Q.21. What are the salient features of the state legislature?
Ans : Salient Features
Q. 22. What are coarse grains? What is the importance of Jowar among the food-crops and what are the conditions suitable for its growth?
Ans. The term coarse grains is applied to a number of food grains (other than rice & wheat) which are consumed by the poorer people. These include millets such as Jowar, Bajra, Ragi, etc.
Q.23. What is a continental shelf?
Ans : Continental shelf is a broad shallow stretch of sea water descending on the ocean. It has a gentle slope and a depth of one hundred (100) fathoms. Continental shelf is formed by rise in the level of sea or a fall in the level of land. Continents really end at the edge of shelf.
Q.24. What is a Geosynclin?
Ans : Geosyncline is a long narrow trough in the earth’s crust. Due to the continuous deposition of the sediments the floor of the geosyncline keeps on sinking downward. These contain an enormous thickness of sediments. These sediments are folded to form mountains. It is often said that Fold mountains have risen out of “geosynclines.”
Q.25. Discuss agricultural practice and techniques.
Ans : In order to increase the agriculturlal productivity and production to meet the ever increasing demand of agricultural products it is necessary, though difficult, to bring changes in traditional practices and techniques.
Traditional techniques are evolved over generations; they are continuously adjusted within rather restricted frame to changing circumstances. The farmers are reluctant to change to new modern techniques due to the following main reasons –
(i) The pursuit of traditional techniques involves less uncertainty, and
(ii) Since traditional techniques are passed on from one generation to the other, there is practically no material cost and relatively less uncertainty of output.
But a successful green revolution, as experienced in India cannot be achieved with the help of traditional agricultural techniques and practices. A change in them is almost essential. A number of agricultural techniques and practices have been evolved over the years.
The more important amongst these are –
(i) Fallowing and crop rotation, (ii) Double cropping, (iii) Multiple cropping, and (iv) mixed cropping.
Q.26. Discuss at length the following crop rotation.
Ans : Both these practices are used for maintaining soil fertility. Continuous cropping drains away soil nutrients; fallowing is evolved to avoid this. Fallowing practices, therefore, vary depending on the supply of soil nutrients by the individual crops. In extreme cases of light soil, with scarce supply of soil nutrients, land is left fallow for as many as seven years after each harvest. On the other hand, in fertile soils land is allowed to rest every third, fourth or even a fifth year.
Crop rotation involves growing of different crops in a definite sequence on a piece of land to preserve its fertility. The most common crop rotations include growing legumes in one season, which help fixation of nitrogen in the soil followed by growing such crops as cereals, cotton, etc., in the next season, which remove nitrogen from the soil. Heavily manured crops like sugarcane or tobacco are rotated with cereals to take advantage of the manurial value in the soil left over from the previous crop.
The practice of crop rotation is evolved in order to avoid fallowing of land. However, rotation of crops is not a complete substitute for fallowing in all regions. Fallowing is included in the scheme of crop rotation once in three or five years in some cases. Where crops included in rotation supply the nutrients removed from the soil, the need for fallowing may be postponed for a long time or where soil nutrients can be supplied from outside in good quantities, fallowing may be completely eliminated.
In mixed cropping, crops are grown mixed in such a way that soil nutrients removed by some are replaced by others, at least partly. Since the different crops mature in different time period, the practice of mixed cropping enables growing two crops which are sown together but harvested at different times. They are so combined that the total output is larger than what it would be if only one crop was sown. Early-maturing crops may be mixed with groundnut, cotton or pulses which mature late. The different crops grown together have a varying susceptibility to variation in weather. Besides, the prince variability of these crops in also different in some cases, crops mixed together are so selected that their prices do not move parallel or the extent of their variation differs. When crops are mixed under these conditions, the farmer is able to reduce the yield and price uncertainties. The proportion of crops mixed vary from region to region and also according to the practice of mixing crops.
Double cropping involves growing of two crops in a year in sequence (as in crop rotation). It is mainly practised in areas where irrigation facilities are available or where rain is heavy enough for adequate soil moisture to be retained. In regions of perennial water supply, even three crops are taken if resources permit. In double cropping., as in crop rotation, the aim is restoring soil fertility and hence the second crop is often one that fixes nitrogen, but the actual soil conditions decide the second crop.
