SST Set - 10 (Q.1 to 18)
Q.19. What is soil conservation? What are the different measures of soil conservation?
Ans : Soil conservation is an effort made by man to prevent soil erosion in order to retain the fertility of soil. It may not be possible to stop soil erosion entirely.
Any erosion such as gullies already formed should be tackled by construction of dams or obstructions.Ploughing and tilling of land should be done along contour levels so that the furrows run across the slope of land. Bunds should be constructed according to contours. Trees reduce the force of straight winds and obstruct blowing away of dust particles. Plants, grass and shrubs reduce the speed of flowing water. Therefore, such vegetable cover should not be removed indiscriminately, where it does not exist, steps should be taken to plant it.
Natural vegetation cover prevents soil erosion in three ways : (i) The roots of plants bind together the particles of soil; (ii) Plants check the force of wind so that it cannot blow away the soil particles, and (iii) Plants lessen the force of rain as it reaches the ground.
Measures for Soil Conservation (i) Planting cover crops such as grasses, on uncultivated land. Trees should be planted along hill slopes. (ii) Adoption of correct farming techniques such as contour ploughing and strip cropping. Strip cropping is the practice of planting alternate rows of close growing plants such as beans and peas, with open growing crops such as corn. This practice prevents wind erosion. (iii) Terracing, the practice of cutting steps in hillside, to create level land for cultivation. (iv) Construction of check dams on steep slopes which prevent gully erosion and spread of gullies. (v) Creation of wind breaks by planting lines of trees, hedges or fences which obstruct the path of wind thereby reducing its speed and hence reducing soil erosion. (vi) Controlling grazing of pastures. (vii) Suspending cultivation for one season and more so as to help the soil recover its fertility.
Realising the deteriorating situation of soil erosion and its impact on the country's economy, a Central Conservation Board was created in 1953 to coordinate the soil conservation include contour bunding, bench terracing, nalla plugging, land levelling and other engineering and biological measures such as afforestation, grassland development etc.
Eight regional research-cum-demonstration centres have been established for the study of problems of soil and water conservation. In addition, the Desert Afforestation and Research Station has been set up at Jodhpur for studying the desert problem.
Q.20. Dsecribe the different types of soil found in India. What are the steps taken for soil conservation?
Ans : There is a great variation in the distribution of soil in India due to differences in the bedrock and cli-mate. Following major types of soils are found in India. Major soil groups are distributed in India as follows:-1. Alluvial soils in the g reat plains, river valleys a nd deltas. 2. Black cotton soils over the Deccan lavas in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. 3. Laterites in Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Eastern Ghats, Sahyadris, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Assam, Rajmahal hills. 4. Red soils in parts of TamilNadu, Karnatak a, Maharashtra, Andhra, Goa, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa. 5. Saline Alkaline in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Andhra and Tamil Nadu (arid and semi-arid areas). 6. Arid desert mainly in Rajasthan. 7. Peatry in Kerala and marshy areas of Orissa, Western Bengal, Tamil Nadu.
Measures for soil conservation include contour ploughing and terracing, bunding afforestation, control of grazing, etc. to prevent water erosion, vegetal covers and wind breaks against wind erosion and dumping rocks, construction of jetties, etc, against sea erosion.
Q.21. How can alkaline and acid soil be reclaimed ?
Ans : The acid and salt affected soils need special nutrient management for reclamation and subsequent crop production. The Central Soil Salinity Research Institute at Karnal has done commendable work in reclamation of these soils. The liming of acid soils according to their requirement corrects the nutrient deficiencies and toxicity. The use of partially water soluble phosphate fertilisers is recommended. The judicious recycling of available organic sources of manure should be dovetailed to increase soil productivity and partially supplement the nutrient needs of crops.
Q. 22. What are the methods of soil conservation? Mention the soil conservation programme in India.
Ans : 1. Agronomic Measures —These include various methods of crop cultivation to ensure protection of the top soil. (i) Contour Farming (ii) Mu lching (iii) Strip Cropping (iv) Mixed Cropping 2. Mechanical Measures of Erosion Control These includes excavation of different types of ditches and construction of terraces for the removal of excess of water from the field.
