Q.21. What is the need for a President in a parliamentary system? Is he not merely a figurehead who has no 'functions' to discharge on his own authority?
Ans : Since India is a Republic, the Constitution provides for a President of India. The office is designed to operate and function not on the U.S. model, but more or less on the British model.
In essence, what all the President does are only functions. However, in discharging some of the functions, he has some implied powers. He exercises his discretion in summoning the leader of a party to bcome the Prime Minister. The President can summon anyone who he thinks can command the confidence of the House. Sanjiva Reddy had exercised his discretion in calling upon Charan Singh to form the Government in 1979. Another implied power of the President: He is not bound by the advice of a Prime Minister defeated in the House.
As the President is essentially a constitutional head of the Union Executive, one might question the wisdom or the need for such an office.
First, it is an essential office because the Constitution does not envisage a situation when there would not be a Prime Minister even for a single second. It is, therefore, essential to have an office and a person holding such an office to summon a leader and swear him as the Prime Minister of India.
Secondly, there are a number of functions to be discharged at the level of the nation or the State. All of them are of ceremonial nature, like receiving Heads of States, hosting them, signing Bills on behalf of Government, etc. Such and similar functions must be discharged by someone other than the Prime Minister because the tasks of the Prime Minister are immense, and far too laborious, and he cannot afford to spend his time on formal and ceremonial matters.
Thirdly, the Constitution-framers had expected that the President of India, too, would play the same role as the King of England does. (According to the British constitutional practice, the King, the Constitutional Head, has the right to warn, be informed, and to encourage the Government and the experience, and even wisdom by virtue of his stature, maturity and character. To some extent, this sort of role was fulfilled by Dr. Radhakrishnan, as President of India, during the Chinese aggression. The role of Rajendra Prasad and also those of V.V. Giri and Zail Singh became controversial.
Q.22. Descrive the legislative procedure by the state legislative.
Ans : The Legislative procedure of the State legislature having two chambers (as outlined in Art. 196 to 199) is similar to that of Parliament except in some aspects.
The position is the same as regards the money bill. The bill can be introduced only in the Assembly. The Legislative Council shall have no power except to make recommendation to the Assembly for amendments or to withhold the Bill for a period of 14 days from the date of receipt of the Bill. In any case, the will of the Assembly shall prevail, and the Assembly is not bound to accept any such recommendations. It follows that there cannot be any deadlock between the two Houses at all as regards Money Bills.
Bills other than Money Bills
If a Bill is passed by the Legislative Assembly and sent to the Council, the latter may (i) reject the Bill, or (ii) pass it with such amendments not agreeable to the Assembly, or (iii) not pass the Bill within 3 months from the time when it is laid before the Council. The Legislative Assembly many again pass the Bill with or without further amendments, and transmit the Bill to the Council again. Thus, only power of the Council is to interpose some delay in the passage of the Bill for a period of 3 months which is, of course, larger than in the case of Money Bills. Ultimately the view of the Assembly prevails and if the Bill comes to the Council for a second time, the Council shall have no power to withhold the Bill for more than a month (Art. 197).
The only difference between the procedure in a State Legislature and the Parliament relates to provisions for resolving deadlock between two House. While disagreement between the two House of the Parliament is to be resolved by a joint sitting, there is no such provision for solving difference between the two Houses of the State legislature,— in this latter case, the will of the lower House, viz., the Assembly, shall ultimately prevail and the Council shall have no more power than to interpose some delay in the passage of the Bill to which it disagrees.
Thus if on the second occasion, the council—
(i) again rejects the Bill, or (ii) proposes amendments, or (iii) does not pass it within one month of the date on which it is laid before the Council, the Bill shall be deemed to have been passed by the both Houses, and then presented to the governor for his assent (Art. 197).
The foregoing provision of the Constitution is applicable only as regards Bills originating in the Assembly. There is no corresponding provision for Bills originating on the Council. If, therefore, a Bill passed by the Council is transmitted to the Assembly and rejected by the latter, there is an end to the Bill.
When a Bill is presented before the Governor after its passage by the Houses of the legislature, it will be open to the Governor to take any of the following steps: (i) He may declare his assent to the Bill, in which case, it would become law at once; or, (ii) He may declare that he withholds his assent to the Bill, in which case the Bill fails to become a law; or, (iii) He may in the case of a Bill other than a Money Bill, return the Bill with a massage; (iv) The Governor may reserve a Bill for the consideration of the President. In one case reservation is compulsory viz., where the law in question would derogate from the powers of the High Court under the Constitution.
