Q.20. What is the composition of State Legislature? How is the second chamber in a State created and abolished? Which states have so far abolished the second chamber? Name the States which have bi-cameral legislature.
Q.21. What is Shifting Cultivation ?
Ans. Shifting cultivation is known variously as jhum in Assam, ponam in Kerala, podu in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, bewar, mashan, panda and beer in different parts of Madhya Pradesh. It is principally practised by tribal people.
Q.22. Name the three undulating plain in the Himalayas.
Ans : Due to erosion some high undulating plains are found in the Himalayas. Some of these are—
Q.23. What is 'Cropping Pattern'? What are the factors responsibile for it? Discuss some of the characteristic features of croppping pattern in India?
Ans : 'Cropping Pattern' is the relative proportion of cropped area under various crops in different parts of the country at a particular period of time. The choice of growing particular crop in a particular region depends on the following factors —
(i) general agricultural conditions such as soil, climate, water supply, sub-soil water table, etc;
(ii) aim of agricultural production, scale of production, size of holdings, techniques of agriculture, change in market prices, availability of transport and distance from market;
(iii) personal factors like requirements for home and family consumption, meeting cash requirements of family, meeting feed and fodder needs of the year, for maintaining soil fertility or for green manuring, seed purposes etc.
Some of the characteristic features of cropping pattern in India are —
(i) Amazing variety of crops — In Eastern India, east of 800 east longitude and in the coastal lowlands, specially the western cost, south of Goa, rice is the predominant crop. Tea and jute are the major crops of East India. West of 800 east longitude and north of Surat (where rainfall is below 100 cm) jowar, bajra, pulses, cotton and groundnut are the chief crops in the plateau; and wheat including pulses, gram, cotton, oilseeds, jowar, bajra and in irrigated areas sugarcane are all grown in the alluvial plains of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana.
(ii) Preponderance of food over non-food crops — About three-fourths of the total cropped area is under food crops. Among the food crops the chief crops grown are rice, wheat and millets with some maize and barley, occupying about 70 percent of net sown area. Pulses come next in area followed by oilseeds. Substantial area also lies under tobacco, potatoes, fruits and vegetables, tea, coffee, rubber and coconut but their share in total cropped area is relatively small.
The stone fruits, apricots, peaches, grapes, melons are found in the north in mountain and uplands.
Q.24. Discuss briefly the intensity of cropping.
Ans : One of the methods to increase the total food production is to increase the net cropped area. However, after a certain limit it is impossible to increase the net cropped area. Therefore the only way left to increase the total food production is to increase the intensity of cropping and crop yields.
Intensity of cropping means growing a number of crops on a field in one agricultural year. Suppose a farmer has 5 hectares of cultivable land on which he grows a crop during the kharif season. After harvesting the kharif crop he again grows a crop during rabi season on the same land but on 2 hectares area only. This means the farmer obtained the crops from a total of 7 hectares area (from 5 hectares are during kharif and from 2 hectares area during rabi season) though in fact he had only 5 hectares of land. Had he sown only one crop during kharif season on the 5 hectare land then the index of cropping would have been 100 percent but in the aforementioned example index of cropping will be 140 percent. Infact intensity of cropping reflects the efficiency of land use. The index of cropping is 126 percent for India as a whole but varies considerably with the states and districts. The index of cropping reached a maximum of 160 percent during 1983-84 in Punjab. It is minimum in the dry areas such as Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan and Gujarat varying between 115, 118, 116 and 109 percent respectively.
The main factor that affect the intensity of cropping include irrigation, fertilisers, variety of seeds (early maturing and high yielding), selective mechanisation such as use of tractors, pumping sets and seed drills and plant protection using herbicide, pesticide and insecticide etc. Greater cropping intensity and increase in the proportion of area sown more than once have achieved stable and higher crop yields in many parts of the country.
Q.25. What is organic farming? What are the advantages, problems and singnificance of organic farming?
Ans : Organic farming is natural farming which is based on the principles of no ploughing, no fertiliser or prepared compost, no weeding or tillage and no pest control but only sowing and harvesting and increasing the fertility of soil through biological residues. In its developed form it seeks to rely on biological processes to obtain high quality and yields which are often as good as those achieved using modern agricultural techniques.