Construction of dams for checking the erosive velocities of the water. (i) Basin Listing (ii) Sub -soiling (iii) Contour Bunding (iv) Graded Bunding or Channel Terraces(v) Bench Terracing.
Soil Conservation programmes in India (i) Soil con servation in the catchments o f river valley project. (i i) I nt egr at ed Water she d Man agemen t i n t he catchments of flood-prone rivers. (iii) The scheme for reclamation and development of ravinous area . (iv) The scheme for control of shifting cultivation.
Q.23. Where are the following? (a) Point Climere (b) Gulf of Mannar
Ans : (a) Point Calimere is in Tanjavur district on Tamil Nadu coast. (b) Gulf of Mannar separates the Indian main-land from the island of Sri Lanka.
Q.24. What is the difference between Game sanctuaries and national park?
Ans : Game sanctuaries are meant to preserve particular animals and birds where as national parks protect the entire eco-system including flora and fauna of all species.
Q.25. What are the different types of plateau and to which type does the Deccan plateau belong?
Ans : Plateaus are class ified as: (a) Inter-mountane (between mountains). (b) Pied mont (between mountains and sea). (c) Continental (extensive table land rising abruptly from sea or low lands like the Deccan plateau).
Q.26. What is a rift valley? Name a rift valley in India.
Ans.: Rift valleys are steep-sided depressions on the earth’s surface resulting from geological faults due to fracturing of the surface. Narmada valley is a rift valley.
Q.27. Describe the diverse flora and fauna prevalent Indian.
And : India has a rich heritage of biological diversity (rich and diverse strains of flora and fauna)– immense range of ecosystems, species (some 1.3 lakh recorded) and genetic forms (50,000 varieties of rice alone)– by virtue of its tropical features. India's biogeographical composition is unique as it combines living forms from three major biogeographical realms, namely, the IndoMalayan, the Agro-Tropical and the Eurasian. It is estimated that our country possess about 45,000 plant species, representing the widest range for any country of the world of its size, of which nearly 5,000 species are exclusive to India, and about 75,000 animal species.
Overall 8 per cent of world species are found in India. It is estimated that India is tenth among the plant rich countries of the world, eleventh in terms of number of endemic species of higher vertebrates and sixth among the centres of diversity and origin of agri-biodiversity. The total number of living species identified in India so far is 200,000. India is recognized as one of the 12 mega- diversity centres in the world and it also has two of the 18 identified biodiversity hot-spots of the world, namely the northeast region and the Western Ghats.
Among the mammals India is a home to the elephant, which is typical of hot wet equatorial forests and is found in the jungles of Assam and those of Kerala and Karnataka where it rains heavily and the forests are very dense. On the other hand, camels and wild asses belong to extremely hot and arid deserts. While the camels are common to the Thar Desert, the wild assess unique to India are confined to the arid areas of the Rann of Kutch.
The one-horned rhinoceros are confined to swampy and marshy lands of Assam and north-west Bengal. Other group of animals unique to India consists of the Indian bison, the Indian bison, the Indian buffalo and the nilgai. The chousingha (four horned antelope), black buck (Indian antelope), gazel and various species of deer including Kashmir stag, swamp deer, spotted deer, musk deer and mouse deer have home in India. The Indian lion distinguishes itself as the only species found anywhere in the world– barring the Afriforests of Saurashtra in Gujarat. The famous Bengal tiger has its natural habitat in the Sundarbans' tidal animals belonging to the cat family are leopards, clouded leopards and snow leopards. The latter are confined to upper reaches of the Himalayas.
The Himalayan ranges are the home to several interesting animals including the wild sheep, mountain goats, the ibex, the shrew and the tapir. The lesser panda and the snow leopard are confined only to the upper reaches. India has several species of monkeys– the langur being the most common. The lqion tailed macaques has hair around the face which appears like a halo.
Bird life in India is both rich and colourful. If tiger is the national animal, the peacock is our national bird.
Pheasants, geese, ducks, mynahs, parakeets, pigeons, cranes, bornbills and sunbirds belong to the forests and wet lands.
