Q.15. What do you understand by the term 'Doab'? Give examples from the Indian Sub-Continent.
Ans. Doab is a flood-plain formed inbetween two rivers. Doab separates two rivers but maintain a uniform character over the whole areas. Five Doabs in Punjab maintain a physical unity of the Punjab plains:
(i) Bist Jalandhar Doab — Between the Sutlej and the Beas.
(ii) Bari Doab — Between the beas and the Ravi.
(iii) Rachna Doab — Between the Ravi and the Chenab.
(iv) Chaj Doab — Between the Chenab and the Jhelum.
(v) Sind Sagar Doab — Between Jhelum-Chenab and the Indus Rivers.
Q.16. What are the causes of low productivity in agriculture in India?
Ans : Various factors responsibile for low productivity of Indian agriculture are —
(i) Because of the excessively increasing population our land resources have been used extensively thereby leading to loss of fertility of the soil.
(ii) Reckless deforestation has led to declining flora so that less humus is being added to the soil through normal process. Human deficiency is resulting in the increasing soil temperature; and hence making the pre-monsoon cropping more and more difficult. Human deficiency is resulting in the increasing soil temperature; and hence making the pre-monsoon cropping more and more difficult. Human deficiency also causes reduction in the capacity of soil to hold moisture.
(iii) Increased construction of roads, railways and canals, have disturbed the natural drainage system or normal flow of rain water thus bringing heavy floods. This results in large scale damage to kharif crops and considerable late sowing of rabi crops.
(iv) Marginal and sub-marginal lands, which are generally inferior and yield less, are being cultivated due to increasing population pressures.
(v) As a consequence of recent land reforms, land is passing (by purchase, lease or allotment) to classes which have no agricultural traditions and in most of the cases lack the necessary technical knowledge and, therefore, are inefficient farmers.
(vi) Due to soil erosion, growing salinity, aridity, alkalinity and semi-desert conditions, cultivable land is turning into barren waste.
(vii) Subsistence type of farming results into deficit agricultural economy as agriculture remains low income occupation which follows low savings, low investment and low agricultural incomes.
(viii) Uncertain and erratic rainfall, unfavourable weather conditions and pest and diseases of crops reduce crop yields.
(ix) Small, uneconomic and fragmented holdings make the use of modern methods of cultivation difficult.
(x) Traditional equipments, inadequacy and obsolete nature of tools are also a contributory factor.
(xi) Lack of organisation and leadership in Indian agriculture causes heavy erosion of resourceful talent from agriculture which considerably reduces the capacity of farming community to compete and progress.
(xii) Inadequacy of irrigation facilities, lack of and high prices of manures and fertilisers.
(xiii) Concentration of land in a few hands, below which are a large number of small and medium cultivators, result into non-utilisaiton of land to its fullest extent
(xiv) Restricted storage facilities depresses the price in market; and bad communication and imperfect marketing facilities prevent realisation of a fair price for the produce.
(xv) Inadequacy of non-farm services like provision of cheap credit and the resultant indebtedness and poverty of the peasant as well as lack of marketing facilities restrict improvement in techniques of production.
Q.17. Increase in agricutural productivity is essential. What is the basic conditions for improving productivity in agriculture?
Ans : In India the agrarian system needs reorganisation according to the present day needs and conditions on improved lines. Increased agricultural productivity is essential for the following three reasons —
(i) to supply an economic surplus that can be consumed or used for further production in agriculture or transferred out of agriculture to provide capital for industrial growth and to meet the expanding consumption needs of the urban population; (ii) to make possible the release of labour and other resources for use in non-agricultural sectors; and (iii) to increase the purchasing power of rural people, expand markets for industrial goods and help to bring about needed changes in the national income organisation.
The basic conditions for improving productivity in agriculture :
(i) reasonably more control to be applied on increasing population;
(ii) stable prices for agricultural products at a remunerative level;
(iii) adequate marketing facilities;
(iv) satisfactory system of land tenure;
(v) provision of credit on reasonable terms especially to small farmers, for improved methods of production;
(vi) provision of production requisites (fertilisers, pesticides, improved seeds, etc.) at reasonable prices;
(vii) provision of education, research and extension of agro-economic services to spread the knowledge of improved methods of farming;
(viii) the development of sources, by the State, which are beyond the powers of individual farmers, such as large-scale irrigation, land reclamation or resettlement problems;
(ix) extension of land use and intensification and utilisation of land already in use through improved and scientific methods of cultivation; and
(x) diversification of farm production i.e., besides cultivation of crops, dairy, poultry and fishing industries should be developed.
The above factors will not only help in maintaining but also in developing soil productivity to the highest practicable level thereby stabilising our agrarian economy and improving the plight of rural India.
The physical resources of soil, water and climate are sufficient to yield at least double, perhaps more than double the current production with full use of machines, chemicals, sufficient water supply and a combination of other good management practices.
