Q.1. List the factors which affect the supply of commodity.
Ans : Supply function studies the functional relationship between supply of a commodity and its various determinants. The supply of a commodity mainly depends on the goal of the firm, price of the commodity, price of other goods, prices of factors of production used in the production of the commodity and state of technology. In other words, supply of a commodity is a function of several factors as expressed in the form of the following equation.
SX = f (Px, Po, NF, G, PF, T, EX, GP.) (Here S = supply of commodity X; f = Functional Relation; Px = Price of commodity X; Po= Price of other Goods; NF= Number of Firms, G =Goal of the Firm, PF= Price of Factors of Production, T = Technology; EX= Expected Future Price; Gp= Government Policy) (1) Price of the Commodity : There is a direct relationship between price of a commodity and its quantity supplied. Generally higher the price, higher the quantity supplied,and lower the price lower the quantity supplied.
(2) Prices of other Goods : The supply of a goods depends upon the prices of other good. As increase in the prices of other goods makes them more profitable for the firms. They will increase their supply. On the other hand, the supply of the good, the price of which has not charged, will become relatively profitable. The supply of such a good may decrease.
(3) Number of Firms : Market supply of a commodity also depends upon number of firms in the market.
Increase in the number of firms implies increase in market supply and conversely decrease in the number of firms implies decrease in market supply of a commodity.
(4) Goal of the Firm : If the Go al o f the firm is to maximize profits, more quantity of the commodity will be offered at high price. On the other hand, if the goal of the firm is to maximize sales or maximize output or employment more will be supplied even at the same price.
(5) Price of Factor of Production : Supply of commodity is also affected by the price of factors used for the production of the commodity. If the factor price decreases, cost of production also reduces, accordingly supply increases. Conversely, if the factor price increases cost of production also increase and supply tends to decrease.
(6) Change in Technology : Chang in Technology also effects supply of the commodity. Improvement in the technique of production reduces cost of production. Consequently, profits tend to increase inducing an increase
(7) Expected Future Price : If the producer expects price of the commodity to rise in the near future, current supply of the commodity should reduce. If on the other hand, fall in the price is expected, current supply should increase.
(8) Government Policy : Taxation and subsidy policy of the Government also effect market supply of the commodity. Increase in taxation tends to reduce the supply, while subsidies tend to induce greater supply of the commodity.
Q.2. What are the causes of Constant Returns to a Factor ?
Ans : Constant returns to a factor may be explained in terms of the following factors : (i) Optimum Utilisation of the Fixed Factor : As production is increased by increasing the application of variable factor, a stage comes when the fixed factor gets optimally utilised. It is here that marginal product of the variable factor is maximised and tends to remain constant. (ii) Ideal Factor Ration : Constant returns to a factor corresponds to an ideal ratio between fixed and the variable factors. Hence, marginal product of the factor stabilises at its maximum. (iii) Most Efficient Utilisation of the Variable Factor : As more and more of the variable factor is combined with the fixed factor, a stage comes when there is best possible division of labour corresponding to which variable factor (labour) is most efficiently utilised. Accordingly, its marginal product tends to be constant at its maximum.
Q.3. Write notes on : (i) Rent in Extensive Cultivation (ii) Rent in intensive cultivation.
Ans : (1) Rent in Extensive Cultivation : When more land is used in order to increase production, it is called extensive cultivation. Initially, when population in a country is very small, farmers cultivate the best (most fertile) land, i.e., ‘A’ class land. Supposing by applying one unit of labour and capital, costing Rs. 100, 8 quintals of wheat in produced on this land. At this stage no rent will arise, because this type of land is available in ample measure.