In the case of a Money Bill, reserved for the President's consideration, he may either declare his assent or withhold his assent. But in the case of a Bill other than a Money Bill, the President may, instead of declaring his assent or refusing it, direct the Governor to return the Bill to the Legislature for reconsideration. In the latter case, the Legislature must reconsider the Bill within six months and if it is passed again, the Bill shall be presented to the President again. But it shall not be obligatory upon the President to give his assent in this case too [Art.201]
A Bill which is reserved for the consideration of the President shall have no legal effect until the President declares his assent to it. But no time limit is imposed by the Constitution upon the President either to declare that he assents or that he withholds his assent. As a result, it would be open to the President to keep a Bill of the State legislature pending at his hands for an indefinite period of time, without expressing his mind.
There is a third alternative for the President – when a reserved Bill is presented to the President, he may, for the purpose of deciding whether he should assent to, or return the Bill, refer to the Supreme Court, under Art. 143, for its advisory opinion where any doubts as to the constitutionality of the Bill arise in the President's mind.
Q.23. What is meant by food crops and what are the salient features of the programme for managing the food economy in India?
Ans : (1) cereals (edible grains like rice and wheat)
(2) millets or coarse grains like jowar, bajra, ragi, maize
(3) pulses like gram, tur and other leguminous crops.
(1) A blend of traditional labour-intensive and energy conservative use of renewable indigenous resources with HYV technology.
(2) More emphasis on coarse grains, pulses and oilseeds in rain fed areas.
(3) Shift in cropping patterns to areas where specific crops have highest productivity.
(4) Use of energy resources arising from bio-mass processing in rural areas.
(5) Changes in land ownership and land tenure patterns to motivate the farmers towards making efforts for higher production and productivity.
Q.24. What is a dun? Give three examples from the Himalayan region.
Ans : A dun is a narrow logitudinal valley in between two parallel mountain ranges. These are formed by the deposition of sediments. The important duns formed in the Himalayas are:
(i) Dehradun, (ii) Kothridun, (iii) Pattidun
Q.25. What is a horst?
Ans : A horst is an uplifted landmass between two parallel faults. The central mass sometimes keeps standing while the adjoining areas are thrown down. It takes the shape of a block mountain or a horst. The Vosges and Vindhyas are the examples of horst.
Q.26. What is arid zone?
Ans : Arid zone are those regions which have very low annual rainfall, dry climate, high rate of evaporation and always have water deficiency.
In India, arid regions are of two types : hot arid region and cold arid region.
(i) The hot arid region of India is spread over 31.7 million hectares–61% of it is in west Rajasthan and 20% in Gujarat, the rest being in Haryana, Punjab and Karnataka. The rainfall varies from 0-40 cm.
(ii) The cold arid region is spread over Ladakh in J & K. The rainfall varies from 0.2 - 4cm. The agricultural season in the region is limited to about five months a year due to high aridity and low temperature.
In the hot arid zones the hot climate and shortage of water hampers agriculture. Only some drought resistant varieties of crops can be grown through cautious and scientific management of scarce ground water. Fruits like ber and pomegranate and fuelwood trees like acacia can be grown here. However animal husbandry involving sheep, goat, camel is best suited for this region.
In the cold arid region the problem is same. Some cereals, oilseeds and fodder crops which mature in a short period and withstand severe cold can be cultivated. Yak and pashmina goats can be best reared in these regions.
Q.27. Discuss the relationship between plant nutrients and soil fertility.
Ans : Plant Nutrients and Soil Fertility
At least 16 elements, viz, carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mb), boron (B) and chlorine (CI), are essential for normal growth of green plants and hence also called essential elements. The absence of any of these essential elements hinders the proper growth of plant and can be corrected by addition of that element, whereas excess of any of these may be toxic. Plants obtain carbon from carbon dioxide in air, oxygen and hydrogen from water, whereas the remaining elements from the soil. The plant nutrients, based on their relative amounts required by the plants, are termed as macro nutrients, if required in large amounts, and micronutrients, if required in traces. The micronutrients essential for plants are iron, manganese, copper, zinc, boron, molybdenum and chlorine. The remaining essential elements are macronutrients. Continuous cultivation of land leads to depletion of nutrients of the soil thus effecting the fertility of soil and in turn crop yields. It is thus obvious that this drain of nutrients supplies will continue to impoverish the soils unless these supplies are replenished by natural or artificial means. The principal methods of supplementing and for improving the productivity of soils are –
(i) Addition of organic matter and
(ii) application of fertilisers. The use of manures and fertilisers is complimentary and not a substitute for each other.
