Q.17. What are the instance in the becoming a national or a regional party now?
Ans : A party, for instance, could claim to be called a national party only if it has some pervasive influence or presence in certain States in the country so that it could claim the privileges that go with it. At present, it has been laid down under the Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order that a party could be recognised as a State level party and allotted a common symbol for its candidates throughout the State if it had been engaged in political activity continuously for five years and had got in a general election at least one member per 25 members of the Lok Sabha or at least one member for every 30 members of a State Assembly or it had secured not less than four per cent of the total valid votes cast in the elections in the State. If a State party satisfies these conditions in four or more State it is recognised as a national party while those satisfying the conditions in less than four States are treated as State level parties.
The point that the Commission is now trying to make is that the four States, for instance, could be as small as Mizoram, Meghalaya, Goa or Manipur and the question is asked whether obtaining the prescribed percentage of votes in these States alone should qualify a State level party to be categorised as a national one. There is some force in the argument presented by the Commission and it has, therefore, suggested that even for recognition as a State party the percentage of votes it should get in the election should be doubled. Even this number looks somewhat insignificant considering the huge electorate but the Commission is perhaps anxious to tread cautiously. Similarly it has been proposed that if a State party is recognised as such in six or more States as against the present four then only must it get the status of a national party. This too seems to be reasonable, although both the changes are certainly going to be opposed by parties which on account of the proposed change in criteria might lose their national status. A national party has a definite advantage in that it enjoys much bigger status than what is just a State party. Many regional parties are content to style themselves as only State parties because they do not claim to have any pervasive influence over the electorate in other States. But not so the national parties which want to have their influence felt all over the country. If such parties are reduced to the level of State parties following the stiffening of norms their prestige will suffer a big blow besides ofcourse their losing certain privileges that go with their status.
At one time, there were eight national level parties and 38 State level parties recognised as such by the Symbols Order. At a time when a large number of voters still vote on the basis of symbols which have acquired a special position in the scheme of elections, if a national party loses this privilege even to a limited extent it will certainly be placed at a great disadvantage, and this very fact might even harm its prospects in an election. It is, however, important as the Election Commission seems to belive in perventing the proliferation of frivolus parties which creates administrative problems and makes the entire system cumbersome.
Q.18. Discuss the improvements effected in food production and yields by using ‘HYV’ seeds. What are the prospects for further improvement by pursuing the ‘HYV’ programme ?
Ans : The use of HYV seeds on a large scale started from 1966-67. During this period of the areas under HYV for food crops such as paddy, wheat, Jowar, bajra and maize rose from 18.9 lakh hectares to 745 lakh hectares in 1994-95. Foodgrain output during the period has grown from 74.2 million tonnes to 189 million tonnes in 1994-95 Although HYV seeds is only one of the inputs for agricultural production, it can be safely said that it has contributed a great deal to the enhanced output as there is now a great demand for HYV seeds from farmers.
Q.19. Distinguish between the gorge and a rift valley.
Ans : A Gorge
1. A gorge is a narrow, deep valley with steep walls formed by river in hilly areas.
2. A gorge is formed by rapid down cutting of the river bed.
3. Indus gorge, Sutlej gorge are good examples found in India.
1. It is a trough formed by sinking of land between two faults.
2. It is formed due to the forces of tension.
3. Narmada valley and Tapti valleys are rift valleys in India.
Q.20 There is a threat to biological diversity. What are the conservation efforts?
Ans : Besides natural extinction of species the disappearance of many species in recent past has largely been due to man's destructive activities. As the forests are becoming bare, many of the plants and animal species are fast becoming to the verge of extinction. These species and varieties provide a challenge to geneticists, animal behaviourists, botanists, zoologists, economists, and many others who have a lot to learn about them and from them. About 1,143 animals comprising 71 species of mammals, 88 species of birds and 5 species of reptiles are identified as rare and endangered wild animals. Many plant species, which have forests as their sustaining source are also disappearing rapidly.
The ecological balance of flora, fauna and forests is being drastically disturbed by the rapid increase in the human population. That requires farmland and puts pressure on land and forests. Added to this are overgrazing by cattle, illicit poaching and trapping and the growing phenomena of urbanization and industrialization that destroy natural habitals. As the pressure of population growth is difficult to resist, what we need to recognize, however, is that this pressure is a transient phenomenon, whereas losing our biodiversity is permanent one. There is no way to recover lost biodivesity. Rapid economic growth can create many non-agricultural jobs and eventually relieves this pressure. Thus, even for the sake of environment, we need strong and rapid economic growth.