But, if due to rise in population, the entire ‘A’ class land is brought under cultivation and yet the demand for wheat is not fully met, then the farmers will bring less fertile land i.e. ‘B’ class land, under cultivation. By applying one unit of labour and capital costing Rs. 100, to this land thearmers get 6 quintals of wheat. The excess produce obtained from ‘A’ class land over ‘B’ class land is of the nature of rent. In this case, ‘B’ class land will yield no rent; because it is available in plenty. On the other hand, if any one wants ‘A’ class land, he will have to pay 2 quintals of wheat, by way of rent, because this land has more fertility than ‘B’ class land. If population rises further, then farmers will be compelled to bring less fertile land than ‘B’ class land under cultivation, that is ‘C’ class land. Supposing, application of one unit of labour and capital costing Rs. 100, to this land, yields 4 quintals of wheat. In this situation rent on ‘A’ class and land (8 - 4) will increase to 4 quintals and ‘B’ class land will begin to yield (6 - 4) quintals of rent. Now ‘C’ class land yield on rent. If as a result of pressure of population demand for wheat rises still further, then still inferior land, that is , ‘D’ class land will be brought under cultivation. If it yields only 2 quintals of wheat, then rent on ‘A’ class land will be 6 quintals (8 - 2); on ‘B’ class land 4 quintals (6 - 2); on ‘C’ class land 2 quintals (4 - 2) of wheat. ‘D’ class land will be marginal land or no rent land. Thus, Ricardo treats rent as differential surplus i.e. surplus of produce of intra-marginal lands over that of marginal land.
(ii) Rent in Intens ive Cultivation : Intensive cultivation implies application of more and units of labour and capital on a given piece of land. Every additional unit of labour and capital yields less and less return under the influence of Law of Diminishing Returns. Consequently, a farmer will go on applying additional units of labour and capital on the given piece of land till the price of the marginal return obtained from those units is equal to their marginal cost. That unit of labour and capital whose marginal cost is equal to the marginal return is called “Marginal doe.” All units prior to this marginal dose are called intra-marginal doses. The difference in yield between these intra-marginal doses and marginal dose in rent. It is made clear in the figure below. In this figure, OX-axis represents successive units of labour and capital and OY-axis represents production. Supposing fourth unit of labour and capital, that is “marginal dose” yields 2 quintals of wheat. Thus, the intra-marginal doses will earn rent equal to 6 quintals, 4 quintals and 2 quintals respectively as shown by shaded area in the figure.
Q.4. Write notes on : (i) Full Employment Equilibrium (ii) Under-Employment Equilibrium (iii) Over-Full Employment Equilibrium (iv) Deficient Demand.
Ans : (i) Full Employment Equilibrium : This is the situation in which aggregate supply (AS) is equal to aggregate demand (AD) and no body is involuntarily unemployed in the system. All those who are able to work and willing to work at the existing wage rate are getting work. Aggregate demand in the economy is just sufficient to cope with aggregate supply when there is full utilisation of the resources including labour. Aggregate Demand (AD) is neither deficient nor excess of Aggregate Supply (AS) corresponding to full employment.
(ii) Under-employment Equilibrium : This is the situation in which equality between aggregate demand and aggregate supply is at a point less than the level of full employment. In this situation resources are not fully utilised in the economy and labour is not fully employed.
There is excess capacity in the system. But the flow of goods and services happens to be equal to their demand, so that aggregate supply is equal to aggregate demand and the equilibrium is struck. According to Keynes, this situation is caused not by the low level of aggregate supply but by the low level of aggregate demand. Because aggregate demand remains short of its full employment level, producers do not find it profitable to make fuller utilisation of resources. Thus, it is a case of dificient demand compared to its full employment level.
(iii) Over- Full Emp loyment Equilibrium : This is the situation in which resources are fully utilised in the system and labour is fully employed, but aggregate demand is in excess of its full employment level. Aggregate supply just cannot increase, because resources are already fully utilised. As a consequence, there is a greater pressure of demand on the available flow of goods and services. In such a situation, prices are bond to rise. According to Keynes, prices will rise proportionate to the rise in demand so that money value of output (AS) becomes equal to aggregate expenditure (AD). Thus, equlibrium beyond full employment only indicates increased price of output not the increased flow of goods and services. As already noted, this is caused when aggregate demand is in excess of its full employment level.
According the situation of over-full employment equilibrium is described as the one of excess demand. (iv) Deficient Demand : Deficient Demand refers to the situation when aggregate demand (AD) is short of aggregate supply (AS) corresponding to full employment in the economy.
AD < AS : Corresponding to Full Employment.
It implies two things : (a) The level of aggregate demand happens to be short of its full employment level. In order that resources are fully employed and there is 'full capacity' production, entrepreneurs would expect aggregate demand to come upto the desired level. But it may not. Accordingly, 'fullcapacity' production will not be possible, Resources will remain partly utilised including some unemployment of labour. In other words there will be involuntary unemployment. (b) The level of aggreagate demand fails to cope with the level of aggregate supply upto the point of full employment in the economy. Accordingly, aggregate supply is reduced to much the existing level of output.
