SST Set - 11 (Q.17 to 33) Notes | Study Social Science (SST) Class 10 - Model Test Papers - Class 10

Class 10: SST Set - 11 (Q.17 to 33) Notes | Study Social Science (SST) Class 10 - Model Test Papers - Class 10

The document SST Set - 11 (Q.17 to 33) Notes | Study Social Science (SST) Class 10 - Model Test Papers - Class 10 is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Science (SST) Class 10 - Model Test Papers.
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Q.17. What are the instance in the becoming a national or a regional party now?

Ans : A party, for instance, could claim to be called a national party only if it has some pervasive influence or presence in certain States in the country so that it could claim the privileges that go with it. At present, it has been laid down under the Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order that a party could be recognised as a State level party and allotted a common symbol for its candidates throughout the State if it had been engaged in political activity continuously for five years and had got in a general election at least one member per 25 members of the Lok Sabha or at least one member for every 30 members of a State Assembly or it had secured not less than four per cent of the total valid votes cast in the elections in the State. If a State party satisfies these conditions in four or more State it is recognised as a national party while those satisfying the conditions in less than four States are treated  as State level parties.
The point that the Commission is now trying to make is that the four States, for instance, could be as small as Mizoram, Meghalaya, Goa or Manipur and the question is asked whether obtaining the prescribed percentage of votes in these States alone should qualify a State level party to be categorised as a national one. There is some force in the argument presented by the Commission and it has, therefore, suggested that even for recognition as a State party the percentage of votes it should get in the election should be doubled. Even this number looks somewhat insignificant considering the huge electorate but the Commission is perhaps anxious to tread cautiously. Similarly it has been proposed that if a State party is recognised as such in six or more States as against the present four then only must it get the status of a national party. This too seems to be reasonable, although both the changes are certainly going to be opposed by parties which on account of the proposed change in criteria might lose their national status. A national party has a definite advantage in that it enjoys much bigger status than what is just a State party. Many regional parties are content to style themselves as only State parties because they do not claim to have any pervasive influence over the electorate in other States. But not so the national parties which want to have their influence felt all over the country. If such parties are reduced to the level of State parties following the stiffening of norms their prestige will suffer a big blow besides ofcourse their losing certain privileges that go with their status.
At one time, there were eight national level parties and 38 State level parties recognised as such by the Symbols Order. At a time when  a large number of voters still vote on the basis of symbols which have acquired a special position in the scheme of elections, if a national party loses this privilege even to a limited extent it will certainly be placed at a great disadvantage, and this very fact might even harm its prospects in an election. It is, however, important as the Election Commission seems to belive in perventing the proliferation of frivolus parties which creates administrative problems and makes the entire system cumbersome. 


Q.18. Discuss the improvements effected in food production and yields by using ‘HYV’ seeds. What are the prospects for further improvement by pursuing the ‘HYV’ programme ?

Ans : The use of HYV seeds on a large scale started from 1966-67. During this period of the areas under HYV for food crops such as paddy, wheat, Jowar, bajra and maize rose from 18.9 lakh hectares to 745 lakh hectares in 1994-95. Foodgrain output during the period has grown from 74.2 million tonnes to 189 million tonnes in 1994-95 Although HYV seeds is only one of the inputs for agricultural production, it can be safely said that it has contributed a great deal to the enhanced output as there is now a great demand for HYV seeds from farmers.

  • The HYV project suffers from some limitations. The certified seeds of the National Seeds Corporation are not made available to all regions. The process of breeding new varieties of seeds, testing them under field conditions, certifying them and making them available is time-consuming. Adequate dissemination of HYV technology is at present confined to wheat, potato and rice.
  • As available areas for cultivation of foodgrain is limited, increase of production can only come from higher yields per hectare and therefore the HYV programme is of great importance for the future. New varieties of seeds which will be resistant to diseases and droughts and have high yields will have to be constantly evolved and brought into use.

Q.19. Distinguish between the gorge and a rift valley.

Ans : A Gorge
1. A gorge is a narrow, deep valley with steep walls formed by river in hilly areas.
2. A gorge is formed by rapid down cutting of the river bed.
3. Indus gorge, Sutlej gorge are good examples found in India.
A Rift-valley
1. It is a trough formed by sinking of land between two faults.
2. It is formed due to the forces of tension.
3. Narmada valley and Tapti valleys are rift valleys in India.

Q.20 There is a threat to biological diversity. What are the conservation efforts?