Q.28. Describe the origins, chronology, characteristics and geographical spread of Gandhara Art Ans.The Gandhara Art, which developed in the north-western part in Gandhara region and spread widely in northern India during the second and first century B.C. was the product of an interaction between Indian and Greek art tradition. Many beautiful images were constructed in this art style but the themes remained to be Indian.
From the beginning of the second century B.C. many foreign invader invaded through the north western part and set up their kingdoms in northern and northwestern portion of Indian subcontinent. The kings of these newly founded kingdoms embraced existing Indian religion, culture and art. Since they were the new converts they became enthusiastic supporter of Indian culture and art.
Among these kingdoms Kushan was the most important and it covered a part of modern Afghanistan too. The Kushan empire brought together masons and other arti-sans trained in different schools and countries. Indian craftsmen came into contact with the Greeks and Roman craftsmen in the north-western part of India. In the Gandhara region this contact resulted in the development of a new style which is popularly known as Gandhara art. With the passage of time, many beautiful images of Buddha were made in Gracco-Roman style. In this style the hair and the body proportion were made in a new style which reflects Gracco-Roman influence. But even here, the theme remained Indian. With the passage of time, this style spread into northern and northwestern part of India and reached upto Mathura, which was a centre of indigenous art.
Thus, Gandhara art, in its developed form, embraced almost all part of northern and north-western India. It's development added a new facet in the Indian art-style.
Q.29. Write short notes on the following : 1. Jaj nagar 2. Jaunpur, 3. Junagadh, 4. Kalyani, 5.
Kanhwa, 6. La-khnauati
Ans : (1) Jajnagar : In Orissa. Feroz Tughlaq led a campaign against them when there was a rebellion. He desecrated temple there. The famous Jagannath Temple of Puri was the one. But he also brought Hindu works in Sanskrit and asked for their translation in Persian.
(2) Jaunpur : City founded by Feroz Shah Tughlaq in 135 9-60, in memory of Jauna (Md. bin Tughlaq). Sharqi dynasty ruled it from 1394. Under them it became a leading centre for cultural and artistic activities. Its architectural style is typified by Attala Mosque and Jama Masjid.
Malik Muhammad Jaisi wrote his Padmavat here. It was known as Shiraj of east.
(3) Junagarh : In Saurashtra coast of Gujarat. Famous for Rock inscription of Rudradaman and Ashoka's pillar inscription. It was ca lled Girnar which was an important fort. Mahmud Begarha stormed this fort and found a new town called Mustafaba d at the foot of the hill, which became a second capital of Gujarat.
(4) Kalyani : A place in Karnataka. Aurangzeb captured this fort from the Nawab of Bijapur. It was also the seat of power of one of the Chalukyan branches.
(5) Khanwa : A village near Agra. In 1527, Babar and Rana Sanga fought a battle here which proved to be decisive for the establishment of Mughal power in India.
(6) Lakhnauati : In Bengal. Important trading centre.
Became capital of Muslim rulers of Bengal. Many beautiful mosque and buildings showing Indian influence in Style and architecture.
Q.30. How did Swadeshi movement help in the growth of Indian industries?
Ans : The Swadeshi movement helped in the growth of Indian industries particularly that of cotton textiles. The First World War gave further impetus for industrial development in India. The efforts of British industries were diverted towards the production of war materials. Therefore, the Indian market was partially left by them. After the War, Gandhi came to the forefront of the Indian national movement. He advised the use of Swadeshi, particularly that of hand-woven and spun cloth of khaddar.
The Indian industrial class found no danger to their economic interest in the propaganda for the use of khaddar. Instead they found that the pressure set by Gandhi and the Congress against the British for getting political and economic concessions would eventually help them economically.
Therefore, Indian industrialists like Birla, Bajaj, Sarabhai and others actively supported the Congress, financed it and even subsidized programme for the revival of handicrafts.
Q.31. What was the Indian response to the first World War ?
Ans : After the declaration of first World War in 1914, the British asked the Indian leaders for their cooperation. Indian response was three fold: (i) Moderate Congress leaders wanted to help in defence of the empire as a matter of duty. (ii) Extremist leaders promised to help in the hope of getting concessions. (iii) Terrorist revolutionaries hoped to gain their objective out of England’s difficulties.