Q.5. What is balanced budget ? What are its demerits ?
Ans : A Balanced Budget is that budget in which Government receipts are equal to Government expenditure.
Balanced Budget : Government Receipts = Government Expenditure
Demerits of a Balanced Budget (1) Balanced budget does not offer any solution to the problem of unemployment during depressions. (2) Balanced budget is not conducive to the growth and development programmes of the less developed countries.
Q.6. Principal objectives and performance of the fourth plan ?
Ans : The principal objectives of the Fourth Plan were: 'progressive achievement of self-reliance,' 'growth with justice' and 'balanced regional development'. Emphasis was also given to rapid industrialisation particularly development of basic and heavy industries, provision of national minimum for less privileged and weaker section and reducing inequalities of income and wealth.
In the first two years the Fourth Plan fared well with record foodgrains production and increasing industrial production. However, the last three years were a failure.
The successive monsoon failure resulted in poor foodgrains production. The industrial sector also did not fare well due to various infrastructural bottlenecks, nonavailability of raw materials and other problems. The inflationary trends from 1972 worsened the situation. The country had to tackle the influx of Bangladeshi refugees immediately before and after the 1971 Indo-Pak War.
The rise in unemployment and population explosion continued unabated. In short the Fourth Plan, though, was an ambitious plan as it aimed at an annual growth rate of 5.5 percent as against the 3.5 percent of the previous plan, failed after the mid-term.
Q.7. What are the measures needed to solve unemployment problem?
Ans : (i) Higher growth rate of economy. (i i) Faster, diversified (both region and crop wise) agr icultural growth. (iii) Development of agro based and allied industries like poultry, sericulture, pisciculture, dairy development, fisheries etc. (iv) Development and utilisation of wasteland s. (v) Strengthening ba sic hea lth and education facilities. (vi) Increased involvement of Panchayati Raj institutions
and NGOs. (v ii) Effective population con trol strategy. (viii)Impetus to R&D to develop such labour intensive technologies which may improve its quality and productivity in long run. (ix) Continuance of all centrally sponsored employment schemes with more dynamism and efficiency. (x) The strategy of direct assault on poverty through rural development and rural employment programmes is of recent origin. Poverty alleviation came to be adopted as an explicit objective of economic planning only with the Fifth Plan. Since seventies a number of special programmes for rural poor being under-taken.
Q.8. Where does National Human Rights Commission intervened recently? What are the function of the commission?
Ans : The Section 12(b) of the Protection of Human Rights Act explicitly empowers the NHRC to “intervenes in any proceeding involving any allegation of violation of human rights pending before a court with the approval of such court”. On this basis, the NHRC has intervened in the Best Bakery Case and Vadodara case.
The Best Bakery Case opened with the surfacing of the main-witness-who-turned-hostile Zaheera Sheikh. In the Best Bakery case all the 21 accused were acquitted and blamed that they were threatened and therefore, they became hostile.
NHRC and Child Labour : The NHRC has requested the Government to clearly define the term “hazardous”.
In the absence of any clear-cut definition, it has often been misinterpreted. Article 24 provides that “no child below the age of 14 year shall be employed in works in any factory or mine or engaged in any hazardous employment.” The NHRC feels that with reference to what is hazardous for the child, and not merely in relation to certain process to occupations, which at present was the approach adopted in the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1976.
The NHRC views that the provisions related to child labour must be seen in the light of UNHR Treaties and Convention on the Rights of the Child labour must be radically rethought and rewritten.
Status of Complaints
The commission while enquiring into the complaints of violations of human rights may : (i) Call for information or report from the Central government or any state Government or any other authority or organization subordinate thereto within such time as may be specified by it, provided that: If the information or report is not received within the time stipulated by the Commission it may proceed to inquiry into the complaint on its own: If, on receipt of information or report, the Commission is satisfied either that no further inquiry is required or that the required action has been initiated or taken by the concerned Government or authority, it may not proceed with the complaint and inform the complaint ac-cordingly; Without prejudice to anything contained in clause (i) if it considers necessary, having regard to the nature of the complaint, initiate an inquiry.
Steps After the inquiry
The Commission may take any of the following steps upon the completion of an enquiry under this act.