Ans : Besides natural extinction of species the disappearance of many species in recent past has largely been  due to man's destructive activities. As the forests are becoming bare, many of the plants and animal species are fast becoming to the verge of extinction. These species and varieties provide a challenge to geneticists, animal behaviourists, botanists, zoologists, economists, and many others who have a lot to learn about them and from them. About 1,143 animals comprising 71 species of mammals, 88 species of birds and 5 species of reptiles are identified as rare and endangered wild animals. Many plant species, which have forests as their sustaining source are also disappearing rapidly.
The ecological balance of flora, fauna and forests is being drastically disturbed by the rapid increase in the human population. That requires farmland and puts pressure on land and forests. Added to this are overgrazing by cattle, illicit poaching and trapping and the growing phenomena of urbanization and industrialization that destroy natural habitals. As the pressure of population growth is difficult to resist, what we need to recognize, however, is that this pressure is a transient phenomenon, whereas losing our biodiversity is permanent one. There is no way to recover lost biodivesity. Rapid economic growth can create many non-agricultural jobs and eventually relieves this pressure. Thus, even for the sake of environment, we need strong and rapid economic growth.
In order to protect and conserve the great biological diversity of our country special biosphere reserves  have been created. Special efforts are being made to preserve endangered species of wild life – birds and animals. Periodic censuses are undertaken to find out the latest position and trends in this regard. Project tiger has been a great success. Now there are 16 tiger reserves in various parts of the country. Likewise, a rhino project is being implemented in Assam. The Great Indian bastards of Rajasthan and Malwa is yet another endangered species. Even the numbers of the lion had been dwindling for a long.
India has also created a vast protected area network comprising 441 wild life sanctuaries and 80 national parks covering 4.5 percent of the total geographical area of the country, which is proposed to be increased to 5.1 percent for better protecting India's flora and fauna. Besides its potential for preserving the bio-diversity, these parks and reserves also have peoples' willingness to pay (WTP) for the benefits derived. A study conducted by IGIDR at the Sanjay Gandhi National Park shows that though constrained by income, people are willing to pay for the benefits derived from the park.
In addition to 8 biosphere reserves, 21 wetlands, 15 mangroves and four coral reefs have been identified for intensive conservation. To complement these in-situ efforts ex-situ conservation is being done through botanical gardens, zoos and other areas of wild life preservation.


Q.21.  Discuss the wild-life preservation Act.

Ans : In 1983 Government adopted the National Wildlife Action Plan that provides the framework of strategy as well as programme for conservation of wildlife. The Wildlife (protection) Act, 1972, adopted by all states except Jammu and Kashmir (which has its own act). governs wildlife conservation and protection of endangered species. Under the Act trade in rare and endangered species is prohibited. Under the convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora  and Fauna, of which India is also a signatory, export or import of endangered species and their products is subject to strict control. Commercial exploitation of such species is prohibited.
The central government provides financial assistance to states for activities related to wildlife preservation. Amendment has been made in the Wildlife (protection) Act, 1972, to make it more effective. Endangered species of plants and animals have been brought under the purview of the Act. To look after the management of zoological parks a Central Zoo Authority has notified rules for recognition of the standards for upkeep, maintenance and veterinary care of animals. The Animal Welfare Board of India, established in 1962 under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animal Act, 1960 is working for the cause of Animal Welfare in the country. Research in wildlife are carried out by the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and the Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Coimbatore.


Q.22. What are the objectives of Biosphere reserves? 

Ans : Biosphere reserves are multipurpose protected areas to preserve the genetic diversity in representative ecosystems. The objectives of biosphere reserves are: (i) to conserve diversity and integrity of plants, animals and micro-organisms; (ii) to promote research on ecological conservation and other environmental aspects; and (iii) to provide facilities for education, awareness and training. Fourteen potential sites were identified for setting up biosphere reserves in the country of which eight have been established viz, Nilgiri, Nanda Devi, Nokrek, Great Nicobar, Gulf of Manar, Manas, Sunderbans and Similipal. Others proposed to be set up are Namadpha, Kanha, Uttarakhand, Thar desert, Kaziranga and the little Rann of Kutch. Comprehensive guidelines have been prepared which emphasize on formulation of eco-development and demonstration projects,  development of database, conservation plans of key species, establishment of research stations and implementation of social welfare activites. NGOs will be involved in the biosphere reserve programme for creation of public awareness. Latest technologies like remote sensing in studying the reserves will be used.

Q.23. What is wetlands? Discuss the importance, distribution and conservation of wetlands.