Advantages of Organic Farming –
(i) Reduced pollution;
(ii) Less energy is used;
(iii) Since no chemical pesticides, hormones and fertilisers are used, residues from these substance are no longer a danger;
(iv) Less mechanisation is used;
(v) Less occurrence of pest incidence due to absence of fertilisers and pesticides,
(vi) Yields on par with modern farming;
(vii) Food fetches more price than that produced from modern farming; and
(viii) Is an excellent method of sustainable agriculture.
Problems of Organic Farming –
(i) Land resources can move freely from organic farming to conventional farming but the movement is not free in the reverse direction;
(ii) Loss of initial crop, while changing over to organic farming, particularly, if done quickly;
(iii) Biological controls may have been weakened or destroyed by chemicals, which may take three to four years for residues to lose their effect;
(iv) Farmers may be afraid to enter new system of farming without government support.
Significance of Organic Farming – The big challenge we are facing in agriculture today is the unsustainability of present (modern) system of agriculture. The nature and extent of the unsustainability of modern agriculture can be viewed considering the following consequences. Intensive cultivation of land without conservation of soil structure would lead ultimately to expansion of deserts. Irrigation without proper drainage would result in soils getting alkaline or saline. Indiscriminate use of pesticides, fungicide and herbicides could cause adverse changes in biological balance as well as lead to an increase in incidence of cancer and other diseases through toxic residues present in the grain or the edible parts. Unscientific tapping of underground water would lead to the rapid exhaustion of this resource left to us through ages of natural farming. The rapid replacement of a number of locally adapted varieties with one or two high yielding varieties in large contiguous area would result in spread of serious diseases capable of wiping out entire crops.
The afore mentioned realities clearly indicate the significance of organic farming–the only way for sustainable agriculture–as the only alternative to unsustainable modern agriculture practice. Organic farming promises a better and balanced environment, better food and higher living standard to masses in India. It also promises better long-term future of agriculture, because of low-cost agricultural development.
Q.26. What is jhum cultivation ?
Ans : It is an agricultural system in which a patch of forest is cleared of trees and most vegetation, to be cultivated for few years until the fertility is seriously reduced. The site is then abandoned and a fresh site is cleared elsewhere. Cleared vegetation is usually burned (slash and burn) and crops planted in the fertile ashes.
In India, variously known as jhum in Assam, ponam in Kerala, podu in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, ewar, mashan, penda and Beera in different parts of Madhya Pradesh, shifting cultivation is practised by tribal people over an estimated area of about 54 lakh hectares, about 20 lakh hectares being cleared by them (totalling more than 100 tribes) by felling and burning the forests every-year. Major crops grown are dry paddy, buck wheat, maize, small millets and sometimes even tobacco and sugarcane.
Shifting cultivation is prevalent in the forest areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. This way of exploiting rich forest soils is responsible for large scale removal of forests and soil erosion on hill slopes, and floods and the devastation due to them in the plains below. A check on this destruction of national wealth, therefore, is very essential. Considering the socio-economic aspect of this problem we must not only put a check on this type of cultivation but also educate the tribal people, who practise it, about improved methods of agriculture.
Q.27. What is dryland farming? What are the problems of dryland farming?
Ans : Approximately 70 percent of the 141.73 million hectares of arable land in India, i.e. nearly 92 million hectares of land is rainfed and depends on natural precipitation, which is often erratic and unpredictable, for crop production. Even after total irrigation potential is realised by the close of the century (2000 A.D.) there will be nearly 50 percent of the total arable land that will continue to be rainfed. Bulk of the crops like rice, jowar, bajra, other millets, pulses, oilseeds and cotton are grown in this area under rainfed conditions.
Rainfed agriculture or dryland farming is solely dependent on rain water at any crop stage. It is synonymous with non-irrigated agriculture and refers to wide range of patterns from arid to humid conditions.
Rainfed agriculture is of two types –
(i) Rainfed wetland farming is undertaken where rainfall is adequate and fairly well distributed during the crop season.
(ii) Rainfed dryland farming where agricultural activity is under low rainfall conditions which is erratic as well as concentrated in a short period. The water balance is frequently negative and moisture conservation is very essential here as compared to drainage of excess rainwater in the rainfed wetlands.
Problems of Dryland Farming – Rainfed agriculture is characterised by erratic and unpredictable rainfall. This results in wide fluctuations in production performance of crops in these areas. The soils of these areas are affected by erosion which results into poor moisture holding capacity besides impoverishment of soil in terms of nutrients. This makes the soil less productive and greater investment in terms of conservation and improvements.
