SST Set - 13 (Q.15 to 29) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Social Science (SST) Class 10 - Model Test Papers

Class 10 : SST Set - 13 (Q.15 to 29) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

The document SST Set - 13 (Q.15 to 29) Class 10 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Science (SST) Class 10 - Model Test Papers.
All you need of Class 10 at this link: Class 10

Q.15. What do you understand by the term 'Doab'? Give examples from the Indian Sub-Continent.

Ans. Doab is a flood-plain formed inbetween two rivers. Doab separates two rivers but maintain a uniform character over the whole areas. Five Doabs in Punjab maintain a physical unity of the Punjab plains:
(i) Bist Jalandhar Doab — Between the Sutlej and the Beas.
(ii) Bari Doab — Between the beas and the Ravi.
(iii) Rachna Doab — Between the Ravi and the Chenab.
(iv) Chaj Doab — Between the Chenab and the Jhelum.
(v) Sind Sagar Doab — Between Jhelum-Chenab and the Indus Rivers. 

Q.16. What are the causes of low productivity in agriculture in India? 

Ans : Various factors responsibile for low productivity of Indian agriculture are —
(i) Because of the excessively increasing population our land resources have been used extensively thereby leading to loss of fertility of the soil.
(ii) Reckless deforestation has led to declining flora so that less humus is being added to the soil through normal process. Human deficiency is resulting in the increasing soil temperature; and hence making the pre-monsoon cropping more and more difficult. Human deficiency is resulting in the increasing soil temperature; and hence making the pre-monsoon cropping more and more difficult. Human deficiency also causes reduction in the capacity of soil to hold moisture.
(iii) Increased construction of roads, railways and canals, have disturbed the natural drainage system or normal flow of rain water thus bringing heavy floods. This results in large scale damage to kharif crops and considerable late sowing of rabi crops.
(iv) Marginal and sub-marginal lands, which are generally inferior and yield less, are being cultivated due to increasing population pressures.
(v) As a consequence of recent land reforms, land is passing (by purchase, lease or allotment) to classes which have no agricultural traditions and in most of the cases lack the necessary technical knowledge and, therefore, are inefficient farmers.
(vi) Due to soil erosion, growing salinity, aridity, alkalinity and semi-desert conditions, cultivable land is turning into barren waste.
(vii) Subsistence type of farming results into deficit agricultural economy as agriculture remains low income occupation which follows low savings, low investment and low agricultural incomes.
(viii) Uncertain and erratic rainfall, unfavourable weather conditions and pest and diseases of crops reduce crop yields.
(ix) Small, uneconomic and fragmented holdings make the use of modern methods of cultivation difficult.
(x) Traditional equipments, inadequacy and obsolete nature of tools are also a contributory factor.
(xi) Lack of organisation and leadership in Indian agriculture causes heavy erosion of resourceful talent from agriculture which considerably reduces the capacity of farming community to compete and progress.
(xii) Inadequacy of irrigation facilities, lack of and high prices of manures and fertilisers.
(xiii) Concentration of land in a few hands, below which are a large number of small and medium cultivators, result into non-utilisaiton of land to its fullest extent
(xiv) Restricted storage facilities depresses the price in market; and bad communication and imperfect marketing facilities prevent realisation of a fair price for the produce.
(xv) Inadequacy of non-farm services like provision of cheap credit and the resultant indebtedness and poverty of the peasant as well as lack of marketing facilities restrict improvement in techniques of production.

Q.17. Increase in agricutural productivity is essential. What is the basic conditions for improving productivity in agriculture?