Ans : Wetlands, one of the most useful resource system, are areas which are characterised by presence of water and a water saturated soil – either permanently or for a part of the year. According to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, of which India is a signatory, wetlands are areas of marshes, fens, peatland or water, natural or artificial, permanent or temporary with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or saline including areas of marined water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres.
Importance of Wetlands : Wetlands are useful in a number of ways:
(i) They are habitat of endangered and rare species of birds, animals, plants and insects; (ii) They sustain migratory birds and waters; (iii) As an ecosystem they are useful for nutrient recovery and cycling, releasing excess nitrogen, deactivating phosphates, removing toxins, chemicals and heavy metals through absorption by plants and also in the treatment of waste water; (iv) Retention of sediments by wetlands which reduces siltation of rivers; (v) Wetlands help in mitigating floods, recharging aquifers and reducing surface run-off and consequent erosion; (iv) Retention of sediment by wetlands which reduces siltation of rivers; (v) Wetlands help in mitigating floods, recharging aquifers and reducing surface run-off and consequent erosion; (vi) Mangrove wetlands act as buffer against devastating storms; (vii) Wetlands influence the microclimate of the locality in addition to checking of underground salt water intrusion on an adjacent brackish water environment through interface pressure.
Distribution of Wetlands: India has a wealth of wetland ecosystems primarily because of variability in climate conditions and changing topography. They are distributed in different geographical regions ranging from the cold arid zone of Ladakh to wet humid climate of Imphal; warm arid zone of Rajasthan to tropical monsoonic central India and wet and humid zone of southern peninsula. Most of the wetlands are directly or indirectly linked with major river systems such as Ganga, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Cauvery, Tapti, Godavari etc.
Conservation of Wetlands: To ensure conservation of wetlands which are important for ecological processes as well as for their rich flora and fauna, an International Convention was held in Ramsar (Iran) in 1971, to provide a framework for international cooperation for the conservation of wetland habitals.
In India National Wetlands Management Commitee, which advises the government on policies and measures for conservation and management of the wetlands, has identified 21 wetlands for priority action. These are: Kolleru (AP), Wullar (J&K), Chilka (Orissa), Loktak (Manipur), Bhuj (MP), Sambhar and Pichola (Rajasthan), Ashtamudi and Sasthamotta (Kerala), Harike and Kanjli (Punjab), Kabar (Bihar), Nalsarovar (Gujarat) and Sukhna (Chandigarh). Nodal research/academic institutions have been identified for each of the selected wetlands.
The action plan for wetlands development include: (i) Survey and Mapping, (ii) Soil conservation measures, (iii) Weed control, (iv) Control of silt load, (v) Pollution monitoring, (vi) Fisheries development, (vii) Notification as protected area, and (viii) Environment education and awareness for wetland conservation.


Q.24. What are Mangroves? Describe the scheme of their conservation.

Ans : Mangroves are very specialised coastal ecosystems of tropical and subtropical tidal regions of the world bordering the sheltered sea coasts and estuaries. Man groves vegetation is dominated by salt tolerant intertidal halophytic sea plants of diverse structure. They help in the production of detritus and recycling of nutrients thereby enhancing the fertility of the coastal waters to support both pelagic and benthic population of the sea. They prevent soil erosion and act as buffer for the mainland and protect it from the storms. They are also the spawning and nursery grounds for multitude of marine organisms. Mangroves occur all along the Indian coastline in sheltered estuary, tidal creeks, backwaters, salt marshes and mudlats covering a total area of 6,740 sq. km, which is about seven per cent of the world's total mangrove area.
Mangroves in India have been subject to immense biotic pressure and ruthless exploitation. Schemes for their conservation and management have been initiated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests on the advise of National Committee on Wetlands, Mangroves and Coral reefs. Based on its recommendation 15 mangrove areas have been identified for intensive conservation and management purposes. These are: Northern Andaman and Nicobar islands, Sunderbans (West Bengal), Bhitarknika (Orissa), Coringa, Godavari Delta and Krishna Estuary (AP), Mahandi Delta (Orissa), Pichavaram and Point Calimar (TN), Goa, Gulf of Kutch (Gujarat), Coondapur (Karnataka), Achra/Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) and Vembanad (Kerala).


Q.25. Discuss the origins and meaning of the Samanta system.

