power development as the west flowing rivers have a large volume of the water and flow over the steep of the Sahyadris.
(vii) The Himalayan rivers carry on large erosion against little erosion by the Peninsular rivers.
Q.24. Describe the drainage system of peninsular India.
Ans : Most of the Peninsular rivers are seasonal. These flow through narrow, deep, valleys. These rivers can be divided into two categories:—
(i) Rivers falling into the Arabian Sea.
(ii) Rivers falling into Bay of Bengal.
(a) Rivers falling into the Arabian Sea
(1) The Narmada — It rises from Amarkautak Plateau in Madhya Pradesh. It is 300 km long. It flows through a rift valley between the Vindhyas and Satpuras. Kapildhara falls are important. It does not form a delta on the western coast.
(2) The Tapti — It rises near Betul in Mahadeo Hills. It is 724 km long. It flows through a rift valley. Looni, Sabarmati and Mahe are other main givers falling into the Arabian Sea.
(b) The rivers falling into Bay of Bengal
(1) Damodar River—The Damodar, 530 km long, rises from Chotta Nagpur plateau, on account of its floods, it is called River of Sorrow.’. D.V.C. Project is a multipurpose project to get benefits from this river.
(2) The Mahanadi—It is 857 km long. It emerges from Amarkantak Plateau. It is a navigable river and forms a fertile delta.
(3) The Godawari—It is 1440 km long and rises from the Western Ghats. It is the longest river of the Peninsula. It forms a fertile delta on the East Coast.
(4) The Krishna—It is 1400 km long. It rises near Mahabaleshwar in Western Ghats. Its tributaries—Bhima and Tungbhadra are important.
(5) The Cauvery—It rises in Brahmgiri in the Coorg district. It is 800 km long. It is useful for irrigation, navigation and water power development. The famous Shivasmudarm falls lie on this river. It forms a fertile delta on the East Coast.
Q.25. Why is Godavari river often referred as 'Dakshina Ganga' or 'Virdha Ganga'?
Ans : The Godavari is the longest of the Peninsular rivers. It has an extensive drainage basin covering 312, 812 sq. kms. Its drainage basin extends through Maharashtra. Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. Because of its large size and extent, it is compared to river Ganga. It has got the same cultural significance in the peninsular Indian as the Ganges has in the northern plain. Therefore it is referred as Dakshina Ganga or Vridha Ganga.
The Ganga river has got a large number of tributaries. The Godavari has also got many tributaries.
Q.26. What is a Sub-Continent? Name the countries included in the Indian Sub-Continent.
Ans : A Sub-Continent is a vast independent geographical unit. This land mass is distinctly separated from the main continent. The vastness in size produces a diversity in economic, social and cultural conditions. India is a vast country. It is often described as ‘Indian sub-continent’.
The Himalayan mountain system acts as a physical barrier separating the Indian sub-continent from the main land of Asia. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, combine together to form a sub-continent. The great mountain wall isolates these countries from Asia.
Q.27. Explain how far India can be said to occupy the most central position in the Indian Ocean?
Ans : (i) India lies at the head of the Indian Ocean. The Indian Ocean extends between 0°E to 120°E longitudes, with Kanyakumari located along 80°E longitude. Thus India occupies a central position in the Indian Ocean.
(ii) The Deccan peninsula projects itself in the centre of Indian Ocean, in between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal.
(iii) No other country has such a large coastline along the Indian Ocean. That is why it is named after the country of India.
(iv) India lies on the trade routes of Europe and the far east passing through Indian Ocean.
(v) India occupies a centrally located strategic position in the eastern hemisphere. India is by far the most dominant country surrounding the Indian Ocean.
Q.28. What are the characteristics of Western Ghats?
Ans : The Western Ghats with an average height of 1200 meters run parallel to the west coast for 1600 km from Kanyakumari to the river Tapti. Its highest peaks are more than 1500 m.
The range rises almost perpendicularly from the narrow coastal plains. The land-scape is composed of step sided valley, narrow gorges and water falls of great magnitude.
Q.29. Describe the physiography of the islands that form part of the territory of India.