Ans : In India the agrarian system needs reorganisation according to the present day needs and conditions on improved lines. Increased agricultural productivity is essential for the following three reasons —
(i) to supply an economic surplus that can be consumed or used for further production in agriculture or transferred out of agriculture to provide capital for industrial growth and to meet the expanding consumption needs of the urban population; (ii) to make possible the release of labour and other resources for use in non-agricultural sectors; and (iii) to increase the purchasing power of rural people, expand markets for industrial goods and help to bring about needed changes in the national income organisation.
The basic conditions for improving productivity in agriculture :
(i) reasonably more control to be applied on increasing population; 
(ii) stable prices for agricultural products at a remunerative level;
(iii) adequate marketing facilities;
(iv) satisfactory system of land tenure;
(v) provision of credit on reasonable terms especially to small farmers, for improved methods of production;
(vi) provision of production requisites (fertilisers, pesticides, improved seeds, etc.) at reasonable prices;
(vii) provision of education, research and extension of agro-economic services to spread the knowledge of improved methods of farming;
(viii) the development of sources, by the State, which are beyond the powers of individual farmers, such as large-scale irrigation, land reclamation or resettlement problems; 
(ix) extension of land use and intensification and utilisation of land already in use through improved and scientific methods of cultivation; and 
(x) diversification of farm production i.e., besides cultivation of crops, dairy, poultry and fishing industries should be developed.
 The above factors will not only help in maintaining but also in developing soil productivity to the highest practicable level thereby stabilising our agrarian economy and improving the plight of rural India.
The physical resources of soil, water and climate are sufficient to yield at least double, perhaps more than double the current production with full use of machines, chemicals, sufficient water supply and a combination of other good management practices.

Q.18. What are the main objectives of soil and water conservation scheme? What are the measures undertaken so for for the conservation of soil and water? 

Ans : Launched from the very First Plan, soil and water conservation programmes are one of the essential inputs for increasing agricultural output in the country. These programmes emphasise on development of technology for problem identification, enactment of appropriate legislation and constitution of policy coordination bodies. Main objectives of the scheme in operation are —
(i) to slow the process of land erosion and degradation;
(ii) to restore degraded lands to ensure regeneration;
(iii) to improve and ensure availability of water and soil moisture;
(iv) to create micro level irrigation through water harvesting;
(v) to enhance internal fertility of soil through organic recycle.
(vi) to enlarge effective productive exploitation zone to the deeper soil profile by adopting mixed and companion farming system;
(vii) to increase aggregate bio-mass production;
(viii) to generate employment through continuous adjustments in optimum land use planning and to ensure collective security against recurring droughts and floods.
Programmes sponsored by Soil and Water Conservation Division at the national level are checking problems like water and wind erosion, degradation through water logging, salinity, ravines, torrents, shifting cultivation, coastal sands in addition to declining man-land ratio, increasing and competing demands for land, diversion of arable land and loss of productivity.
The major central/centrally sponsored schemes have been directed towards : checking premature siltation of the multipurpose reservoirs; mitigating the flood hazard in the productive plains; resettling of shifting cultivators; and restoring degraded lands.
The following measures undertaken for soil and water conservation may be noted.
1. A scheme for soil conservation in the catchments of river valley projects was launched in the Third Five Year Plan to prevent premature siltation of multipurpose reservoirs.
2. A centrally sponsored scheme for reclamation of alkali (usar) soils, launched during Seventh Plan, continues in Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. The components of the scheme include assured irrigation water, on farm development works like land levelling, deep ploughing, community drainage systems, application of soils amendment, organic manure etc. An area of 3.36 lakh hectare of land has been reclaimed upto 1993-94.
3. A scheme for control of shifting cultivation was implemented with cent percent central assistance in all the seven north-eastern states, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa till 1990-91. From 1991-92 the scheme was transferred to the state sector. The scheme has been revived for the north-eastern states only from 1994-95.
4. A scheme of Integrated Watershed Management in the catchments of flood-prone rivers was launched during the Sixth Plan in eight flood prone rivers of the Gangetic basin covering seven States and Union Territories. The scheme aims at enhancing the ability of the catchment areas to absorb larger quantity of rain water, thus reducing erosion, silting and the consequent fury of floods.
5. All India Soil and Land use Survey Organisation (AISLUSO) with its seven regional/sub-regional centres does catchment delineation and fixing of priorities for watershed development.
6. The National Land Use and Conservation Board (NLCB) is concerned primarily with national land use policy. It coordinates the work of State Land Use Board (SLUB) in preventing indiscriminate diversion of good agriculture, scientific management of land use and conservation.