In order to protect and conserve the great biological diversity of our country special biosphere reserves have been created. Special efforts are being made to preserve endangered species of wild life – birds and animals. Periodic censuses are undertaken to find out the latest position and trends in this regard. Project tiger has been a great success. Now there are 16 tiger reserves in various parts of the country. Likewise, a rhino project is being implemented in Assam. The Great Indian bastards of Rajasthan and Malwa is yet another endangered species. Even the numbers of the lion had been dwindling for a long.
India has also created a vast protected area network comprising 441 wild life sanctuaries and 80 national parks covering 4.5 percent of the total geographical area of the country, which is proposed to be increased to 5.1 percent for better protecting India's flora and fauna. Besides its potential for preserving the bio-diversity, these parks and reserves also have peoples' willingness to pay (WTP) for the benefits derived. A study conducted by IGIDR at the Sanjay Gandhi National Park shows that though constrained by income, people are willing to pay for the benefits derived from the park.
In addition to 8 biosphere reserves, 21 wetlands, 15 mangroves and four coral reefs have been identified for intensive conservation. To complement these in-situ efforts ex-situ conservation is being done through botanical gardens, zoos and other areas of wild life preservation.
Q.21. Discuss the wild-life preservation Act.
Ans : In 1983 Government adopted the National Wildlife Action Plan that provides the framework of strategy as well as programme for conservation of wildlife. The Wildlife (protection) Act, 1972, adopted by all states except Jammu and Kashmir (which has its own act). governs wildlife conservation and protection of endangered species. Under the Act trade in rare and endangered species is prohibited. Under the convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, of which India is also a signatory, export or import of endangered species and their products is subject to strict control. Commercial exploitation of such species is prohibited.
The central government provides financial assistance to states for activities related to wildlife preservation. Amendment has been made in the Wildlife (protection) Act, 1972, to make it more effective. Endangered species of plants and animals have been brought under the purview of the Act. To look after the management of zoological parks a Central Zoo Authority has notified rules for recognition of the standards for upkeep, maintenance and veterinary care of animals. The Animal Welfare Board of India, established in 1962 under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animal Act, 1960 is working for the cause of Animal Welfare in the country. Research in wildlife are carried out by the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and the Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Coimbatore.
Q.22. What are the objectives of Biosphere reserves?
Ans : Biosphere reserves are multipurpose protected areas to preserve the genetic diversity in representative ecosystems. The objectives of biosphere reserves are: (i) to conserve diversity and integrity of plants, animals and micro-organisms; (ii) to promote research on ecological conservation and other environmental aspects; and (iii) to provide facilities for education, awareness and training. Fourteen potential sites were identified for setting up biosphere reserves in the country of which eight have been established viz, Nilgiri, Nanda Devi, Nokrek, Great Nicobar, Gulf of Manar, Manas, Sunderbans and Similipal. Others proposed to be set up are Namadpha, Kanha, Uttarakhand, Thar desert, Kaziranga and the little Rann of Kutch. Comprehensive guidelines have been prepared which emphasize on formulation of eco-development and demonstration projects, development of database, conservation plans of key species, establishment of research stations and implementation of social welfare activites. NGOs will be involved in the biosphere reserve programme for creation of public awareness. Latest technologies like remote sensing in studying the reserves will be used.
Q.23. What is wetlands? Discuss the importance, distribution and conservation of wetlands.
Ans : Wetlands, one of the most useful resource system, are areas which are characterised by presence of water and a water saturated soil – either permanently or for a part of the year. According to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, of which India is a signatory, wetlands are areas of marshes, fens, peatland or water, natural or artificial, permanent or temporary with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or saline including areas of marined water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres.
Importance of Wetlands : Wetlands are useful in a number of ways:
(i) They are habitat of endangered and rare species of birds, animals, plants and insects; (ii) They sustain migratory birds and waters; (iii) As an ecosystem they are useful for nutrient recovery and cycling, releasing excess nitrogen, deactivating phosphates, removing toxins, chemicals and heavy metals through absorption by plants and also in the treatment of waste water; (iv) Retention of sediments by wetlands which reduces siltation of rivers; (v) Wetlands help in mitigating floods, recharging aquifers and reducing surface run-off and consequent erosion; (iv) Retention of sediment by wetlands which reduces siltation of rivers; (v) Wetlands help in mitigating floods, recharging aquifers and reducing surface run-off and consequent erosion; (vi) Mangrove wetlands act as buffer against devastating storms; (vii) Wetlands influence the microclimate of the locality in addition to checking of underground salt water intrusion on an adjacent brackish water environment through interface pressure.