Q.28. List the different types of manures used in India.
Ans : These are relatively bulky materials, such as animal or green manures, which are added mainly to improve the physical conditions of the soil, to replenish and keep up its humus status, to maintain the optimum conditions for the activities of soil micro-organisms and make good a small part of the plant nutrients removed by crops or otherwise lost through leaching and soil erosion. They, thus, supply practically all the elements of fertility which crops require, though not in adequate proportions. Moreover they are bulky with low nutrient with the high and rapid nutrient demand of HYV and hybrid crops.
Farmyard manure – It is the most valuable and commonly used orgainc manure in India. It consists of a mixture of cattle dung, the bedding used in the stable and any remnants of straw and plant stalks fed to cattle. The value of farmyard manure in soil improvement is due to its content of principal nutritive elements and its ability to –
(i) Improve the soil tilth and aeration,
(ii) Increase the water-holding capacity of the soil, and
(iii) Stimulate the activity of micro-organisms that make the plant-food elements in the soil readily available to crops. The supply of organic matter, which is later converted into humus, is a property of farmyard manure.
Composted manure – Another method of augmenting the supplies of organic matter is the preparation of compost from farmhouse and cattle&shed wastes of all types. Composting is the process of decomposing vegetable and animal refuse (rural or urban) to a quickly utilizable condition for improving and maintaining soil fertility. Good organic manure similar in appearance and fertilizing value to cattle manure can be produced by decomposing waste materials of various kinds, such as cereal straws, crop stubble, cotton stalks, groundnut husk, farm veeds and grasses, leaves, leaf-mould, house-refuse, wood ashes, litter, urine-soaked earth from cattle-sheds and other similar substances.
Green manures – Green-manuring, wherever feasible, is the principal supplementary means of adding organic matter to the soil. It involves growing of a quick growing crop and ploughing it under to incorporate it into the soil. The green-manure crop supplies organic matter as well as additional nitrogen, particularly if it is a legume crop which has the ability to acquire nitrogen from the air with the help of its rot-nodule bacteria.
The green-manure crops also exercise a protective action against erosion and leaching. The crops most commonly used for green-manuring in this country are sun hemp, dhaincha, cluster bean, senji, cowpea, horse gram, pillipesara, berseem or Egyptian clover and lentil.
Sewage and Sludge – The liquid waste, like sullage and sewage contain large quantities of plant nutrients
Q.29. What are bio-fertilisers? What are its components and ingredients?
Ans : Biofertilisers are natural fertilisers. They are the preparation of efficient of strains of micro-organisms capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen into available form, solubilisng insoluble phosphate, producing growth promoting substances like vitamins and hormones and also play considerable role in decomposition of organic materials and enrichment of compost. Though biofertiliser cannot replace chemical fertiliser it can supplement it considerably.
Biofertilisers include the following –
(i) Symbiotic nitrogen fixer e.g. Rhizobium spp;
(ii) Asymbiotic free nitrogen fixers eg. Azotobacter, Azospirillum etc;
(iii) Algae biofertilisers eg. blue green algae or BGA in association with Azolla;
(iv) phosphate solubilising bacteria eg. Bacillus megatherium, Aspergillus awamori, Penicillum digitatum;
(v) Mycorrhizae (it is a symbiotic association of fungi with roots of plants);
(vi) organic fertilisers (organic waste resources which include animal dung, urine, bone-meal, slaughter house wastes, crop residues, urban garbage, sewage/effluent etc.)
Rhizobium is useful for leguminous plants, Blue Green Algae for paddy and Azotobacter and Azospirillum for cereal crops. Biofertilisers enhance soil structure and texture, water holding capacity, supply of nutrients and proliferate beneficial micro-organisms. They are cheaper, pollution free and renewable.