Q.19. Discuss the different types of crop seasons in India.

Ans : Crop  seasons in India are broadly divided into two — 
(i) Kharif or the summer/rainy season, in which crops requiring more water are grown; 
(ii) Rabi or winter season in which crops requiring less water are grown. The periodicity of the season usually allows two and in few cases three harvests in a year.
Kharif Crops — These crops, which require much water and a long hot weather for their growth, are sown (in June or early July) with the commencement of southwest monsoon and are harvested by the end of monsoon or autumn (September/October). The main kharif crops include rice, jowar, maize, cotton, groundnut, jute, hemp, tobacco, bajra, sugarcane, pulses, forage grasses, green vegetables, chillies, groundnuts, lady's finger etc.
Rabi Crops — These crops, grown in winter, require relatively cool climate during growth and warm climate during germination of their seeds and maturation. Therefore sowing is done in November and crops are harvested in April-May. The major rabi crops are wheat, gram and oilseeds like mustard and rape seed.
Zaid Crops — Besides these two dominant crops, a brief cropping season has been lately introduced in India mainly in irrigated areas where early-maturing crops, called zaid crops, are grown between March and June. The chief zaid crops are urad, moong, melons, water melons, cucumber, tuber vegetables etc.

Q.20. What do you know about the economic prosperity in the Gupta period.

Ans. The Gupta period maintained the momentum of past in economic development. The issuing of largest number of gold coins, the prosperity of towns and the high standard of living of the urban people and their artistic skill and aesthetic sense etc. has led historians to coin the epithet Golden Age for the Gupta period. But the real understanding and study of its economy makes it clear that it was not so. Common people was penurious. And there began urban decay, trade and commerce declined and land base became more important.
Due to the invasion of India through the north west by the new tribals, trade with the west declined. By 550 AD Romans learnt art of growing silk from China There are evidences that a guild of silk  weaver of Lata  moved out and left their traditional vocation.
Though the imperial rule made communication easy and even new routes of internal trade were discovered, there was perceptible decline in outside trade with the west. But trade with south east Asia prospered, but this trade could not fill the gap caused by the loss of western trade.
There grew up new towns; Benares, Mathura, Kanauj, Thanesar, Hardwar, but they were more important for strategic location rather than for trade and commerce.The ports of Tamralipti, Ghantashala, Kaduce, traded with south-East Asia, Broach,Chaul, Kalyan, Cambay traded with Mediterranean and west Asia.
But outside trade was discouraged by law makers, and they forbade a Hindu to travel by sea. This assigned lower status to the mercantile communities.In agriculture land grants  to Brahmans began to be assigned in newer area. This led to expansion of agriculture and also intrusion of new people into the Hindu fold and in turn Hinduism began to be influenced by tribal culture.
There was decline of money circulation in society. Though Guptas issued the largest number of gold coins, they did not issue much of copper coins which was people’s currency. The general masses must have not been in need of such a money. This shows decline of commerce. Though Guptas issued Silver coins in western India (Gujarat) but here too common currency was not in considerable quantity.

Q. 21. Write short notes on the following : 1. Amber 2. Champaner 3. Asirgarh 4. Bayana 5. Bijapur 6. Burhanpur 7. Cambay.