Where the inquiry discloses, the commission of violation of human rights, it may recommend to the concerned Government or authority the initiation of proceedings for prosecution or such other action as the Commission may deem fit against the concerned person or persons; Approach the Supreme Court or the High Court concerned for such direction, orders or writs as the court may deem necessary; Recommend to the concerned Government or authority for the grant of such immediate interim relief to the victim or the members of his family, as the Commission may consider necessary; Provide a copy of the inquiry report to the petitioner or his representative.
Q.9. Discuss the clauses of the modified National Water Policy 2002.
Ans : The National water Resources Council (NWRC) constituted in 1983 has made significant changes in the existing water policy of 1987 by announcing the modified National Water Policy, 2002. It provides for setting up of River Basin Organizations (RBOs) by States for the planned development and management of a river basin as a whole or sub-basins wherever necessary. The policy says that the scope and powers of river basin organizations shall be decided by the basin state themselves. The priorities, however, can be modified depending on regional considerations.
The new policy would provide a framework for individual states to evolve their own water policies backed by a two-year action plan, laying emphasis on integrated water resources development and management for optimal and sustainable utilization of the available surface and groundwater. At the same time, the Centre would also prepare an action plan to support implementation at the State level.
The policy also emphasizes for the dam safety legislation to ensure proper inspection, maintenance and surveillance. It also calls for national resettlement and rehabilitation of project affected people.The ecology has been given priority in water allocation; minimum flows in perennial streams mandated. With the passage of the inter-state Water Disputes (Amendment) Act by Parliament, it will now be possible to settle the inter-state water disputes in a time-bound manner as the Tribunals have to give their final decision within a maximum of six years.
The modified policy has also provided for participatory approach to water management, including water users associations, private sector and modern information system. Non-conventional methods of water conser- vation like rain harvesting, artificial recharge of ground water, inter-basin transfers, desalination of brackish or seawater stressed.
Q.10. What were the recommendations of the National Commission to review the constitution headed by justice M.N. Venkata Chaliah? (Specific question may be asked from any of the five heads)
Ans : 1. First-past-the-post system of elections to the Lok Sabha and to the assemblies be replaced by a twoballot system of election. 2. There should be a ceiling on election expenses. 3. Working of the political parties be regulated by law. 4. In order to ensure decriminalization on the election process, the commission wanted the 10th Schedule to be amended to debar defectors from holding public office, as also to empower the Election Commission to decide on the qualification in the matter of defections. 5. The CEC and other ECs to be appointed by a statutory panel, consisting of the Prime Minister, the leader of the opposition in the Lok Sabha, the Speaker and the Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and the leader of the opposition in the Rajya Sabha. The Chief election Commissioner (CEC) and other two Election Commissioners (ECs) be removed in the manner and grounds as a judge of the Supreme Court. 6. The CEC will be ineligible for any appointment or office under the Government after his term. 7. It also refused to endorse the idea of state funding of the elections.
Recommendations on Voting and Defection
1. In order to avoid defection the commission has suggested that for motions like a vote of confidence or no-confidence, vote of thanks to the President or Governor on a money bill, the members would cast their votes individually but the result would be decided by adding the values of ‘bloc-votes’ and not by adding the individual votes. 2. As per these provisions , every political party in the House shall have only one bloc vote. 3. In order to c urtail the discretionary power of the President, the commission clearly says that the leader of the House should be elected on the floor of the House.
Recommendation on SC/ST/BCs
In order to have deeper empowerment of the SC/ ST/BCs, the panel recommended job reservation in the private sector. The national Commission for SC/ST/BCs minorities, women, and safai karamcharis should effectively function as ombudsman for different deprived classes. It says a Tribunal for Justice in Reservation be set up to “adjudicate in all cases and disputes pertaining to reservation in post and vacancies in Government”.
The Tribunal for Justice in Reservation will have the power of High Court. Its chairperson, vice-chairperson and other members be selected on the basis of their record in the implementation of reservation in their posi-tion. Statute should have a penal provision, including imprisonment of those convicted of wilfully or negligently failing to implement reservation statute and related-constitutional amendments be brought into Ninth schedule.