In March 1993, Ministry of Agriculture launched a scheme National Project on Development and Use of Biofertilisers with a view to produce, distribute and promote biofertilisers' use. Under the scheme National Biofertiliser Development Centre has been established at Ghaziabad (UP) alongwith six regional centres at Bangalore, Bhubaneswar, Hissar, Imphal, Jabalpur and Nagpur.
Q.30. Give the pros and cons of mechanisation of agriculture?
Ans : Meaning – Mechanisation of agriculture refers to extensive application of power driven machinery to agricultural operations starting from opening of land to sowing, harvesting, threshing winnowing and storage stage. The machinery used includes bulldozers, graders, tractors for ploughing, seed drills for sowing, cultivators, rollers, fertiliser distributors, combined harvesters for reaping and harvesting and other light farm machinery.
Need for Mechanisation – Mechanisation of agriculture is often associated with increase in agricultural production and reduction in costs. It is also useful in reclaiming barren lands. Thus the prosperity and richness of the peasantry in the western countries have been due, largely, to extensive use of farm machinery as agriculture there is commercialised and only a small proportion of the population is engaged in it.
Whereas in India the case is completely different because here agriculture is a way of life and a means of livelihood. Of the total work force in India, 67 percent are agricultural workers of which 31 percent are women. Therefore, in India some regard mechanisation of agriculture as desirable and necessary and other are against it.
For Mechanisation of Indian Agriculture
(i) Machinery increases speed of agricultural operations and thus saves time.
(ii) Machinery helps in performing heavy works like ploughing, land reclamation, carrying of earth, jungle clearance, drainage, cane crushing, oil extraction, thus reducing drudgery.
(iii) Reduces cost of production
(iv) Increase productivity of land and labour thus increasing total agricultural production to meet the demand.
(v) Increase income level of farmers.
Against Mechanisation of Indian Agriculture
(i) Mechanisation will aggravate the unemployment problem by creating surplus agriculture labour; but it can be more than offset by indirect increase in employment opportunities caused by the introduction of a machine.
(ii) Availability of adequate land is essential to adopt mechanisation, but in India majority of land holdings are small and scattered.
(iii) Widespread illiteracy, ignorance and poverty of farmers prevents them from adopting mechanisation on an extensive scale.
(iv) High fuel prices and shortage of mineral oil prevents Indians to use extensive oil based farm machinery.
(v) India does not have an adequate machine manufacturing capacity and there is a scarcity of mechanical skill. This argument is not sound. The domestic industrial capacity is gradually building up; the argument of non-availability of skill also does no seem to be true.
Selective Mechanisation – Farm mechanisation in India is inevitable for reclamation of land, conservation of forest land, ploughing of barren lands etc. Besides increasing the agricultural production and removing socio-economical disparity among the farmers. However, small size of the holdings and large surplus of labour in India call for limited or selective mechanisation (such as use of machines suitable for small farm and large cooperative farms) so that the labour displacement effects are minimised.
The policy of selective mechanisation has been great success in absolute terms especially in states of Punjab and Haryana, but does not compare well with advanced countries and with the size of Indian agricultural sector. Moreover, whatever mechanisation has taken place in Indian agriculture is largely confined to the richer farmers. The small farmers who constitute the overwhelming majority of Indian farming population remain by and large untouched by the process of mechanisation.
Q.31. Describe the architectural and artistic features of the great stupa at Sanchi.
Ans : The great stupa at Sanchi (in Madhya Pradesh) is believed to have been built by Asoka and therefore dated back to the third century B.C.
In the 2nd century B.C., the old Sanchi stupa was enlarged to twice its original size. The diameter of the present stupa is 121 feet, the height about 77 feet, and the massive stone railing which encloses it is 11 feet high. The older railings were wooden structures. Finally towards the end of the Ist Century B.C. four glorious gateways (torana) were added at the four cardinal points.
The great stupa consists of an almost hemispherical dome, truncated near the top, and surrounded at its base by a lofty terrace which served as a procession path, access to which was provided by a double flight of steps built against it on the southern side. Encircling the monument on the ground level is a second procession path, enclosed by a massive balustrade of stone, which is of plain design unrelieved by carvings of any kind and is divided into four quadrants by entrances set approximately at the cardinal points. Each point is adorned by a gateway lavishly enriched with relief on both the inner and outer sides. These are more noteworthy for their carved ornamentation than their architecture. Each consists of two square columns, above which are three curved architraves supported by animals or dwarfs. The construction of the gateways, from the technical point of view is primitive. The finish, on the other hand, is remarkably good, and the carvings are among the most fresh and vigorous products of the Indian sculptor.