Ans. The origin of "Samanta System" can be traced in the beginning of the practice of granting revenue bearing lands to various sections of the people. In the beginning the term `samanta' signified smaller chieftains but with the passage of time, it came to represent both small and big chieftains, having various administrative rights in their area. The development and rise of samanta system influenced the Indian society and politics in more than one way. The central administration became weak and a type of self-sufficient village economy grew at the cost of trade and commerce.
The origins of the class represented by 'samanta' were very different. Some were government officials who were paid not in cash but by assigning revenue bearing villages. Others were defeated rajas and their supporters who remained enjoying the revenue of a limited area. Still others were hereditary chieftains and military adventurers who maintained their influence over some area. Thus, they were not created by any single source or administrative action but by different sources. Even the area of their control differed widely. Some of them enjoyed control over only a village while some others dominated a tract comprising a number of villages and some others dominated an entire region. With the passage of time, they came to acquire all the administrative functions of state in the area of their control.
Development of this form of administration led to weakening of central authority and him more and more dependent on these samantas. These chiefs discouraged internal trade which resulted in the emergence of self-sufficient village economy. At the same time, assumption of all administrative powers by these chiefs weakened village self-government. The only positive function which they provided was the safety of life and property for the population in their area.
Thus, it could be concluded that development and rise of samanta system made the Indian society and administration more and more feudalised.


Q.26. Write short notes on the following : 1. Ma-hoba 2. Madura 3. Manyakhets 4. Mandu  5. Masulipatam  6. Rantha-mbore 7. Sahasaram 

Ans : (1) Mahoba : Seat of Chandella kings. Famous for its warriors Alha and Udal who fought valiantly against Prithviraja Chauhan's bid to capture Mahoba. Rani Durgavati of Garh Katanga was a princes of Mahoba.
(2) Madura : An import kingdom prior to Vijaynagar, sounded Md. bin Tughlaq's invasion in deep south. Famous for its riches and elephants.
(3) Manyakhets : Was the capital of Rashtra Kutas, who had risen as feudetory of Chalukyas and replaced them as the rulers. The rulers were great patron of art and learning.
(4) Mandu : Capital of Malwa. Place of natural beauty. The Sultans built beautiful architecture- placing them of lofty plinth and building on massive scales, using coloured and glazed tiles. Best example of Mandu style are Jama Masjid, Hindola Mahal, Jahaz Mahal.
(5) Masulipatam : Under Golconda rules, Dutch obtained firman from its rulers to establish a trading post. Dutch wanted to use its textile production as exchange for spice from South-east Asia. It became a base of Dutch operation on eastern cost after second half of 16th century.
(6) Ranthambore : One of the most impregnable fort of India built by Rajputs. First captured by Muhammad Ghori. It was on route to Afghanistan Shah Jahan demanded its surrender in 1622 for his campaigns to re-conquer Kandhar
(7) Shasaram : Famous for Sher Shah's mausoleum, which is a marvel of Indo-Muslim architecture. Situated along the Rohtas hills near the bank of river Sone.

Q.27. “The Indian National Congress was opposed to the policy of imperialism, colonialism and fascism”. Discuss.
“India evolved its national foreign policy of opposing imperialism, colonialism and Fascism during its pre-independence days”. Elaborate.

Ans : The Indian National Congress, from its birth in 1885, opposed the use of India’s resources, in form of men and material, for the safety of British Imperialism in Asia and Africa.

  •  It supported the government of India in its war efforts during the course of World War I because the Allies declared that they were fighting the war to safeguard democracy.
  •  In February, 1927, Jawaharlal Nehru, on behalf of Indian National Congress, attended the Congress of Oppressed Nationalities at Brussels. The purpose of this Congress was to plan and coordinate the efforts of all nationals fighting against imperialism.
  • At its annual session at Madras in 1927, the Indian National Congress passed a resolution that it would not support the government in its efforts to safeguard the imperial interests of Britain.
  • In 1930, the Congress openly declared its firm opposition to imperialism. It expressed its complete sympathy with Ethiopia when it was attacked by Italy.
  • It condemned the attack of Germany over Czechoslovakia and advised the Indian people to refrain from the use of Japanese goods when in 1937, Japan attacked China.
  • In 1939, the Congress ministries in the provinces resigned from their offices as the government refused to clarify the war aims.
  • Thus, India evolved its national foreign policy of opposing imperialism, colonialism and Fascism during its pre-independence days. It always supported the cause of oppressed nationalism.

Q.28. What were the role, demands and techniques of the Moderates?

Ans :  The two terms—Moderates and Extremists—began to be used around 1904. Retrospectively, the early Congress leaders like Romesh Chandra Banerjee, Dadabhai Naoroji, Badruddin Tyabji and Rahimatulla Sayani and A. Charlu may be regarded as Moderates.