The other provisions for the tribals are : (a) massive programme of employment be undertaken and expanded ; (b) establishment of residential schools for SCs and STs in every district; (c) separate schools to be set up for BCs with special attention to Most Backward Classes among BCs. (d) the proportion in these schools should be 75 per cent weaker section and 25 per cent other categories; and (e) all areas governed by the Fifth Schedule should be forthwith transferred to the Sixth Schedule extending the applicability of the Sixth Schedule to tribal areas other than north-eastern states.
On Fundamental Rights The Article 19 dealing with the Fundamental Rights should be enlarged. The commission has recommended inclusion of certain new fundamental rights like (a) freedom of the press, (b) the right to elementary education, (e) the right to education, (f) the right to compensation of a person is illegally deprived of his right of life or liberty, and (g) the right to leave and return to country, no preventive detention for more than six months.
Most significantly, the panel has suggested a right to ‘suitable rehabilitation’ for the Adivasis and Dalits if their land was to be acquired. In the light of Narmada issue, the Article 300A has to be amended to ensure that “no deprivation or acquisition of agricultural, forest and non-urban homestead land belonging to or customarily used by the SC/ST shall take place except by authority of law which provides for suitable rehabilitation scheme before taking possession of such land.
The Right to Religious Freedom has been made ‘non-suspendable’.
Other Recommendations (a ) The imposition o f Article 356 in the case of subversive activities. (b ) Decentralization, Centre-State relation and the pace of socio-economic change have been emphasized. (c) On minorities, the commission has highlighted their inadequate representation, especially of Muslims in Parliament and suggested that the Government to take appropriate measures to improve it. (d ) There should b e a provision of the rese rvation for Muslims in educational institutions with a special emphasis on Muslim girls. (e) The election of the PM by the Lok Sabha. (f) It has also recommen ded for the constitution of a National Judicial Commission (NJC), the NJC will recommend to examine complaints of deviant behavour of the Supreme Court and High Court judges.
Altogether, the NCRWS made as many as 58 recommendations involving amendments to the Constitutions, 86 involving legislative measures and 106 others which could be accomplished through executive action.
There was some disagreement amongst the members over some of the provisions. Subhas C. Kashyap
has alleged that 10 per cent of the draft report has been changed without his consent. Sumitra Kulkarni has also showed her anger over the lack of debate in the public.
Nevertheless, a proper analysis of the report can be made only after the proper publication of the report. We have to wait and see to what extent the proposed changes are compatible with requirements of globalization.
Q.11. The Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976 is the Indian Magna Carta. Discuss.
Ans : This Act made a number of important amendments in the Constitution. These amendments were mainly for purpose of giving effect to the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee.
Some of the important amendments made are for the purpose of spelling out expressly the high ideals of socialism, secularism and the integrity of the nation, to make the Directive Principles more comprehensive and giving them precedence over those Fundamental Rights which have been allowed to be relied upon to frustrate socio-economic reforms. The amendment Act also inserted a new chapter on the Fundamental Duties of citizens and made special provisions for dealing with antinational activities, whether by individuals or by associations. The judiciary provisions were also amended by providing for a requirement as to the minimum number of judges for determining question as to the constitutional validity of law and for a special majority of not less than two-third for declaring any law to be constitutionally invalid.
To reduce the mounting arrears in high Courts and to secure the speedy disposal of service matters, revenue matters and certain other matters of special importance in the context of socio-economic development and progress, this amendment Act provided for the creation of administrative and other tribunals for dealing with such matters while preserving the Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in regard to such matters under Article 136 of the Constitution. Certain modifications in the writ jurisdiction of High Courts under Article 226 were also made.
Q.12. What were the important provisions of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978.
Ans : The right to property which had been the occasion for more than one amendment of Constitution was omitted as a Fundamental Right and it was made only as a legal right. It was, however, ensured that the removal of the right to property from the list of Fundamental Rights would not affect the right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. Article 352 of the Constitution was amended to provide "armed rebellion" as one of the circumstances for declaration of emergency. Internal disturbance not amounting to armed rebellion would not be a ground for the issuance of a Proclamation. The right to personal liberty as contained in Articles 21 and 22 is further strengthened by the provision that a law for preventive detention cannot authorise, in any case, detention for a longer period than two months unless an Advi-sory board has reported that there is sufficient cases for such detention. The additional safeguard has also been provided by the requirements that Chairman of an Advisory Board shall be a serving Judge of the appropriate High Court and that the board shall be constituted in accordance with the recommendations of the Chief Justice of that High Court.