Ans : There are large number of islands which form part of the territory of India. Most of them are situated in the Bay of Bengal and a few in the Arabian sea and the Gulf of Mannar.
The major group of islands in the Bay of Bengal are the Andaman and Nicobar islands which lie in a north-east to south-easterly direction between 10° and 14°N latitudes. They are grouped into the North, Middle and South Andamans. They are mostly formed of tertiary sandstone, limestone an shale and rise to a height of 730 metres. The islands are separated by narrow mangrove finged inlets and surrounded by coral reef. The Nicobar group numbering 19 islands to the south of the Andamans, consist of the Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar, Katchall Camorts and other islands.
Islands situated in the Arabian Sea are coral of reef origin.
Q.30. Compare and contrast the geo-morphological features of the Himalayas with those of the Indian plateau.
Ans : The Himalayas
1. The Himalayas are young new fold mountains
2. These mountains have been formed due to folding by different earth movements.
3. The relief features show young age of the Himalayas.
4. Parallel mountain ranges are formed in the Himalayan region.
5. These mountains are the loftiest mountain system of the world with the highest mountain peak Mt. Everest 8848 mts. above sea level.
6. These mountain extend in an arc.
7. Deep gorges and U-shaped valleys are formed.
8. These have been formed out of Tethys sea in Mesozic period (276 Million years ago)
9. It is made up of sedimentary rocks.
1. The Indian plateau is an ancient crystalline tableland.
2. This pleateau has been formed as a horst.
3. The plateau is old and well dissected.
4. Rift valleys are formed due to faulting
5. It is an old eroded crystal rock with the highest peak Anaimudi 2695 mts. above seal level.
6. This plateau is triangular in shape.
7. Narrow deep river valleys are formed on the plateau.
8. This plateau has been lifted out of the sea in the precambrian period (1600 million years ago).
9. It is made up of Igneous rocks.
Q.31. Describe the drainage system of Northern India.
Ans : Most of the rivers of the Northern India originate from the Himalayas. These are perennial rivers as these are snow-fed rivers. Many rivers belong to the antecedent drainage system. The northern plain has been formed by the deposition of sediments brought down by these rivers. This drainage system extends from Punjab to Assam and is divided into three systems:—
(i) The Indus system
(ii) The Ganges system
(iii) The Brahmputra system
1. The Indus Drainage System. It is one of the world’s largest system. It comprises the rivers of the Indus, the Jhelum, and the Chenab, flow in Pakistan.
(i) The Sutlej. It originates from Rakshas Tal near Mansarovar lake across the Himalayas. It forms a deep gorge. It is 1448 km long and feeds the Bhakra canal.
(ii) The Beas. It originates from the Beas Kund near Rohtang pass. It is 460 km long. It lies within the boundaries of Punjab state.
(iii) The Ravi. The Ravi rises in Dhauladhar Hills. It enters the plains near Madhopur. It is 720 km long and forms a natural divide between India and Pakistan.
The Ganges Drainage System.
(i) The Ganges. The Ganges is the most sacred river of India. The story of the Ganges from her source to the sea, from old times to new is the story of India’s civilisation and culture. The Ganges has its source near Gomukh glacier, near Gangotri. The Ganges is formed by two head streams namely Alaknanda and Bhagirthi. It enters the plains near Hardwar. The Yamuna meets this river at Allahabad known as Sangam. The Ganges is the master stream of the area. South of Farakka, the river divides into a number of Channels to form ‘Sunder Ban’ Delta. The Ramganga, Ghaghra, Gandak, Baghmari join the Ganges from its left. The Yamuna and the Sone join it from the South. It is 2522 km long. Hardwar, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna and Culcutta are situated along the Ganga.
(ii) The Yamuna. It is the most important tributary of the Ganga. It is 1375 km long. It rises from the Yamnotri Glacier. The Chambal, Betwa and Ken rivers join the Yamuna from the South.