  •  In generating and consolidating political opinion, the Moderate leaders played an effective role. They articulated the demands of the English educated people for increasing share in administration and for economic relief.
  • These early Indian nationalists had firm faith in the British sense of justice. Pherozeshah Mehta and Gokhale even had divine plan in the establishment of the British rule in India because, in their view, it was for the progress of India.
  • The Moderates were gradualists and believed that with the growth of education, local self-government and political consciousness, the British would give increasing instalments of self-government to India.
  •  The political demands of the Moderate leaders included:
    •  Increase in the employment of Indians to civil services.
    • Separation of judicial and executive functions.
    •  Extension of trial by jury.
    • Expansion of membership of legislative bodies.
    • Repeal of the Sedition Act of 1898.
    • End of the oppression on 2 lakhs of Indians in South Africa (Resolution at the Calcutta Congress, 1901).
    • Expansion of education. Gokhale was, specially, interested in primary education.
    • Grant of commissions in the army and military training to the people.
  •  Although ridiculed by the Extremists, for their policy of ‘prayer, petition and please’, the Moderates did use the techniques of negotiation and bargaining in the political game. Prospectively, the technique of negotiation did have an effective role to play in the series of discussions that took place between Indian nationalists and the British rulers in 1921, 1931 and 1945-1947.
  • Thus, the Moderates made the planting of the roots of a parliamentary democracy in India possible, by the advocacy of compromise and negotiation. The techniques of sending petitions, memorials and memoranda is, certainly, a part of the democratic mechanism and process.

The political techniques of the Moderate leaders can be thus summarized:

  •  Articulation of political consciousness in the literate classes.
  • Petitioning to the authorities and holding meetings.
  • Demanding administrative reforms and the termination of anti-popular legislation like the one effectuating the partition of Bengal.
  • Using the electoral machinery to get into the Legislative Council.
  • Sending delegation to England (for example, in 1890, 1905, 1906 and later) to present the Indian point of view before the members of Parliament and the bar of the British public opinion.
  • Taking political steps for stopping the process of economic ‘drain’ and working for a prosperous India.
  • The Moderates had their base in the richer sections, the rising urban middle classes, the professionals, Government servants and the University graduates. They were conscious of the need for the expansion of job opportunities for the intelligentsia.
  • They stressed the economic aspects of political and administrative demands and criticised, at times, the wasteful expenditure and irrational taxation policy of the Government.

The economic demands of the Moderates included:

  • Equitable apportionment of  military expenditure between India and Britain Congress. Reduction of military expenditure.
  • Reforms of currency.
  • Reduction of home charges .
  • Adoption of measures for relief of agricultural indebtedness. 
  • Encouragement of technical education and promotion of Indian industries by subsidies and protection.
  • Favourable exchange ratio.

  • Abolition of salt tax.
  • Reduction of land revenue.
  • Setting up of agricultural banks.
  • Extension of irrigational facilities.
  • With the death of Gokhale on February 19, 1915, of Pherozeshah on November 5, 1915, and the Dadabhai, the grand old Bhishma of Indian politics, on June 30, 1917, Moderatism ceased to be an effective political force. Since the Bombay special session of the Congress in July 1918 the Moderates left the Congress.
  • There was no progrss in the articulatin and the aggregation of the demands of the masses under the modertes. As a matter of fact, mass mobilisation is post World War I phenomenon in ndian politics. hence the Moderate Indian leadership need not be accused of isolationism because they did not appeal to the masses.
  • The Moderates believed in common good, progress, harmony between England and India and the promotion of the general will of the educated Indians. They were neither aggressive fighters nor satyagrahis, but they stood for a sane social and political order. They dominated the Congress from 1885 to 1904 and again from 1908 to 1915. After the Surat split in 1907, the Madras Congress in 1908 formulated the objective of the congress as the realization by constitutional means of a government system “similar to that enjoyed by the self-governing members of the British Empire”. Although in the words of Gokhale, they were conscious of serving the nation more by their failures than by their successes, they did register important advances in the direction of constitutional and jural politics.

Q.29. ‘The early nationalists simply desired a larger share in the governance of the country by the Indians.’ Discuss.

Ans : The early nationalists did not think of complete independence for the country. For them, it was neither feasible nor desirable. Therefore, they demanded larger number of elected representatives in the Legislative Councils both at the Centre and the provinces and enhancement of their powers particularly control over public purse.