The gateways are full of sculptures, illustrating the Jataka stories and various episodes in the life of Gautam Buddha. They represent the religious faiths and beliefs, the dress, costumes and manners. The individual figures, the method of their grouping, mode of expression and decorative elements all show a high standard of technical skill and artistic conception. Human figures are elegantly carved and shown in various difficult moods and poses. The sculptors of Sanchi are throughout inspired by a high sense of beauty, rhythm, and symmetry, and possess the difficult art of telling a complicated story in a simple, lucid way. As at Bharhut, we find here at Sanchi a wonderful panorama of scenes of daily life and concrete illustrations of faith, hope and ideals, though as a rule these are more complex and varied in character, showing a more intelligent appreciation of the facts and view of life.
Q.32. Write short notes on the following : 1. Hampi 2. Jalor 3. Kabul 4. Kalinjar 5. Kanauj 6. Lahore 7. Multan 8. Murshidabad
Ans : 1. Hampi : Hampi was a prosperous town under Vijay Nagar empire. Famous for the monumental remains of the Vijay Nagar Kingdom.
2. Jalor : It is situated in Rajasthan. It was the capital of Rajput rulers which came under Mughal control. Famous for its strong Forts.
3. Kabul : Situated in Afghanistan, the place had strategic importance for the defence of India. It was brought under Indian control temporarily by Akbar, vital place for inland trade.
4. Kalinjar : It is situated in Banda District. of U.P. The place is famous for its strong forts. Mahmud Ghori had humiliated the city twice. It was here that Sher Shah received fatal wound in gun explosion
5. Kanauj: It is situated in Farukhabad District. of U.P. It was the capital of King Harsha. After this the place became a symbol of mastery over northern India. It was the bone of contention between the rulers of Pala, Rashtrakuta and Partihara dynasty.
6. Lahore:- Now the place is situated in Pakistan. Akbar had stayed here for twelve years. Famous for its strong forts and Shalimar bagh.
7. Multan : Situated in Afghanistan. Plaed very important role in the struggle for mastery over Asia and India. During Shah Jahan regime the place was attacked by Mughal army.
8. Murshidabad- A District place in Bengal which is situated on the bank of Bhagirathi. It was founded by Bengal Nawab Murshid Kuli Khan in 1704 A.D. and remained the capital of Bengal till 1763. The place was famous for its fine quality muslin and cotton textile production.
Q.33. Discuss briefly the following schools of paintings :
(1) Kisangarh Style (2) The Kangra School (3) Kalighat Paintings (4) Pahari School of paintings
Ans : (1) Kisangarh Style
(2) The Kangra School
(3) Kalighat Paintings
(4) Pahari School of paintings
Q.34. Who were they? Why are they famous for?
(1) Swati Tirunal (2) Govinda Marar (3) Irayimman Tampy (4) K.C. Kesava Pillai
Ans: (1) Swati Tirunal (1813-1847)
Maharaja of Travancore and the greatest figure in Kerala’s musical tradition who also ranks with Tyagaraja, Muthuswami Dikshitar and Syama Sastri as one of the greatest personalities in the history of the Karnatic system of Indian music. He introduced the Harikatha with the help of Meruswami.
(2) Govinda Marar (1798-1841)
Parameswara Bhaga Vathar (1815-1892)
(3) Irayimman Tampy (1782-1856)
(4) K.C. Kesava Pillai (1868-1914)
Q.35. Who are they? Why they are famous for?
(1) Nanyadeva (2) Ustad Aman Khan (3) Maharaja Pratap Singh Deva (4) Mohammed Raza Khan
Ans : (1) Nanyadeva (1097-1133)
A great patron of music and author of a standard work on this art. He developed the popular ragas on regular lines and influenced Mithila art to a considerable extent.
(2) Ustad Aman Khan
Of Rampur, who had made Patna his home, was a celebrated master of the Dhrupad and Dhamar styles of classical music.
(3) Maharaja Pratap Singh Deva (1779-1804)
Of Jaipur, held a conference of musicians resulting in the composition of a monumental work on music Sangit Sagar.