(iii) The Kosi. The Kosi emerges from great Himalayas. It flows for 730 km in Nepal and India. It is known for its notorious floods and called “River of Sorrow”
3. The Brahmaputra System. The Brahmaputra river is the master stream of this system. It is 2880 km. long. It flows parallel to the Himalayas in Tibet and is known as Tsangpo, it enters India in Arunachal Pradesh through Dihang gorge. It is known for its notorious floods and silt deposits. It joins Padma river in Bangladesh to form a large delta.
Q.32. Discuss the Position of women in the Rigvedic society.
Ans. The Rigveda gave an important place to women in society. Women were in general allowed to take part in popular assemblies like Sabha and Vidatha. Though the society was patriarchal, women had an honoured place in the household. They took part in religious ceremonies along with their husband.
Women were imparted liberal education and we have some women who composed Vedic hymns, like Ghosha, Appal and Visvara, etc. Women were not kept in purdah, a seclusion as practiced in later times. Even free mixing of unmarried young men and girls were allowed so that they could choose their life partners. Though marriage was monogamous in general, we have existence of primitive practices of polygamy and polyandry like Asvin brothers shared with Surya, shows matrimonial traces as names like, mamateya, Maruts lived with Rodasi. Though incest was a taboo, there are evidences of Yami approaching Yama which is spurned by Yama.
In Rigveda levirate and widow remarriage were in practice. The marriageable age in Rigveda seems to be 16 to17 years. But this does not show that women were equal to men in Rigveda. Women were treated as important and essential partners to male members. In Rigveda hymns there is desire for children (male), Pasu (Cattle) food, wealth, health etc. Women were gifted to priests at sacrifice and they were treated as slaves who did household chores.
Female divinities like Aditi, Usas etc. were not prominent deity in Rigveda. But compared to late phase and even till recent times, women position during Rigveda period was better and their importance during this period is attested by calling their daughter as Duhitra (milker of cows)
Q.33. Write short notes on the following : (1) Kalpi (2) Kanauj (3) Kangra(4) Masulipatam (5) Multan.
Ans : (1) Kalpi : A place in Madhya Pradesh. After the weakening of Tughlaq dynasty, it became an independent Muslim state.
(2) Kanauj : In Uttar Pradesh, centre of power and prestige in North India in the feudal age because of its natural locational advantage. Seat of Harsha power, it was plundered by Muhmmand of Gazhni in 1018 AD.
(3) Kangra : A hill state in Himachal, famous for its paintings. Pahari school of painting developed out of its style.
(4) Masulipatam : In Andhra Pradesh on the eastern coast. It was an important manufacturing centre of textiles facilitating their trade in cotton textile to south east Asia and export of spices to Europe.
(5) Multan : One of the important provinces under Mughal rule. Famous for its trade and merchants who were fabulously rich. The establishment of Muslim rule made it a part of Indian administration.
Q.34. Who are they and why are they famous for: (1) Sister Nivedita (2) V.S. Srinivasa Sastri (3) Vithalbhai Patel (4) Charles F. Andrews (5) V.O. Chidambaram Pillai (6) Bhulabhai Desai (7) E.V. Ramaswami (8) Subramania Bharati (9) B.C. Roy (10) Kaka Saheb Kalelkar
Ans : (1) Sister Nivedita (1867-1911)
Sister Nivedita was the leading foreign disciple of Swami Vivekananda. She was of Irish nationality. Drawn by the irresistible personality of Swamiji, she came to India and took to social service and alleviation of the misery of the poor, causes so dear to Swami Vivekananda. The extremist national elements were deeply influenced by this lady who had embraced the vedantic faith as her own. When plague broke out in Calcutta in 1899, she organized relief on a magnificent scale.
(2) V.S. Srinivasa Sastri (1869-1946)
Srinivasa Sastri began his career as a teacher. He became a member of the Servants of India Society and was an ardent follower of Gokhale. A very powerful orator and immaculate writer of English, he was the recipient of many honours from the British Government. He represented India at various international conferences. He was appointed P.C. and Agent General for India in S. Africa. He helped in the Smuts-Gandhi negotiations. He was chosen delegate to the RTC. He advocated moderate politics. He was a rationalist and stood for abolition of caste and communal distinctions.