Ans. 1. Amber : Modern Jaipur. The city was founded by Kachwaha Rajput rulers in the 10th century. It came into prominence during Bhara Mals regime who was the first Rajput ruler to offer her daughter to Akbar. It has a famous building "Sheesh Mahal" and several other forts.
2. Champaner :- Situated in Gujarat. During medieval period it was situated on the borders of Khandesh and Malwa. The city was brought under Gujarat's cartel by the famous Gajapati ruler "Mahmud Begarha". The city is now in ruins but architectural style of its buildings and its Jama Masjid still draws attention.
3. Asirgarh : It was situated in the kingdom of Khandesh during medieval period. Asirgarh had the strongest fort in the Deccan. Akbar conquered it in 1601.
4. Bayana :- The place is situated in U.P., near Agra. It was famous for its best quality indigo production. From this angle, the place was important for tract and commerce during medieval period.
5. Bijapur - After disintegration of Bahamani Kingdom, it became the capital of Adil Shahi Kindgom. It is famous for Gol Gumbaz and mausoleum of Muhammad Adil Shah.
6. Burhanpur:  The place is situated in M.P.. It was founded by Nasir Khan of Farukhi dynasty. During his time, it was prosperous city.
7. Cambay :- A famous port town, situated in Gujarat . During medieval period it had trade links with west. Famous general of Alauddin, Malik Kafur, belonged to this place. It was famous for its prosperity.

Q.22. How ‘The Brahmo Samaj’ participated in building national sentiment among the Indians.’?

Ans :

  • It served the Indian people as part of the humanity and it remained free from sectarian attitude. It glorified the ancient culture of India, developed confidence among Indians towards their own religion and thus, participated indirectly in resurgence of Indian nationalism.
  • Keshav Chandra Sen was the first Indian who attempted to reform the society on all India basis. Taking cue from him Surendra Nath Banerjee was the first one who took up his political movement on all India basis.
  • Shiv Nath Sastri included the welfare of India and its people in the prayer of the Sadharana Brahmo Samaj. The Brahmo Samaj did not participate in the formation of national feeling directly but certainly inspired many Indians for it.
  • The cultural-ideological struggle, represented by the socio-religious movements, was an integral part of the evolving national consciousness. This was so becuase it was instrumental in bringing about the initial intellectual and cultural break which made a new vision of the future possible.

Q.23. How the Arya Samaj contributed towards arousing national consciousness?

Ans :

  • Political independence was one of the first objectives of Dayananda. Indeed, he was the first man to use the term Swaraj. He was the first to insist on people using only Swadeshi things manufactured in India and to discard foreign things. He was the first to recognise Hindi as the national language of India.
  • Many Indian national leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lajpat Rai and Gopal Krishna Gokhale were deeply influenced by the philosophy and principles of the Arya Samaj. The Arya Samaj, in fact, participated in building up personalities of many Indians who imbibed the spirit of militant Hinduism from it and participated actively in the national movement.
  • The rise of Extremism within the All India Congress was certainly because of the militant spirit of Hinduism and there is no doubt that the Arya Samaj was an active participant in it. Arya Samaj was a militant sect from the very beginning. Its chief inspiration, came from its intense patriotism.
  • There is no doubt that the Arya Samaj, by claiming superiority of Hindu religion and culture, defended the honour of the Hindus and provided them self respect and confidence which inspired national patriotism among them. Therefore, it certainly helped in building up national consciousness.

Q.24. ‘Faced with the challenge of the intrusion of colonial culture and ideology, how an attempt to reinvigorate traditional institutions and culture was made  during the nineteenth century’?