  •  In 1904, the Congress even demanded representation of Indians in the British House of Commons. It also asked for Indian representation in the India Council in London and in the Executive Councils at the Centre and the provinces of Bombay and Madras.
  • They desired it because they believed that it would give the Indians the desirable training in the area of self-government and the government would also be benefited by the advice of the Indian representatives in the Councils.
  • It was only when the reforms of 1892 failed to satisfy them and the government exhibited its apathy towards further reforms that they claimed for swarajya or self government within the British empire on the model of self-governing colonies like Australia and Canada.

Q.30 Do you feel that the accomplishment of the national leaders of this period are many, provided success is not measured in terms of immediate gains.’

Ans:  The early nationalists have been criticised by many scholars. Even their contemporaries, the Extremists, also criticized them on grounds of their objecives, technique and achievements. It has been said that they failed to gain anything substantial from the government. Their only accomplishment was the passing of the Act of 1892 but that too failed to satisfy, what to say of others, even the Moderates within the fold of the Congress.

  • The above statement is the correct approach regarding the accomplishments of the Moderates or early nationalists. They did not receive immediate gains but their contribution towards political and national awakening was of permanent value to India.
  • They trained the people of India in the art of political work, propagated the ideas of democracy and nationalism among them and exposed before them the evils of political and economic British imperialism. It was no mean achievement. It served as a base for a more vigorous national movement in coming years.

Q.31. What were the contribution of the 'boycoot' and ''swadesi' towards the national movement?

Ans :  The movement gave impetus to national education. It was forced as a necessity because the government had come with a heavy hand on the students and many government institutions were closed. It resulted in the opening of a large number of national schools. Afterwards national education and boycott of government schools were adopted as means of national struggle against the British and became part of the policy of the Congress.

  • The twin ideas of boycott and swadeshi pursued during the anti-partition of Bengal movement brought into prominence the great values of passive resistance as a more effective weapon than petition making. They were largely accepted by the Extremists within the Congress and, later on, Mahatma Gandhi included them in his non-cooperation movement. In fact, the non-cooperation movement was simply an enlarged image of the boycott and swadeshi movement pursued first in Bengal during its anti-partition movement days.
  • The movement awakened the political consciousness of the people at large and gave a new and definite shape to the spirit of nationalism. The emotion involved in Swadeshi aroused patriotism among the people. Its immediate results were seen in the literature of Bengal. There was a flowering of nationalist poetry, prose and journalism. The literary talents of Aurobindo Ghosh blazed forth day after day in his articles in the Bande Mataram.
  • The rise of the extremism within the congress was also one of its results. Aurobindo Ghosh, Bipin Chandra Pal and Bal Gangadhar Tilak lost faith in the methods and means of the Moderates and advocated passive resistance against the government. The efforts of the government to suppress this movement also gave impetus to the rise of militant nationalism or terrorism in India.

Q.32. “The Indian industrialist capitalist class successfully managed to mix up its class interest with the national interest.” Discuss.

Ans :

  • The Indian industrialist class entered into the political arena and started supporting the national movement during the first decade of the twentieth century.
  • It enthusiastically supported the programme of the Indian National Congress particularly that of Swadeshi and boycott of foreign goods, because it served its class interest.
  • It had no difficulty in getting recognition of its interests by the Congress. It sought protective tariff policy, favourable exchange ratio, subsidies for the growing industries etc. from the Government. The Congress gradually included all these demands in its demands before the government.
  • Thus, the Indian industrial capitalist class successfully managed to mix up its class interest with the national interest. Its cause was easily mixed up with the national movement for independence.

Q. 33. How do socio-economic disadvantages adversely affect the cognitive development of children in early years of growth?

Ans : Socio-economic disadvantage in India implies those socio-economic factors which prevent the growth of the inner potentialities of the child. Disadvantaged groups in India are therefore, those who have low socio-economic status, low income, residence in rural areas, or impoverished localities belonging to lower castes or lower level towns. Psychologists like D. Sinha and G. Misra hold that the concept of ‘disadvantage group’ in India is primarily economic in nature. The concept of disadvantaged group they hold, should be defined in terms of income or consumption level. Those falling below the poverty should form the disadvantaged group. Poverty has direct and visible impact on the child. During the initial period of his life in his childhood he has malnourished mother they get born without proper prenatal as well as postnatal care. He is malnourished, underweight and suffers from many illness. This parents are often unemployed or underemployed. The child becomes a victim of number of disabilities.  

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