(3) Vithalbhai Patel (1871-1933)
He was the illustrious brother of Vallabhbhai Patel, one of the makers of modern India. He was invited to England as a Congressman to tender evidence before the Joint Committee on Reforms. He rendered yeoman service to the city of Bombay, as its Mayor. In 1925 he was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly and was elected its President during a very stormy period. He was imprisoned in the C.D. Movement.
(4) Charles F. Andrews (1871-1940)
Charles F. Andrews was a British born Christian missionary belonging to the Society of Quakers who worked in India. He was a great admirer of Rabindranath Tagore and also a life-long friend of Gandhiji’s. He advocated the cause of India’s independence and pleaded the cause of freedom fighters with the British authorities. He was well-known for his concern for the poor and the worker. He worked with Ambedkar for the welfare of the Harijans and he was known as ‘Deenabandhu’.
(5) V.O. Chidambaram Pillai (1872-1936)
V.O. Chidambaram Pillai (popularly known as V.O.C.) was an erudite scholar in Tamil, a prolific writer, a fiery speaker, a trade union leader of unique calibre and a dauntless fighter for the freedom of the nation. He organised people to fight against the British commercial exploitation of India by challenging the monopoly of the British maritime trade in India. In 1906, he formed the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company having regular services between Tuticorin and Colombo. He became a hardliner in his political outlook after his return from the Surat Congress in 1907. His powerful personality won mass appeal leading to upheavals at Tuticorin and Tirunelveli. Charged with offence of sedition, he was sentenced to forty years of imprisonment which on appeal, was reduced to six. He attended the Calcutta Congress in 1920 but gradually withdrew himself from active politics.
(6) Bhulabhai Desai (1877-1946)
Bhulabhai was an outstanding lawyer and politician of the Gandhian era. He rose very high in the legal profession and was Advocate-General of Bombay. He was a member of Annie Besant’s Home Rule League for some time. He joined the Congress in 1930 and suffered imprisonment several times in the struggle for independence. His crowning achievement was the brilliant defence of the officers of the INA army captured by the British during the war and tried for waging war against the government. The officers were first given harsh sentences but later acquitted. The trial at Red Fort attracted country wide attention because of Desai’s brilliant advocacy on behalf of the accused.
(7) E.V. Ramaswami (1879-1973)
E.V. Ramaswami revered as “Periar” or the venerable by millions of his countrymen is regarded as the father of the Dravidian Movement in the South. He started his carreer as a staunch Congressman and took part in the famous Vaikom Satyagraha. Later he paired company with the Congress as he felt that it was a Brahministic movement. He started the Dravida Kazhagam and for the major part of his long life carried on a crusade against casteism, blind superstitions, social inequalities and Brahminism. He waged a determined battle against the imposition of Hindi. The D.K. Party that he started kept out of politics. He was only interested in bringing about radical changes in the social structure. He was a rationalist and believed that religion is the opium of the ignorant masses.
(8) Subramania Bharati (1881-1921)
Subramania Bharati, Tamil lyric poet par excellence was also a patriot and a freedom fighter, closely associated with the extremist movement in the Congress. He gave spiritual dimensions to the freedom struggle through his poems. He called for national unity and his patriotic poems inspired thousands of people. He encouraged the emancipation of women. Personal freedom, national liberty and fundamental equality of all men, have all been eloquently championed in his verses.
(9) B.C. Roy (1882-19962)
He was a renowned physician of Calcutta and a Congress leader of All India stature. He made history by defeating the veteran moderate leader Surendranath Banerjee in the election to the Bengal Assembly in 1923. He was in enthusiastic supporter of the Swaraj party and favoured council entry. In the year following partition, he was the Chief Minister of West Bengal and guided the state at a critical time. He enjoyed the complete confidence of Gandhiji.