Ans :

  • The initial expression of the struggle against colonial domination manifested itself in the realm of culture as a result of the fact that the principles on which the colonial state functioned were not more retrogressive than those of the pre-colonial state.
  • All intrusions into the cultural realm were more intensely felt. Therefore, a defence of indigenous culture developed almost simultaneously with the colonial conquest.
  • This concern embraced the entire cultural existence, the way of life of all signifying practices like language, religion, art and philosophy. Two features characterized this concern: the creation of an alternate cultural-ideological system and the regeneration of traditional institutions.
  • The cultivation of vernacular languages, the creation of an alternate system of education, the efforts to regenerate Indian art and literature, the emphasis on Indian dress and food, the defence of religion and the attempts to revitalize the Indian system of medicine, the attempt to probe the potentialities of pre-colonial technology and to reconstruct traditional knowledge were some of the expressions of this concern.
  • The early inkling of this can be discerned in Raja Rammohan Roy’s debates with the Christian missionaries, in the formation and activities of Tattvabodhini Sbaha. A more definite articulation, however, was in the ideas and activities of later movements generally characterized as conservative and revivalist.
  • Strongly native in tendency, they were clearly influenced by the need to defend indigenous culture against colonial cultural hegemony. In this specific historical sense, they were not necessarily retrogressive, for underlying these efforts was the concern with the revival of the cultural personality, distorted, if not destroyed, by colonial domination. More so because it formed an integral element in the formation of national consciousness.
  •  Some of these tendencies however, were not able to transcend the limit of historical necessity and led to a sectarian and obscurantist outlook. This was possibly a consequence of the lack of integration between the cultural and political struggles, resulting incultural backwardness, despite political advance.
  • The cultural-ideological struggle was an integral part of the evolving national consciousness and of the resistance against colonial cultural and ideological hegemony. Out of this dual struggle evolved the modern cultural situation: new men, new homes and a new society.

Q.25. ‘The Indian Renaissance of the 19th century failed to reach its logical culmination’. Discuss.

Ans: 

  •  It was basically a result of reaction against western culture and the activities of the missionaries. Therefore, its basic content remained revivalism. The Brahmo Samaj, the Arya Samaj, the Rama Krishna Mission and the Aligarh Movement were basically revivalist movements and, therefore, lacked contents necessary for widespread growth.
  • The leaders of the Renaissance movements in all fields of life were mostly English educated people belonging to the upper strata of the Indian society. The movement, therefore, did not grow from below but infiltered from above. It, therefore, failed to reach the bottom of the society and affected mostly the middle classes. We find that the social and religious reforms carried out under its influence did not touch the masses.
  • The Indian society as a whole failed to move and the masses continued to suffer from social evils and religious taboos as before.
  •  The movement largely ignored or, at best, paid only scanty attention to mass-poverty and ignorance prevalent among the Indian people. Thus, it did not touch the root-evils of the Indian society. Therefore, it lost its spirit and hold over the Indian people. The Indian national movement engulfed it completely afterwards. The Indian Renaissance of the 19th century, therefore, failed to reach its logical culmination.

Q.26. “British mostly refrained themselves from taking up social legislation for the improvement of the Indian society. Yet, it has to be accepted that they initiated the process of social reform in India.”Do you agree with the view?

Ans :

  • The British remained reluctant to interfere in social affairs of the Indians most of the time.
  • They felt that any effort for social change through legislation would antagonise the general populace and thus, would be against their imperial interests.
  •  It was only during the period of governor-generalship of William Bentinck that social reform through legislation was initiated by the British.
  • The humanitarian and particularly the Christian missionaries made popular the belief that God had assigned on White Men the duty of civilising the heathens and barbaric people of Asia and Africa. Bentinck was influenced by these ideas.
  •  Bentinck was supported by a section of English educated Indians led by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Therefore, the Prevention of Sati Act was passed in 1829 during his time. It made the practice of Sati illegal in the provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. In 1830, the Act was promulgated in the provinces of Bombay and Madras also.
  •  Infanticide and human sacrifice were also declared illegal during his time. Bentinck also took serious measures against the Thugee which was practised by a large group of people as a profession. He succeeded in his efforts and the practice was eliminated.
  • During the period of Lord Dalhousie the Widows Remarriage Act was passed in 1856 by which the marriage of Hindu widows were made legal.
  • Another humanitarian measure passed during his time was the abolition of Hook-swinging ceremony during Charakpuja ceremony. The practice virtually meant suicide.
  • The policy of social legislation pursued by the British received a serious setback after the Revolt of 1857. The British were convinced that they should not risk any more by interfering in the social and religious life of the Indian people.
  • Besides, by that time, the Liberals and the Humanitarians had also lost their hold over the British society and were, no more, in a position to influence the policies of the British in India.
  • Yet, the enlightened English educated class, at times, pressed the British to pass certain laws concerning the welfare of women.
  • Among them were the Sarda Act passed in 1929 which fixed minimum age for marriage of boys to 18 and that of girls to 14. The Hindu Women’s Right to Property Act was passed in 1937 and, Maternity Benefit Act for the benefit of women working in factories was passed in 1943.
  • But these social legislations were of no revolutionary nature. They were meant to remove certain gross injustice from which the Indian women suffered.