With a view to avoiding delays, Articles 132 and 134 were amended and a new Article 134A was inserted to provide that a High Court should consider the question of granting a certificate for appeal to Supreme Court immediately after the delivery of the judgement, final order or sentence concerned on the basis of an oral application by a party or, if the High Court deems fit so to do, on its own. The other amendments made by the Act are mainly for removing or correcting the distortions which came into the Constitution by reason of the amendment initiated during the period of internal emergency.
Q.13. Why The Constitution (Fifty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1987 is important for the North-Eastern states.
Ans : The Constitution (Fifty-first Amendment) Act, 1984 was enacted to provide for reservations of seats in the House of the People for Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh and also for reservation of seats for Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of Nagaland and Meghalaya by suitably amending Article 330 and 332. Even though these state are predominantly tribal, the underlaying objective of the aforesaid Act was to ensure that the members of Scheduled tribes in these areas do not fail to secure a minimal representation because of their inability to compete with the advanced sections of the people. The Constitution (Fifty-first Amendment) Act, though formally enforced, could not be fully implemented unless parallel action is taken to determine the seat which are to be reserved for Scheduled Tribes in these areas. The number of seats reserved for Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes in the Legislative Assembly of any State under Article 332 of the Constitution will have to be determined having regard to the provisions of Article 332 (3) of the Constitution. However, in view of the historical background with respect to the areas comprised in northEastern States, the circumstances obtaining in these areas in the state of development of Scheduled Tribes and other relevant considerations. It was considered necessary to provide for special arrangements with regard to the reservation for Scheduled Tribes in these areas for a temporary period so as to facilitate easy transition of these areas to the normal arrangements as envisaged in the Constitution. Article 332 of the Constitution was further amended for making a temporary provision, until the readjustment of seats on the basis of first Census after the year 2000 under Article 170 of the Constitution for these states, for the determination of the number of seats reserved for Scheduled Tribes. This amendment seeks to provide that if all the seats in the Legislative Assembly of such states in existence on the
date of coming into force of this Constitution Amendment Act are held by the members of Scheduled Tribes, all the seats except one shall be reserved for Scheduled Tribes and in any other case such number of seats as bears to the total number of seats a proportion not less than the number of members belonging to Scheduled Tribes in the existing Assembly bears to the total number of seats in the existing Assembly.
Q.14. How is the position of Legislative Council of a State inferior to the Legislative Assmbly? What is the utility of the second Chamber in a State?
Ans : It has been clear that the position of Legislative Council is inferior to that of the Legislative Assembly so much so that it may well be considered as a surplusage. The very composition of the Legislative Council,renders its position weak, being partly elected and partly nominated, and representing various interests. Its very existence depends upon the will of theLegislative Assembly, because the latter has the power to pass a resolution for the abolition of the second Chamber by making an Act of Parliament. The Council of Ministers shall be responsible onlyto the Assembly. The Council cannot reject or amend a Money Bill.
It can only withhold the Bill for a period not exceeding 14 days or make recommendations for amendments. As regards ordinary legislation (i.e., with respectto Bills other than Money Bills), too, the position of the Council is nothing but subordinate to the Assembly, for it can at most interpose a delay of four months (in two journeys) in the passage of a Bill originating in the Assembly and, in case of disagreement, the Assembly will have its way without the concurrence of the Council. In case of a Bill originating in the Council, on theother hand, the Assembly has the power of rejecting and putting an end to the Bill forthwith. It will thus be seen that the second Chamber in aState is not even a revising body like the second Chamber in the Union Parliament which can, by its dissent, bring about a deadlock, necessitating a joint sitting of both Houses to effect the passage of the bill (other than a Money Bill). Nevertheless, by reason of its composition by indirect election and nomination of persons having special knowledge, the Legislative Council commands a better calibre and even by its dilatory power, it serves to check hasty legislation by bringing to light the shortcomings or defects of any ill-considered measures.
Q.15. What are the privileges of a State Legislature?
Ans : The powers, privileges and immunities of a State Legislature are very similar to those of the Union Parliament, as the provisions of the Constitution are identical. A Bill pending in either House of the Legislatureshall not lapse by reason of prorogation of the House orHouses. It follows, therefore, that a Bill which has been passed by both the Houses of the Legislature and is pending for Governor’s assent shall not lapse. The House has an absolute privilege to prohibitthe publication of its proceedings entirely or in parts. Such part of the “proceedings” of the House ashas been directed to be expunged does not form part of the “proceedings” of the House and the publication thereof in a newspaper without the authority of the House will constitute contempt. However, the power of the Legislature to punishfor contempt and the jurisdiction of the courts in this behalf are still the subject-matter of an animated nationwide discussion.