Q.18. What are the main objectives of soil and water conservation scheme? What are the measures undertaken so for for the conservation of soil and water?
Ans : Launched from the very First Plan, soil and water conservation programmes are one of the essential inputs for increasing agricultural output in the country. These programmes emphasise on development of technology for problem identification, enactment of appropriate legislation and constitution of policy coordination bodies. Main objectives of the scheme in operation are —
(i) to slow the process of land erosion and degradation;
(ii) to restore degraded lands to ensure regeneration;
(iii) to improve and ensure availability of water and soil moisture;
(iv) to create micro level irrigation through water harvesting;
(v) to enhance internal fertility of soil through organic recycle.
(vi) to enlarge effective productive exploitation zone to the deeper soil profile by adopting mixed and companion farming system;
(vii) to increase aggregate bio-mass production;
(viii) to generate employment through continuous adjustments in optimum land use planning and to ensure collective security against recurring droughts and floods.
Programmes sponsored by Soil and Water Conservation Division at the national level are checking problems like water and wind erosion, degradation through water logging, salinity, ravines, torrents, shifting cultivation, coastal sands in addition to declining man-land ratio, increasing and competing demands for land, diversion of arable land and loss of productivity.
The major central/centrally sponsored schemes have been directed towards : checking premature siltation of the multipurpose reservoirs; mitigating the flood hazard in the productive plains; resettling of shifting cultivators; and restoring degraded lands.
The following measures undertaken for soil and water conservation may be noted.
1. A scheme for soil conservation in the catchments of river valley projects was launched in the Third Five Year Plan to prevent premature siltation of multipurpose reservoirs.
2. A centrally sponsored scheme for reclamation of alkali (usar) soils, launched during Seventh Plan, continues in Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. The components of the scheme include assured irrigation water, on farm development works like land levelling, deep ploughing, community drainage systems, application of soils amendment, organic manure etc. An area of 3.36 lakh hectare of land has been reclaimed upto 1993-94.
3. A scheme for control of shifting cultivation was implemented with cent percent central assistance in all the seven north-eastern states, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa till 1990-91. From 1991-92 the scheme was transferred to the state sector. The scheme has been revived for the north-eastern states only from 1994-95.
4. A scheme of Integrated Watershed Management in the catchments of flood-prone rivers was launched during the Sixth Plan in eight flood prone rivers of the Gangetic basin covering seven States and Union Territories. The scheme aims at enhancing the ability of the catchment areas to absorb larger quantity of rain water, thus reducing erosion, silting and the consequent fury of floods.
5. All India Soil and Land use Survey Organisation (AISLUSO) with its seven regional/sub-regional centres does catchment delineation and fixing of priorities for watershed development.
6. The National Land Use and Conservation Board (NLCB) is concerned primarily with national land use policy. It coordinates the work of State Land Use Board (SLUB) in preventing indiscriminate diversion of good agriculture, scientific management of land use and conservation.
Q.19. Discuss the different types of crop seasons in India.
Ans : Crop seasons in India are broadly divided into two —
(i) Kharif or the summer/rainy season, in which crops requiring more water are grown;
(ii) Rabi or winter season in which crops requiring less water are grown. The periodicity of the season usually allows two and in few cases three harvests in a year.
Kharif Crops — These crops, which require much water and a long hot weather for their growth, are sown (in June or early July) with the commencement of southwest monsoon and are harvested by the end of monsoon or autumn (September/October). The main kharif crops include rice, jowar, maize, cotton, groundnut, jute, hemp, tobacco, bajra, sugarcane, pulses, forage grasses, green vegetables, chillies, groundnuts, lady's finger etc.
Rabi Crops — These crops, grown in winter, require relatively cool climate during growth and warm climate during germination of their seeds and maturation. Therefore sowing is done in November and crops are harvested in April-May. The major rabi crops are wheat, gram and oilseeds like mustard and rape seed.
Zaid Crops — Besides these two dominant crops, a brief cropping season has been lately introduced in India mainly in irrigated areas where early-maturing crops, called zaid crops, are grown between March and June. The chief zaid crops are urad, moong, melons, water melons, cucumber, tuber vegetables etc.
Q.20. What do you know about the economic prosperity in the Gupta period.
Ans. The Gupta period maintained the momentum of past in economic development. The issuing of largest number of gold coins, the prosperity of towns and the high standard of living of the urban people and their artistic skill and aesthetic sense etc. has led historians to coin the epithet Golden Age for the Gupta period. But the real understanding and study of its economy makes it clear that it was not so. Common people was penurious. And there began urban decay, trade and commerce declined and land base became more important.
Due to the invasion of India through the north west by the new tribals, trade with the west declined. By 550 AD Romans learnt art of growing silk from China There are evidences that a guild of silk weaver of Lata moved out and left their traditional vocation.
Though the imperial rule made communication easy and even new routes of internal trade were discovered, there was perceptible decline in outside trade with the west. But trade with south east Asia prospered, but this trade could not fill the gap caused by the loss of western trade.