Distribution of Wetlands: India has a wealth of wetland ecosystems primarily because of variability in climate conditions and changing topography. They are distributed in different geographical regions ranging from the cold arid zone of Ladakh to wet humid climate of Imphal; warm arid zone of Rajasthan to tropical monsoonic central India and wet and humid zone of southern peninsula. Most of the wetlands are directly or indirectly linked with major river systems such as Ganga, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Cauvery, Tapti, Godavari etc.
Conservation of Wetlands: To ensure conservation of wetlands which are important for ecological processes as well as for their rich flora and fauna, an International Convention was held in Ramsar (Iran) in 1971, to provide a framework for international cooperation for the conservation of wetland habitals.
In India National Wetlands Management Commitee, which advises the government on policies and measures for conservation and management of the wetlands, has identified 21 wetlands for priority action. These are: Kolleru (AP), Wullar (J&K), Chilka (Orissa), Loktak (Manipur), Bhuj (MP), Sambhar and Pichola (Rajasthan), Ashtamudi and Sasthamotta (Kerala), Harike and Kanjli (Punjab), Kabar (Bihar), Nalsarovar (Gujarat) and Sukhna (Chandigarh). Nodal research/academic institutions have been identified for each of the selected wetlands.
The action plan for wetlands development include: (i) Survey and Mapping, (ii) Soil conservation measures, (iii) Weed control, (iv) Control of silt load, (v) Pollution monitoring, (vi) Fisheries development, (vii) Notification as protected area, and (viii) Environment education and awareness for wetland conservation.
Q.24. What are Mangroves? Describe the scheme of their conservation.
Ans : Mangroves are very specialised coastal ecosystems of tropical and subtropical tidal regions of the world bordering the sheltered sea coasts and estuaries. Man groves vegetation is dominated by salt tolerant intertidal halophytic sea plants of diverse structure. They help in the production of detritus and recycling of nutrients thereby enhancing the fertility of the coastal waters to support both pelagic and benthic population of the sea. They prevent soil erosion and act as buffer for the mainland and protect it from the storms. They are also the spawning and nursery grounds for multitude of marine organisms. Mangroves occur all along the Indian coastline in sheltered estuary, tidal creeks, backwaters, salt marshes and mudlats covering a total area of 6,740 sq. km, which is about seven per cent of the world's total mangrove area.
Mangroves in India have been subject to immense biotic pressure and ruthless exploitation. Schemes for their conservation and management have been initiated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests on the advise of National Committee on Wetlands, Mangroves and Coral reefs. Based on its recommendation 15 mangrove areas have been identified for intensive conservation and management purposes. These are: Northern Andaman and Nicobar islands, Sunderbans (West Bengal), Bhitarknika (Orissa), Coringa, Godavari Delta and Krishna Estuary (AP), Mahandi Delta (Orissa), Pichavaram and Point Calimar (TN), Goa, Gulf of Kutch (Gujarat), Coondapur (Karnataka), Achra/Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) and Vembanad (Kerala).
Q.25. Discuss the origins and meaning of the Samanta system.
Ans. The origin of "Samanta System" can be traced in the beginning of the practice of granting revenue bearing lands to various sections of the people. In the beginning the term `samanta' signified smaller chieftains but with the passage of time, it came to represent both small and big chieftains, having various administrative rights in their area. The development and rise of samanta system influenced the Indian society and politics in more than one way. The central administration became weak and a type of self-sufficient village economy grew at the cost of trade and commerce.
The origins of the class represented by 'samanta' were very different. Some were government officials who were paid not in cash but by assigning revenue bearing villages. Others were defeated rajas and their supporters who remained enjoying the revenue of a limited area. Still others were hereditary chieftains and military adventurers who maintained their influence over some area. Thus, they were not created by any single source or administrative action but by different sources. Even the area of their control differed widely. Some of them enjoyed control over only a village while some others dominated a tract comprising a number of villages and some others dominated an entire region. With the passage of time, they came to acquire all the administrative functions of state in the area of their control.
Development of this form of administration led to weakening of central authority and him more and more dependent on these samantas. These chiefs discouraged internal trade which resulted in the emergence of self-sufficient village economy. At the same time, assumption of all administrative powers by these chiefs weakened village self-government. The only positive function which they provided was the safety of life and property for the population in their area.
Thus, it could be concluded that development and rise of samanta system made the Indian society and administration more and more feudalised.