Q. 16. How did Green Revolution bring about Grain Revolution in some parts of India? What are its limitations?
Ans.: Since the 1960’s a new strategy has been used for the intensive agricultural development in India. It has lead to a rapid increase in the production of foodgrains in the country. A revolution has taken place in the agricultural methods and technology. This revolution is known as Green Revolution. It includes the use of better quality seeds, high yielding varieties, chemical fertilizers, agricultural machinery, and to provide irrigation facilities. It has led to a complete modernisation of Indian agriculture. This strategy was introduced to do away with foodshortage and import of foodgrains. In 1965, the total production of foodgrains was 90 million tonnes. It became essential to increase the cropped area total production and yield per hectare. Wonderful results were achieved and it has increased to above 200 million tonnes. In fact green revolution has been a grain revolution. The adoption of green revolution has given a boostto agricultural development in many aspects such as:— (i) The cropped area has increased due to multiple cropping. (ii) The use of high yielding varieties of wheat and rice like Kalyan, S—308, Jaya, Ratna, etc. have led to increased yields per hectare. The yield of wheat rose from 13 quintal per hectare to 33 quintal per hectare in Punjab. In case of rice, a 45% increase in productivity was obtained in Andhra Pradesh. (iii) The use of extensive irrigation increased the total production of foodgrains. (iv) Use of chemical fertilizers led to higher yield per hectare. (v) Massive programme of farm mechanisation, use of better quality seeds, and pesticides, use of agricultural implements has led to the success of green revolution.
Limitations of green revolution in India. (1) The Green revolution has been limited in its coverage of crops, land as well as region. In case of crops the change has been confined largely to wheat. In region the green revolution has been practically limited to Punjab, Haryana and Western UP. Thus it generate inter-
regional and intra-regional disparities. (2) The new method of cultivation is risky as well as expensive. (3) The crops raised on HYV seeds are prone to damage when there is either oversupply or undersupply of water both of which happen in India owing to frequent floods or droughts. (4) ‘HYV’ of other crops were not introduced. (5) In this scheme little attention was paid to dry farming methods and minor irrigation in rural areas. (6) The majority of small farmers with on economic land holding could not take the advantage of mechanised agriculture. (7) The big farmers, with surplus capital reaped the advantages of Green Revolution. The majority of small farmers were neglected.
Q.17. Distinguish between antecedent drainage and consequent drainage.
Ans :Antecedent Drainage
1. These rivers maintain their original slope (Before the uplift), despite the rise of the land due to folding. Rivers keep on flowing in the original direction. 2. These rivers are older than the fold mountains over which these rivers flow. 3. These rivers cut deep gorges due to down cutting. 4. The transHimalayan rivers Indus, Sutlej, Kosi, represent antecedent rivers.
Consequent Drainage 1. In an uplifted area, the rivers flow in the direction resulting as a consequence of the slope. 2. These rive rs are forme d after the uplift of the area. 3. These rivers do not form gorges. 4. The rivers of the Peninsular India flow east ward, according to slope, and are consequent rivers.
Q.18. What are the causes and consequences of soil erosion.
Ans : Human and animal interference in a variety of ways lead to soil erosion. Deforestation, overgrazing of pastures, shifting cultivation, faulty method of cultivation, ruts in roads, ditches, improperly constructed terrace outlets (along which running water is concentrated) etc., are responsible for soil erosion.
Erosion due to deforestation have resu lted in chhos of Punjab and Haryana, and ravines of M.P., Rajasthan and UP. Erosion due to overgrazing is common in J&K., H.P., hilly areas of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and low rainfall areas of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Shifting cultivation is responsible for soil erosion in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura, Nagaland, Kerala, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and parts of Madhya Pradesh.
Soil erosion leads to loss of soil and badly affects the runoff. It causes : (i) heavy floods in rivers; (ii) lowering down of subsoil water level; (iii) reduction of soil fertility;(iv) silting of streams and water courses; (v) disappearance and downfall of civilisation.