Wide variety of crops are grown in these areas which are directly dependent on availability of number of growing days. These are characterised by low production and low productivity.
Q.28. Site the measures to improve production and productivity and productivity in the rainfed area.
Ans : Some of the improvements that have been introduced to increase the yield and production in the rainfed areas include soil and rainwater management; crop management; efficient cropping systems; and adoption of alternative land use systems such as the adoption of ecologically benign, economically viable, operationally feasible and socially acceptable cropping systems involving cultivation of high yielding predominant crops of different regions. Government has given high priority for the development of dryland areas and, therefore, several programmes and project have been launched for utilisation of potential of these areas for.
(i) Realising the project requirement of about 240 mt of annual food production by 2000 AD and to smoothen out fluctuation in annual production.
(ii) Reducing regional disparities between irrigated and vast rainfed areas;
(iiii) Restoring ecological balance by greening rainfed areas through appropriate mixture to trees, shrubs and grasses; and
(iv) Generating employment for rural masses and reducing large-scale migration from rural areas to already congested cities and towns. Holistic approach for integrated farming system development on watershed basis
in rainfed areas is the main plank of the development activities under the National Watershed Development project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) initiated in the Eighth Plan.
Q.29. Describe the Vedic Rituals.
Ans : The Vedic religion was pre-eminently ritualistic, and the worship of gods was looked upon as the first duty of man. For the early Vedic Aryans worship meant primarily only oblation and prayer. The recitation of sacred, but stereotyped texts was yet unknown. On the contrary, a great value was attached to the novelty of the hymns which were devoted to various deities like Indra, Agni, Varun, Soma, Savitri etc. besides a large variety of celestial beings. The worship of man made objects was a subsidiary part of the religious ritual. Hymns were dedicated to the power residing in the sacrificial implements, especially the sacrificial altar, to the stones used for pressing the soma plant to the plough.
It is not worthy that in the later Vedic period, people in general worshipped gods for the same material reasons as they did in earlier times. However, the mode of worship changed considerably. Prayers continued to be recited, but they ceased to be the dominant mode of placating the gods. Sacrifices became more important. And the function of rituals or sacrifices underwent a subtle change. Rituals became much more complicated and lengthy. Sacrifices were performed to ensure control over the rest of the tribe. Gifts were no longer given to the entire tribe. Rather the chiefs gave gifts to the Brahmanas or the performer of sacrifices who was supposed to grant super human status to the chiefs.
Vedic sacrifices no longer meant simple offering of food/ oblations into the fire. In the later period Vidhis or rules for performing the sacrifices were formulated. Every ritual act was endowed with mysterious power. A class of priests thus emerged and they became specialists in the performance of yajnas. They were called the brahma-nas who claimed a monopoly of priestly knowledge and expertise.
Q.30. Write short notes on the following :
1. Chganderi 2. Daulatabad 3. Fatehpur Sikri 4. Gaur 5. Gulbarga 6. Halebid
Ans : 1. Chanderi : It is situated in Gujarat in M.P., the place is famous for its forts and scenic beauty. Famous for its silk productions.
2. Daultabad: Presently known as Deogir. It was the capital of Yadava dynasty. Later Muhammad Tughlaq converted it into his own capital. The place is famous for Yadava ports, Chand Minar and Chinni Mahal.
3. Fatehpur Sikri : The place is situated at a distance of 23 miles from Agra in U.P.. It was developed by Akbar. It was the Mughal capital for 1584-85. It has number of famous and important buildings like Buland Darwaza, Diwan-i-Khas, Jahangiri Mahar etc.
4. Gaur : It is situated in modern Malda District. in Eastern Bengal. It was the capital of Hindu Sena Kings during medieval period. Later it was brought under Delhi Sultanate by its general Bakhtiyar Khiliji. It is famous for its Indo-Islamic style buildings. Most famous buildings are Chota Sona and Bara Sona Masjids.
5. Gulbarga : The place is situated in modern Karnataka. It was the capital of Bahmani Kingdom from 1347 to 1422 A.D.. The place is famous for its mosques and mausoleums of Hassan Gangu, Chand Bibi and Siddi Umar.
6. Halebid: It was the capital of Hoyasala Kings. The place is famous for Hoyasalesh-war temple. It was known as Dwarasamudra during medieval period.
Q.31. Discuss Nature and Impact of the Revolt of 1857.
Q.32. Discuss the causes of the failure of the revolt of 1857.