(10) Kaka Saheb Kalelkar (1885-1981)
Dattatreya Balkrishna Kelelkar, popularly known as Kaka Saheb Kalelkar, was one of the oldest disciples of Gandhiji. When he was a student at Poona, he came into contact with secret political societies and began his clandestine revolutionary work. His Marathi daily ‘Rashtra-Mat’ and later, the school ‘Ganganath Vidyalaya’ where he was principal, were closed down by the British. He joined the teaching staff in Shantiniketan and met Gandhiji during one of his visits. Gandhiji took Kaka Saheb with him to join his Satyagraha Ashram at Kocharab which was later shifted to Sabarmati. His philosophical writings and his interpretation of Tagore’s poems have become very popular. His masterly elucidation of Tagore’s Gandhiji in many languages has won him several awards.
Q.35. Who are they and why are they famous for:
(1) Rashbehari Bose (1886-1945) (2) S. Satyamurti (3) Acharya Narendra Dev(4) Champaka Raman Pillai (5) Mahadeo Desai (6) Rafi Ahmed Kidwai (7) C.N. Annadurai (8) Abdul Haye, Main (9) Dr. Sheikh Abdullah (10) Alva, Joachim and Violet (11) Abhyankar, Moreshwar Vasudeo
Ans : (1) Rashbehari Bose
Rashbehari Bose was fire brand revolutionary who assisted Subash Chandra Bose to conduct a military campaign for the liberation of India. He took part in bomb attacks against the British and was involved in the Lahore conspiracy case. He managed to escape to Japan. He founded the Indian Independence League in 1924. He established the Indian National Army (INA) in 1942 with the help of General Mohan Singh, a captain in the British-Indian army. Subsequently he handed over the leadership of the INA to Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. He acquired Japanese citizenship but never ceased to work for the liberation if his motherland.
(2) S. Satyamurti (1887-1943)
S. Satyamurti was an advocate by profession. Responding to the call of Mahatma Gandhi, he took to nationalistic politics as a full time occupation and made his mark as a great orator both in English and his native Tamil languages. The credit of organising the Congress in Tamil Nadu on a firm basis goes to a very large extent to Satyamurti. He was a vehement supporter of the council entry programme. He was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly for several consecutive terms and made a significant contribution to the debates in the Assembly. He had excellent command of the art of repartee and together with Bhulabhai Desai, he made it really uncomfortable for the Government in the Assembly. He died before his long cherished dream of Indian freedom could become a reality.
(3) Acharya Narendra Dev (1889-1956)
Along with Jaya Prakash Narayan, Achyut Patwardan and others, Acharya Narendra Dev may be considered to be a founder of the Socialist Movement in India. He was an intellectual and an ardent freedom fighter. He was closely associated with the Banaras Hindu University. He was in the Congress for a long time and left the organisation when the socialists parted company from the parent organization on ideological grounds. Later he became one of the founders of the Praja Socialist Party. He was the chief ideologue of the Socialist Movement in India.
(4) Champaka Raman Pillai (1891-1934)
Born in Trivandrum, he left for Germany and settled down there in 1908 and from there did his best to organize revolt against the British Government in India. He tried to organize the Indian soldiers in Europe to fight against the British. He was a leading member of the Indian Independence Committee in Europe.
(5) Mahadeo Desai (1892-1942)
Mahadeo Desai was private secretary to Gandhiji and was often described as his conscience keeper. He joined the freedom movement in 1917 and helped to edit the paper Nav Jivan. Invariably he accompanied Gandhiji in his tours throughout the country. In 1931, he accompanied Gandhiji to the Round Table Conference in London. Along with his master, he was imprisoned in the Aga Khan Palace in Poona during the Quit India Movement of 1942. He died while in jail.
(6) Rafi Ahmed Kidwai (1894-1954)
Rafi Ahmed Kidwai was a staunch nationalist Muslim hailing from Uttar Pradesh. He came under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi very early in his life and courted imprisonment. He was secretary to Motilal Nehru for some time. He led an agrarian movement and an No-Tax Comping in Rae Bareilly.
In 1935 Kidwai became Minister for Land Revenue in U.P. In 1946 when Congress formed ministries again in the different states, he became Home Minister in U.P. He consolidated the position of the Congress in that state. Later Jawaharlal Nehru shifted him to the Centre and made him the Minister of communication. He was responsible for introducing the night air-mail system and Own Your Phone Scheme. Later in 1952 he became Minister for Food and Agriculture. He was very successful in handling that sensitive portfolio. He went all out to make Indian self-sufficient in Food and did away with many irksome controls which hampered food production and distribution. He achieved success where many before him had failed.