Q.32. What were the causes for the re-union of moderates and extremists?
Ans : Two major developments during first World War in Indian politics were re-union of the Moderates and the Extremists and the Congress-League Lucknow Pact of 1916. Reunion of the Moderates and the Extremists took place due to following factors: Tilak clarified his objective of attainment of self-govt. by constitutional means. Death of Gokhale and Mehta in 1915 softened Moderates’ attitude.
Mrs. Beasant played the role of mediator. Congress constitution amended to make possible the entry of Extremists. Due to all this, the union was achieved at Lucknow session in Dec., 1916.
Q.33. What were the demands of the Congress?
Ans : The conciliation brought about between the two major communities of the Indians by virtue of the Lucknow Pact contributed considerably towards political consciousness which strengthened the demand for Home Rule. However, the acceptance of the principle of communal electorates was a retrograde step. Reduction of Secretary of State’s control overIndian affairs. 80% members of Central and Provincial Legislative Councils to be elected. 50% members of Governor General’s andGovernor’s Executive Councils to be Indians. Legislative Councils not to discuss any bill if75% Council's members of any community objected toit.
The Congress of 1916 at Lucknow was memorable in several ways. It was attended by extremists, moderates, Muslim League—in short all political workers belonging to different schools of thought and different creeds participated in it. The Congress and the League drew up a joint scheme for reforms. It marked the unity of the Hindus and the Muslims under what is known as Lucknow Pact.
The Congress called upon the British Government— To declare that its aim was to grant self-government to India in view of its cultural and educational advancement; To accept the Congress-League scheme for Home Rule; To grant Dominion status to India; To apply Defence of India Act under the circumstances similar to those for Defence of Realm Act.
Q.34. What was the significance of the Congress?
Ans : The Lucknow Congress was significant for the famous Congress- League Pact. The Pact marked an important step towards Hindu-Muslim unity. The Congress accepted the main demands of the Muslim League. Tilak and his men were welcomed back into the Congress by the Moderates.
The Lucknow session presented the Home Rule Leaguers with the long-awaited opportunity of demonstrating their strength.
The Lucknow Congress demanded a further dose of constitutional reforms as a step towards selfgovernment. The immediate impact of the session was an upsurge of political enthusiasm in the country. The unity between the Moderates and the Militants and between the National Congress and the Muslim League raised high hopes.
Taking note of a new political situation developing within the country, the British Government felt compelled to placate the nationalists. On August 19, 1917, it announced in the House of Commons that its policy in India was “the gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to the progressive realization of Responsible Government of India as an integral part of the British Empire.”
Q.35. Trace the beginning and development of revolutionary terrorism in the early 20th century.
Ans : A beginning was made in this direction when in 1897 the Chapekar brothers assassinated two unpopular officials in Poona. But it was not an organized effort.
In Maharashtra the first organized society of revolutionaries Abhinav a Bharat was establishe d by V.D.
Savarkar in 1904. In Bengal, the movement was led by Barinder Kumar Ghosh, the younger brother of Arbinda and Pulin Behari Das. In 1905, they published a book entitled Bhavani Mandir and, two years later, another book Vartaman Rajaniti. The first gave a plan for establishing a centre of revolutionary activity and the other defined the modern means of warfare to fight the foreigners. Their activities led to the founding of a secret society called the Anusilan Samiti with twin centres at Calcutta and Dacca.
The Samiti established its 116 bran ches and enrolled nearly 9000 members. A periodical Yugantar (New Era) was also started by its leaders which openly preached armed rebellion against the British.
Besides this Samiti, there were organisations as Swadesh Bandhava Samiti of Barisal, the Suhrid Samiti of Mymensingh, the Brati Sa miti of Faridpur and the Sadhana Samaj of Mymensingh. Secret societies were established in Bihar, Orissa, Punjab and other regions of India as well. A few of them succeeded in keeping mutual contact between them but most of them worked under isolated groups of leaders.