(4) Mohammed Raza Khan
A nobleman of Patna, wrote Nagmat-e-Asaphi on music in 1813. He tried to establish simplicity and uniformity of ragas and raginis.
Q.36. Who are they? Why they are famous for?
(1) Raja Tuljaji (2) Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande (3) Maha Vaidyanatha Ayyar (4) Krishna Dhan Banerjee
Ans : (1) Raja Tuljaji (1763-1787)
Of Tanjore, he was a well-versed musician. He had written a famous standard book on music, Sangit Saramrit.
(2) Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande
Published a book on music, Lakshya Sangitam in 1910. He had done a great deal to record and classify accurately and critically all the ragas and explain exhaustively the theory of Indian music. In 1916, he organized the first All-India Music conference at Baroda under the Chairmanship of the Maharaja of Baroda. It resulted in the definite classification and proper notation on the scientific scale of various ragas, like sarang, todi, wilkham etc.
(3) Maha Vaidyanatha Ayyar (1844-1893)
A prodigy and composer of complex pieces like the Jillana Gauri Nayaka in Kannada, the Simhanandanatala which is the only one of its kind, and the 72 Melaragamalika, the pride of Karnataka music.
(4) Krishna Dhan Banerjee
He was the first person to attempt notations for Hindustani music. His book Gita Sutra Sara contains about a hundred dhrupad and Khayal set to European notations.
Q.37. What do you know about the following?
(1) Gita Lipi (2) Kirti (3) Javali (Karnataka music (4) Tillana (Karnataka music)
Ans : (1) Gita Lipi—In 1864, the first Indian notation called Gita Lipi, prepared by G.L. Chhatre, was published in Bombay. It stands out as a distinct landmark in the history of the early attempts of the educated classes to make the teaching of music simple yet sound.
(2) Kirti—It is the mainstay of the Karnataka system, as Khayal is in the Hindustani system. Tyagaraja was the first to introduce Sangati or musical variation on a set portion of the composition in his Kirtis. Diksitar’s Kirtis were learned compositions fall of technical beauties of yatise etc.
(3) Javali (Karnataka music)—It had its birth in the 19th century. It is a lighter type of composition, not unlike thumri in Hindustani music, in the sense that liberties are sometimes taken to lend attractiveness to the tune, and the theme centres on love.
(4) Tillana (Karnataka music)—It dates back to the 18th century. It is similar to tarana of Hindustani music, and uses rhythmic syllabus instead of words. Brisk and lively, it allows wide scope for fastness of tempo and utterances.
Q.38. Do You agree with the view that the British Economic policy ruined the artisans and craftsmen?
Q.39. What were the positive points of the British Economic Policy?
Q.40. 'The British rule was not an unmixed evil'. Discuss.
Q. 41. Discuss the major steps to achieve social integration.
Ans : Social integration in India can be achieved only if people do not become a victim of various prejudice that gets built in within them from the initial years of their lives to their present experiences.
It has been founded that the Indian child starts developing his caste or religious identity by the time of 6-7 years old due to traditional ways of child-rearing prevalent in the country. These child-rearing practices generate in the children feelings of one’s caste and religion and thereby, inculcates in them a tendency to maintain social distance from people of other castes and other religions. If the formation of these irrational prejudice at the early stages of life could be stopped, then the foundations of social integration would be really strong in India. The Indian parents should strive to rear their children in secular values and do not do anything which generates in them caste and religious consciousness.
It has also been found that the traditional family structures in India which give high emphasis to authoritarianism and excess discipline also inculcate in the children rigid attitudes and give shape to rigid personalities. Such rearing also leads to the rise of ethnocentric attitudes if there is too much emphasis on caste and religious values. So, overcoming authoritarianism and rigid discipline patterns may help the Indian society move towards social integration.
Social integration in India can also be fostered by making provisions of desegregated schools where children from different socio-economic, caste, and religious group live together and were to acquire a greater understanding and closeness towards each other.
Psychologists have also pointed put to the effective role that education play in overcoming irrational prejudices based more on traditions and beliefs which have become outmoded since long. So, spread of literacy and education can also foster social cohesion in the society. This finding has, however, also received certain criticism.
So, social integration in India can be acquired primarily by checking on the early development of various sports of prejudices in children. Afterwards inculcation of healthy and proper social values can serve to strengthen this process.