Q.26. Write short notes on the following : 1. Ma-hoba 2. Madura 3. Manyakhets 4. Mandu 5. Masulipatam 6. Rantha-mbore 7. Sahasaram
Ans : (1) Mahoba : Seat of Chandella kings. Famous for its warriors Alha and Udal who fought valiantly against Prithviraja Chauhan's bid to capture Mahoba. Rani Durgavati of Garh Katanga was a princes of Mahoba.
(2) Madura : An import kingdom prior to Vijaynagar, sounded Md. bin Tughlaq's invasion in deep south. Famous for its riches and elephants.
(3) Manyakhets : Was the capital of Rashtra Kutas, who had risen as feudetory of Chalukyas and replaced them as the rulers. The rulers were great patron of art and learning.
(4) Mandu : Capital of Malwa. Place of natural beauty. The Sultans built beautiful architecture- placing them of lofty plinth and building on massive scales, using coloured and glazed tiles. Best example of Mandu style are Jama Masjid, Hindola Mahal, Jahaz Mahal.
(5) Masulipatam : Under Golconda rules, Dutch obtained firman from its rulers to establish a trading post. Dutch wanted to use its textile production as exchange for spice from South-east Asia. It became a base of Dutch operation on eastern cost after second half of 16th century.
(6) Ranthambore : One of the most impregnable fort of India built by Rajputs. First captured by Muhammad Ghori. It was on route to Afghanistan Shah Jahan demanded its surrender in 1622 for his campaigns to re-conquer Kandhar
(7) Shasaram : Famous for Sher Shah's mausoleum, which is a marvel of Indo-Muslim architecture. Situated along the Rohtas hills near the bank of river Sone.
Q.27. “The Indian National Congress was opposed to the policy of imperialism, colonialism and fascism”. Discuss.
“India evolved its national foreign policy of opposing imperialism, colonialism and Fascism during its pre-independence days”. Elaborate.
Ans : The Indian National Congress, from its birth in 1885, opposed the use of India’s resources, in form of men and material, for the safety of British Imperialism in Asia and Africa.
Q.28. What were the role, demands and techniques of the Moderates?
Ans : The two terms—Moderates and Extremists—began to be used around 1904. Retrospectively, the early Congress leaders like Romesh Chandra Banerjee, Dadabhai Naoroji, Badruddin Tyabji and Rahimatulla Sayani and A. Charlu may be regarded as Moderates.
The political techniques of the Moderate leaders can be thus summarized:
The economic demands of the Moderates included:
Q.29. ‘The early nationalists simply desired a larger share in the governance of the country by the Indians.’ Discuss.
Ans : The early nationalists did not think of complete independence for the country. For them, it was neither feasible nor desirable. Therefore, they demanded larger number of elected representatives in the Legislative Councils both at the Centre and the provinces and enhancement of their powers particularly control over public purse.
Q.30 Do you feel that the accomplishment of the national leaders of this period are many, provided success is not measured in terms of immediate gains.’
Ans: The early nationalists have been criticised by many scholars. Even their contemporaries, the Extremists, also criticized them on grounds of their objecives, technique and achievements. It has been said that they failed to gain anything substantial from the government. Their only accomplishment was the passing of the Act of 1892 but that too failed to satisfy, what to say of others, even the Moderates within the fold of the Congress.
Q.31. What were the contribution of the 'boycoot' and ''swadesi' towards the national movement?
Ans : The movement gave impetus to national education. It was forced as a necessity because the government had come with a heavy hand on the students and many government institutions were closed. It resulted in the opening of a large number of national schools. Afterwards national education and boycott of government schools were adopted as means of national struggle against the British and became part of the policy of the Congress.
Q.32. “The Indian industrialist capitalist class successfully managed to mix up its class interest with the national interest.” Discuss.
Q. 33. How do socio-economic disadvantages adversely affect the cognitive development of children in early years of growth?
Ans : Socio-economic disadvantage in India implies those socio-economic factors which prevent the growth of the inner potentialities of the child. Disadvantaged groups in India are therefore, those who have low socio-economic status, low income, residence in rural areas, or impoverished localities belonging to lower castes or lower level towns. Psychologists like D. Sinha and G. Misra hold that the concept of ‘disadvantage group’ in India is primarily economic in nature. The concept of disadvantaged group they hold, should be defined in terms of income or consumption level. Those falling below the poverty should form the disadvantaged group. Poverty has direct and visible impact on the child. During the initial period of his life in his childhood he has malnourished mother they get born without proper prenatal as well as postnatal care. He is malnourished, underweight and suffers from many illness. This parents are often unemployed or underemployed. The child becomes a victim of number of disabilities.