The formation of secret revolutionary societies and preaching of the cult of bomb led to murder of several British officials, several violent activities and dacoities. Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose tried to kill the judge of Muzaffarpur, Mr. Kingsford but failed. Prafulla was arrested but shot himself dead and Khudiram was tried and hanged. The incident was followed by murder of a Deputy Superintendent of Police and a public prosecutor dealing with the Alipur case. Both were shot dead in the premises of the court. Nearly the same time Madan Lal Dhingra succeeded in murdering Curzon Wyllie in London, while othe victims of the revolutionaries were Mr. Jackson, the collector of Nasik, and a C.I.D. official in Calcutta.
According to official records, between the period 1907 to 1917, the revolutionaries murdered nearly 64 persons and performed 1123 dacoities involving nearly seven lakhs of rupees. Attempt on the life of Lieutenant Governor of Bengal was also made but failed.
A bomb was thrown in 1912 on Lord Harding, the governor general, by Rash Behari Bose in Delhi but he escaped. During the course of World War I, German help was successfully sought by the Indian revolutionaries abroad, attempts were made to smuggle arms in the country and preparations were made for a general rising in 1915 but with no positive result.
Q.36. ‘The revolutionaries failed to achieve their object.’ Discuss.
Ans : The revolutionary terrorists failed to achieve their object. It gradually petered out. Lacking a mass base, despite remarkable heroism, the individual revolutionaries, organized in small secret groups, could not withstand suppression by the still strong colonial state.
The Government resorted to repression and passed several laws to crush the terrorist movement. It largely succeeded in detecting the activities of the terrorists and punished them severely. Afterwards, the Satyagraha and the non-cooperation movements led by M.K. Gandhi attracted the public attention and the role of the terrorists in Indian politics became negligible. The terrorist’s movement failed in India mostly because of its ill-organisation and its failure to gain mass support among the Indians.
The armed strength of the British government was also responsible for its failure.
Some scholars have urged that it failed because it was foreign to the genius of our race. This reason is, however debetable. The revolutionaries evoked deep sympathies of the Indian people and were respected as martyrs. The later revolutionary attempts of Sardar Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev, Raj Guru and Chandra Shekhar Azad justify that the creed of terrorism did not completely die out of India. Even the formation of I.N.A. by Subhash Chandra Bose during the course of World War II was a revolutionary activity.
But despite their small numbers and eventual failure, their is no doubt that the superb spirit of sacrifice of terrorists and martyrdom of many among them made a solid contribution towards Indian nationalism.
As a historian has put it, ‘they gave us back the pride of our manhood’.
The revolutionaries set up their soceities in several foreign countries like U.S.A., Germany, Indo-China, Singapore, Siam and Middle and Far East. Among them, the Ghadar Party in America became most renowned. The party was formed at San Francisco on 1 November, 1913. Lala Har Dayal, a revolutionary from Punjab was its chief architect.
The Party started a weekly paper, Ghadar (rebellion) in English, Hindi, Urdu, Marathi and Gurumukhi.
It established its headquarter, Yugantar Ashram at 436, Hill Street, San Francisco. But Har Dayal had to leave U.S.A. in 1914 and the charge of the party was taken over by his colleague, Ram Chandra.
The party succeeded in enlisting support of quite a large number of people in America and Europe for the cause of Indian Independence. It tried to supply arms to the revolutionaries in India but failed.
The Party lost its influence when America entered the World War I on behalf of Britain and prohibited the activities of the Party. V.D. Savarkar, another revolutionary also tried to supply arms to revolutionaries in India from Britain but failed. Raja Mahendra Pratap also sought foriegn help for the Independence of India.
Q.37. How do your improve the intelligence of children?
Ans : For training children to have better intellectual capabilities one of the most important thing to do is to overcome their environmental poverty. The children especially during the initial years of their life should be brought in an atmosphere of dense environmental stimulations. They should be given exposure to as much objects and events as possible in their environment. This will make him harness his abilities to the most to develop needed competencies to cope up with the diverse skills and abilities that these environmental factor will demand of him. Apart from this a proper training should also be imparted to the children to develop the necessary skills before their critical period for learning such abilities is over.