Thus, we find that the British mostly refrained themselves from taking up social legislation for the improvement of the Indian society. Yet, it has to be accepted that they initiated the process of social reform in India.

Q.27. Trace the development of English education in India. What was its impact?

Ans :

  • In 1817, two important institutions for the study of English were established in India: the Calcutta Book Society and the Hindu College. David Hare was a member of the society and did a lot for the spread of English education. In the Hindu College, Derozio, an inspired lecturer, brought to his students the visions of Voltaire, Locke, Bacon, Hume and Tom Paine. He opened the eyes of his students to European ideas of liberty and pursuit of truth.
  •  In Madras, English education was developed by Christian Missionaries. The missionary school at Palayamcottah was begun in 1817.
  •  Bombay owes a great deal to persons like Eliphonston and the Bombay Native Education Society. By 1835 English education had spread widely and was largely welcomed by eminent Indians like Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
  •  In England there were various schools of thought regarding the educational policy to be followed in India. Ultimately the famous 1835 Resolution became the basic policy. It incorporated Lord Macaulay’s ideas preferring English to Oriental Studies.
  • The period 1835 to 1857 was the golden period of English education in India. Official policy encouraged the study of English classical literature and modern economic and political doctrines. Wood’s Despatch of 1854 laid the foundation for organising the educational system on proper lines. Its Impact
  • English education brought about a change in our traditional thinking and exposed us to European ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity. It also gave us a pan-Indian nationalism and unity which helped the leaders of the national movement. However, it also affected the traditional background of the Indian people and brought about a cleavage between the old and the new.

Q.28.  Show the gradual progress of the British system of education in India. What were its serious drawbacks?

Ans :