Q.33. Write short notes on :
(1) The Brahmo Samaj (2) The Paramhansa Sabha (3) The theosophical Society (4) The Ralma Krishna Mission
Ans : (1) The Brahmo Samaj came into being in 1828 as a result of the ceaseless efforts of Raja Ram Mohan Roy who had at first organised the Atmiya Sabha.
(2) The Paramhansa Sabha was founded in 1849 but its influence did not extend to a large number of people. Then Dr. Atma Ram established the Prarthana Samaj with the object of introducing rational worship and social reform.
(3) The Theosophical Society was first started in U.S.A. in 1875 by Blavatsky in conjunction with Olcott. They came to India in 1879 and set up their headquarters at Adyar (Madras). Mrs. Annie Besant enrolled herself as a member of the society in 1889. She was its chief organiser and promoter in this country and dedicated her life to its work. The aims of the Society were to rejuvenate ancient religions and lend them sufficient strength.
(4) The Rama Krishna Mission. Swami Vivekanand a seer of magnetic personality and world-famed expositor of the Hindu philosophy, founded the Rama Krishna Mission in 1889 with the object of expounding the Hindu religion of rational basis.
Q.34. Write short notes on :
(1) The Arya Samaj (2) The Rahnumai Mazdayasan (3) Christian Missionaries (4) The Gurudwara Prabandhak Committe (5) The Prarthana Samaj
Ans : (1) The Arya Samaj. Swami Dayanand who could not reconcile himself to the dogmas in the Hindu religion founded the Arya Samaj in 1875 with the object of purging it. His teachings are contained in the Satyarth Prakash and he has criticized almost all religions He desired to restore religious view of the Rig Vedic period. He was a staunch opponent of idol worship. He really did yeoman’s service to Hinduism and the wave of conversions to Christianity and Islam was checked considerably.
(2) The Rahnumai Mazdayasan. It was a Parsi organisation brought into existence in 1851 under the patronage of Dadabhai Naurojee. It did commendable service to the Parsi religion and community .
(3) Christian Missionaries. There was a great influx of Christian Missionaries in India after 1813. They came to this land with the object of carrying on proselytisation and in the beginning succeeded in converting some high caste Hindus to Christianity, but later on they diverted their attention to the depressed classes where they found much scope for their work. They succeeded in creating a small Christian community in India but the indirect effect of their activities was that the Indians began to reform their religions to checkmate exploitation of their shortcomings by the Christian Missionaries.
(4) The Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee. The Sikhs did not lag behind other communities in matters of reform. They felt that their Gurudwaras were not being managed properly and the Mahants who held their charge had given themselves up to a life of luxury. So the Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee was constituted. It was recognised by the government who transferred the control of Gurudwaras to this committee.
(4) The Prarthana Samaj opened night schools for the labourers. It also maintained a Depressed Classes Mission, a Ladies Association and an Orphanage and Founding Asylum at Pandharpur. Justice Ranade was one of its most active workers.
Q.35. Write short notes on :
(1) Bhoodan Yajna (2) Aligarh Movement (3) Arhar Movement (4) Ahmedia Movement (5) Servants of Indian Society
Ans : (1) Bhoodan Yajna. Acharya Vinoba Bhave realising the hard lot of the landless people in villages undertook to effect Agrarian revolution.
(2) Aligarh Movement—Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the pioneer of Aligarh Movement attempted to modernize the Muslims and encouraged them to get English education. The Movement made valuable contribution to the educational, social and economic progress of the Muslims. It opposed to Indian nationalism and the All India Congress because it depended on the favour of the English.
(3) Arhar Movement—The Movement was founded under the leadership of Maulana Muhammed Ali, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Hasan Imam and others. These youngmen disliked the loyalist politics of the Aligarh school. Influenced by the modern ideas they advocated active participation on the militant nationalist movement.
(4) Ahmedia Movement—This Muslim Reform Movement was launched by Mirza Ghulam Ahmed in 1899. It emphasised the universal and humanitarian character of Islam and tried to promote cordial relations among members of various communities. It started a number of schools and colleges where modern education was imparted.
(5) Servants of India Society— Founded in 1905 by Gokhale with its headquarters at Poona. It imparted welfare work for the Adivasis, Harizans, Backward classes and tribals organized the work of political education and agitation, basing it on a careful study of public questions. Created among the people a deep and passionate love of India and seeking its highest fulfilment in service and sacrifice. Promoted good will and cooperation among the different communities.