He was a pious orthodox Muslim but held liberal views in regard to the emancipation of women.
(7) C.N. Annadurai (1909-1969)
C.N. Annadurai was foremost among the leaders of the Dravidian Movement in Tamil Nadu, next only to Pariar Ramaswami Naicker who was his mentor. Annadurai was a brilliant the intellectual, often compared to Bernard Shaw. He was a writer of eminence and a journalist of distinction besides being a powerful orator in Tamil. Deference of opinion with Ramaswami Naicker led him to the founding of the D.M.K. Party, representative mainly of younger elements. The party was swept to power in 1967 defeating the well established Congress with its strong nationalist base. It was the first triumph of a regional party. Annadurai became the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu following the electoral victory.
(8) Abdul Haye, Main (1889-1946)
Mian Adbul-Haye took active part in the anti-Rowlatt agitation although he belonged to a rich Zamindar family. He was an outspoken nationalist and supported the unity of the country during Khilafat Non-violent Non-Cooperation Movement. He joined the Unionist Party when he became disappointed with the calling off of the movement by the Congress. He was the Education Minister of Punjab from 1937 to 1946 and worked for the growth of education in the state.
(9) Dr. Sheikh Abdullah (1874-1965)
Dr. Sheik Abdullah, influenced by Syed Ahmed Khan worked for the social resurgence of Muslims. He contributed immensely for the welfare of Muslim women.
(10) Alva, Joachim and Violet
Violet Alva and Joachim Alva, were arrested in early twenties for working for the downfall of British Raj in India. Joachim propagated the cause of freedom as a journalist. He was prosecuted for his famous editorial in the forum: “Setting the Accounts with the British”. He was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1952, 1957 and 1962 and when he died in 1979, he was a member of the Rajya Sabha.
(11) Abhyankar, Moreshwar Vasudeo (1886-1935)
Abhyankar belonged to an affluent family of Wardha district. He returned from England as a Barrister. Even while studying in England he was a disciple of Lokmanya Bala Gangadhar Tilak. He worked for the uplift of Harijans and women and earned the title of “Narkesar” for his service to the downtrodden, for leading the anti-Simon commission agitation and Civil Disobedience Movement in his region. Unfortunately, his dedicated service to the cause of India’s freedom came to an early end as he died the age of 49.
Q.36. Examine the status of Psychology in the family of Social Sciences.
Ans : Psychology is primarily a behavioral science. Behavioral science is a relatively new academic discipline. But it falls under the broad category of social science. There are primarily three social sciences in the behavioral science category viz, Anthropology, Sociology and Psychology. Behavioral science is defined as involving a scientific study of human behavior.
The major difference between behavioral social sciences and other social sciences lies in the methodology as well as subject matter. As a behavioral social science psychology professes its belief in rigorous research methodology and heavy reliance on empiricism.
As a social science psychology is systematic. The knowledge that it generates is always organized in a systematic form. As a social science it gathers knowledge by observation and measurement. It uses experimental as well as observational method which are repliable. The data it generates is quantifiable. It develops theories by testing hypotheses. Then as it with all social sciences, it generates this systematic knowledge to understand and then to predict and control Human behavior.
There are also differing perceptions on the nature of this social science. It may vary from a purely experimental method of structuralists to the purely intrapsychic way of study of the psychoanalysts. In the recent past, the trends have changed so much that information processing and computer simulation models have come into vogue. As a social science, Psychology is concentrating more on the objective approaches to study than subjective approaches to study. Now the trend is also shifting towards more biochemical and physiological explanations of behavior. All these developments are according to psychology more “mechanistic objective and scientific” outlook as a social science.
Psychology differs from other social sciences by the fact that its primary focus is on the individuals with an exclusive interest in the individual’s behavior. Also, there is a coverage of wide range of behavior of the individuals by the psychologists. At the end, it can be pointed out that psychology remains primarily as a behavioral science in the family of social sciences.