  • The English till 1813 took no responsibility for educating the Indians though Warren Hastings opened a Madarsa at Calcutta, Jonathan Duncan, a Sanskrit College at Banaras, and Wellesley, the Fort William College, on their personal initiatives.
  • In 1813, by the Charter Act, the British Parliament provided for an annual expenditure of rupees one lakh for educating the Indians but nothing could be done by 1835 because of the controversy between the Orientalists and the Anglicists.
  • In 1835, on the basis of Macaulay’s Minutes, Bentinck introduced the English system of education in India and the English language was made the medium of instruction.
  • Charles Wood’s Despatch on Education in 1854 emphasized the need of the education in vernacular languages and primary education; encouragement of voluntary associations for establishing schools and colleges; establishment of a department of affiliating universities in every province, such as, at Bombay, Calcutta and Madras; female education and opening of vocational and teachers’ training institutions.
  • Dalhousie attempted to carry out reforms on the basis of this Despatch and established the Universities of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay, an agriculture institute at Pusa in Calcutta and an Engineering Institute at Roorkee.
  • In 1870, the responsibility of education was transferred to provinces which had limited resources.
  • In 1882-83, the Hunter Commission recommended that primary education should be given priority, two types of High Schools, literary and vocational, be started, private enterprise be encouraged by a system of liberal grants-in-aid and female education be emphasized outside the Presidency towns.
  • The government accepted its recommendations, and teaching-cum-examining universities were started in Punjab in 1882 and at Allahabad in 1887.
  • Lord Curzon passed the Indian Universities Act in 1904 with a view to bringing the Universities and Colleges under the control of the government.
  • In 1913, the government by one of its resolutions accepted its adherence to a policy of the removal of illiteracy in India.
  • The Saddler Commission (1917-19) recommended that a twelve-year school course should be introduced. Intermediate Schools be freed from the control of the Universities, separate boards be established for High School and Intermediate Schools, the degree course be of three years’ duration, female education and scientific and technical education be emphasized and Calcutta University be handed over to the Government of Bengal.
  • The recommendations of this Commission were accepted by the government.
  • By the Act of 1919, education was transferred to the provinces and a Committee under Philip Hartog was appointed in 1929 to report on the progress of education.
  • The Hartog Committee recommended that primary education needed more attention; only deserving students should be allowed to go in for High School and Intermediate education; and, the Universities should improve their standards.
  • The Sergeant Plan of education in 1944 suggested the establishment of junior and senior basic schools, compulsory education for children between six to eleven years of age, high schools of two categories, abolition of Intermediate Schools and addition of one year both at the school and university level education.
  •  The Radhakrishnan Committee (1948-49) primarily recommended that the pre-university course should be of twelve years, University education be placed on the ‘Concurrent List’, the pay-scales of the University teachers be raised and a University Grants Commission be established.
  • The University Grants Commission was established in 1953 which now supervises the university education.

Drawbacks

  •  The system neglected the education of the masses and particularly those of females.
  • There remained lack of scientific, technical and vocational institution in India as the government paid least attention towards their establishment and growth.
  • It retarded the development of Indian languages, uprooted the educated classes from its cultural heritage and dried up the sources of inspiration and dampened original thinking and creative spirit.

Q.29. Just putting the test questions is an objective form does not necessarily render the test scientific. Comment and elucidate the characteristic of a good psychological test. 

Ans : Psychological tests are structured techniques to generate a carefully selected sample of data for measuring one of the attributes in question. The sample of behaviour may be verbal and/ or non-verbal and the estimation of performance may be quantitative or/and qualitative. Singh (1982) therefore, defines “ a psychological test as a standardized procedure to measure quantitatively or qualitatively one or more than one aspect of traits by means of a sample of verbal or non-verbal behaviour”. The purpose of tests in, question compare the same individual on the same fruit or traits and compare different individuals on the same traits.
Tests have been classified on different criteria. One way of classification is on the basis of what they strive to measure. On this ground, they are divided into tests of aptitude, intelligence, attitude, memory etc.
At another level they are classified on the basis of the mode of administration. At this level they are classified as individual and group tests.
At a third level, they are classified on the basis of the mode of behaviour they intended to examine to generate data. At this level they can be classified as verbal and non-verbal tests.
At a fourth level, they are classified on the basis of the nature of items they contain. Here, they are classified into the two broad categories of psychometric tests that are those which are easily amenable to quantification while protective tests undergo content-analysis. 
The above-mentioned four criteria constitute the main basis for the classification of tests with each  classification based on a particular rationale. A test can be classified on all these four criteria either simultaneously or even separately. The type of classification employed depends primarily on the needs and concerns of the researcher in question.

Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Complete Syllabus of Class 10

Dynamic Test

Content Category

Related Searches

pdf

,

Exam

,

SST Set - 13 (Q.15 to 29) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

video lectures

,

Sample Paper

,

Summary

,

Free

,

ppt

,

practice quizzes

,

Extra Questions

,

Important questions

,

SST Set - 13 (Q.15 to 29) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

Objective type Questions

,

mock tests for examination

,

Semester Notes

,

MCQs

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

SST Set - 13 (Q.15 to 29) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

past year papers

,

study material

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Viva Questions

;