There grew up new towns; Benares, Mathura, Kanauj, Thanesar, Hardwar, but they were more important for strategic location rather than for trade and commerce.The ports of Tamralipti, Ghantashala, Kaduce, traded with south-East Asia, Broach,Chaul, Kalyan, Cambay traded with Mediterranean and west Asia.
But outside trade was discouraged by law makers, and they forbade a Hindu to travel by sea. This assigned lower status to the mercantile communities.In agriculture land grants to Brahmans began to be assigned in newer area. This led to expansion of agriculture and also intrusion of new people into the Hindu fold and in turn Hinduism began to be influenced by tribal culture.
There was decline of money circulation in society. Though Guptas issued the largest number of gold coins, they did not issue much of copper coins which was people’s currency. The general masses must have not been in need of such a money. This shows decline of commerce. Though Guptas issued Silver coins in western India (Gujarat) but here too common currency was not in considerable quantity.
Q. 21. Write short notes on the following : 1. Amber 2. Champaner 3. Asirgarh 4. Bayana 5. Bijapur 6. Burhanpur 7. Cambay.
Ans. 1. Amber : Modern Jaipur. The city was founded by Kachwaha Rajput rulers in the 10th century. It came into prominence during Bhara Mals regime who was the first Rajput ruler to offer her daughter to Akbar. It has a famous building "Sheesh Mahal" and several other forts.
2. Champaner :- Situated in Gujarat. During medieval period it was situated on the borders of Khandesh and Malwa. The city was brought under Gujarat's cartel by the famous Gajapati ruler "Mahmud Begarha". The city is now in ruins but architectural style of its buildings and its Jama Masjid still draws attention.
3. Asirgarh : It was situated in the kingdom of Khandesh during medieval period. Asirgarh had the strongest fort in the Deccan. Akbar conquered it in 1601.
4. Bayana :- The place is situated in U.P., near Agra. It was famous for its best quality indigo production. From this angle, the place was important for tract and commerce during medieval period.
5. Bijapur - After disintegration of Bahamani Kingdom, it became the capital of Adil Shahi Kindgom. It is famous for Gol Gumbaz and mausoleum of Muhammad Adil Shah.
6. Burhanpur: The place is situated in M.P.. It was founded by Nasir Khan of Farukhi dynasty. During his time, it was prosperous city.
7. Cambay :- A famous port town, situated in Gujarat . During medieval period it had trade links with west. Famous general of Alauddin, Malik Kafur, belonged to this place. It was famous for its prosperity.
Q.22. How ‘The Brahmo Samaj’ participated in building national sentiment among the Indians.’?
Q.23. How the Arya Samaj contributed towards arousing national consciousness?
Q.24. ‘Faced with the challenge of the intrusion of colonial culture and ideology, how an attempt to reinvigorate traditional institutions and culture was made during the nineteenth century’?
Q.25. ‘The Indian Renaissance of the 19th century failed to reach its logical culmination’. Discuss.
Q.26. “British mostly refrained themselves from taking up social legislation for the improvement of the Indian society. Yet, it has to be accepted that they initiated the process of social reform in India.”Do you agree with the view?
Thus, we find that the British mostly refrained themselves from taking up social legislation for the improvement of the Indian society. Yet, it has to be accepted that they initiated the process of social reform in India.
Q.27. Trace the development of English education in India. What was its impact?
Q.28. Show the gradual progress of the British system of education in India. What were its serious drawbacks?
Q.29. Just putting the test questions is an objective form does not necessarily render the test scientific. Comment and elucidate the characteristic of a good psychological test.
Ans : Psychological tests are structured techniques to generate a carefully selected sample of data for measuring one of the attributes in question. The sample of behaviour may be verbal and/ or non-verbal and the estimation of performance may be quantitative or/and qualitative. Singh (1982) therefore, defines “ a psychological test as a standardized procedure to measure quantitatively or qualitatively one or more than one aspect of traits by means of a sample of verbal or non-verbal behaviour”. The purpose of tests in, question compare the same individual on the same fruit or traits and compare different individuals on the same traits.
Tests have been classified on different criteria. One way of classification is on the basis of what they strive to measure. On this ground, they are divided into tests of aptitude, intelligence, attitude, memory etc.
At another level they are classified on the basis of the mode of administration. At this level they are classified as individual and group tests.
At a third level, they are classified on the basis of the mode of behaviour they intended to examine to generate data. At this level they can be classified as verbal and non-verbal tests.
At a fourth level, they are classified on the basis of the nature of items they contain. Here, they are classified into the two broad categories of psychometric tests that are those which are easily amenable to quantification while protective tests undergo content-analysis.
The above-mentioned four criteria constitute the main basis for the classification of tests with each classification based on a particular rationale. A test can be classified on all these four criteria either simultaneously or even separately. The type of classification employed depends primarily on the needs and concerns of the researcher in question.