Q.36. Write short notes on :
(1) Ghadar Party (2) Red Shirts Movement (3) Satya Shodhak Samaj (4) Sri Narayana Dharma Pratipalana Yogam
Ans : (1) Ghadar Party—It was formed in 1913 in USA by Indian revolutionaries in USA and Canada. Its purpose was to wage revolutionary war against the British to India. The Ghadarists fixed 21st February, 1915 as the date for an armed revolt in the Punjab. Unfortunately, the authorities came to know of these plans and took immediate action. The rebellious regiments were disbanded and their leaders were either imprisoned or hanged.
(2) Red Shirts Movement—Inspired by the Dandi March of Gandhi, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, popularly known as the “Frontier Gandhi” organised the Society of Khudai Khidmatgars, popularly known as Red Shirts. They were pledged to non-violence and the freedom struggle.
(3) Satya Shodhak Samaj—One of the earliest movements which took up the cause of the lower castes against Brahman domination was Satya Shodak Samaj of Jyotiba Phule in Maharashtra. It insisted on the discarding of sacrodotal authority of the Brahmanas and tried to make the lower castes conscious of their rights through education.
(4) Sri Narayana Dharma Pratipalana Yogam—In the South the first step in the direction of organising a movement of lower castes was taken by the Ezhavas. Sri Narayan Guru founded the SNDP Yogam with a view to break the social taboos imposed by the Brahmanas.
Q.37. Write short notes on :
(1) Justice Movement (2) All India Depressed Classes Federation (3) Vaikom Satyagraha (4) Harijan Sevak Sangh
Ans : (1) Justice Movement—In 1915 T.N. Nair and P. Tyagaraja started the Justice Movement to service jobs and representation for the non-Brahmanas in legislature.
(2) All India Depressed Classes Federation—In 1920, B.R. Ambedkar organised this federation for the protection of depressed classes against higher castes.
(3) Vaikom Satyagraha—A satyagraha was organised in Kerala (March 1924) for the use of the temple roads by avarnas like Ezhavas and Pulayas. Many savarna organisations such as Nair Service Society, Nair Samajam and Kerala Hindu Sabha supported the Satyagraha. On 30th March, the satyagrahis led by K.P. Kesava Menon, marched towards the temple. They were arrested and sentenced to imprisonment.
(4) Harijan Sevak Sangh—In 1932 Mahatma Gandhi founded it which worked for the upliftment of the backward classes and provided necessary facilities for education, medical treatment etc. Ambedkar was also associated with their sangh. However, he was not quite happy with the activities of the Harijan Sevak Sangh and the attitude of the Indian National Congress towards the lower castes. Therefore, he withdrew from the sangh and started a fresh movement for the protection of interests of the lower castes.
Q. 38. What are the Psycho-Social factors behind drug addiction? Suggest a rehabilitation programme for the drug addicts.
Ans : Drug addiction refers to the phenomenon of drug abuse. Drug addiction implies primarily three things : psychological, dependence on the drug, physical dependence on the Drug, and increased tolerance for the drug.
Drug addiction has multiple etiology. Biological, psychosocial and socio cultural factors interest with each other to produce a drug addict. However, the recent research has shown that psychosocial factors play the most important role in drug addiction. Wingrad (1980) found that drug addicts are more rebellious, unconventional, impulsive have high need for thrill, self-seeking and low self-control. He points out that their rebellious and impulsive behavior is an outgrowth of an improper child rearing practices during the initial years of one’s life. Such children usually experience rigid discipline in the homes and any violations of this discipline were followed by severe punishment from the parent. Such child-rearing which promotes too much of restriction makes him engage in prohibitive activities to overcome the parental fear and excessive authoritarianism. They exhibit a reaction formation against the rigid parental discipline. Often, drug addicts also complain of being unloved and uncared. In such a situation, they resort to drug abuse to overcome feelings of dejection and disaffection. And once they start doing it, Bandura (1977) points out, a pattern of need arousal and need reduction mechanism gets set up which reinforces as well as sustains his drug abusive behaviour.
For rehabilitating drug addicts, a three-fold strategy need to be adoped, viz., early detection, preventive measures and direct action. Apart from this they should also be given psychosocial therapy. Their feelings of helplessness, lack of love should be helped to overcome by family members. They should also not be looked down upon. They need adequate social support also.