With the introduction of short-duration varieties and water management practices, the trend is even towards growing more than two crops in a year, called multiple cropping. An American variety of short duration cotton for example, can be grown in rotation with wheat. Similarly, short duration varieties of wheat, rice, pulses, oilseeds, etc. have also been evolved. A great many cropping sequences have been evolved from which the farmer can choose according to the marketability of the produced, profitability of the rotation, soil and climate conditions and his input mobilising potential. It has been found that by introducing package measure the cultivation is able to resort to multiple cropping and at the same time harvest better yields. There is a scope for extending the multi-cropping practices to all areas where farmers have already been attuned to a higher level of technology through the HYVP.
Besides cropping done in sequence there is another type of intensive cropping called relay cropping in which one crop is undersown in a standing crop.
Q.27. Discuss different climate regions of India.
Q.28. Why there is low yield in dryland? How the yields can be increased?
(i) better irrigation facilities and management of water resources,
(ii) cultivating drought resistant strains of plants,
(iii) use of fertilisers and HYV seeds.
Q.29. Discuss wasteland. How can the cultivable wasteland be recovered?
(1) Proper and effective drainage of water-logged areas.
(2) Removal of salinity of soil by irrigating top soil for dissolving sodium, calcium and magnesium salts.
(3) Major irrgation efforts like the Indra Gandhi canal to water the desert areas of Rajasthan.
(4) Steps to prevent soil erosion like bunding, terracing, contour ploughing, levelling of uneven land, etc.
Q.30. How could we be successful in our effort in biological nitrogen fixation?
Q.31. Write a note on the Skandagupta's war with the Hunas.
Ans : Skandagupta (455-467 A.D.) is best remembered for his war with the Hunas and successfully defending the Gupta empire from their attacks. The Hunas were a ferocious barbarian horde who lived in Central Aria and were at this time threatening the mighty Roman Empire. One branch of them, known as the Epithalites or white Huns, occupied the Oxus valley and advanced against both Persia and India. They crossed the Hindukush occupied Gandhara and hurled defiance at the mighty Gupta empire. (It was a grave peril to the whole of India and the magnitude of the danger must have been heightened by the tales of terrible atrocities and wholesale destruction which marked the advance of this cruel and vindictive race).
Probably the first encoutner of Skandagupta with the Hunas took place when he was still a crown-prince. Towards the close of his father's reign hordes of the Pushyamitras, probably a tribe allied to the Hunas, invaded India and threatened the mighty fabric of the Gupta empire. For a long time, the fortune of the Guptas, and of India, was tottering but the heroic energy and the military genius of the crown-prince Skandagupta at last saved the situation. The barbaric hordes were defeated and the empire was saved.
After his accession to the throne in 455 A.D. Skandagupta had to face once again the Huna threat. Once more he rose equal to the occasion and inflicted such a terrible defeat upon the Hunas that for half a century they dared not disturb the Gupta empire, though they wrought havoc on Persia during this period. In the light of subsequent events in India, and the history of the Huna raids in other countries, the successful resistence to them by Skandagupta must rank as one of the greatest achievements of the age. Proud of his success against the barbarians Skandagupta assumed the title of Vikramaditya.
Q.32. Write short notes on the following : 1. Orchha 2. Quilon 3. Sambhal 4. Sirhind 5. Sonaragaon 6. Surat 7. Tanjore, 8, Tarain
Ans : 1. Orchha- Situated in M.P. Famous for Hindu temples. It was the seat of the power of Bundela Chiefs.
2. Quilon- Modern name Calicut. It was an important port town on Malabar coast. The place was centre for trade with Pegu and Malacca. It was here that Vasco-da Gama landed in 1498. During medieval period it was under the rule of Zamorin Kings.
3. Sambhal- It is situated in the Rohilkhand area of U.P. The place is famous for Jama Masjid built by Babur in 1526. A.D.
4. Sirhind- The place was famous for its forts. It was considered to be the Gateway of India.
5. Sonargaon- Situated in Bengal. The place was famous for its internal and external trade during medieval period.
6. Surat- An important city in Gujarat. It was famous for its trade and prosperity. It was under Mughal domination when Shivaji looted the place twice.
7. Tanjore- Capital of the Cholas. Famous for Brihadeshwar temple and Nataraja sculpture. Even in modern times Tanjore style of painting is famous.
8. Tarain- The place is famous in medieval History for its wars. It was here that in the first battle Muhammad Ghori was defeated by the rajput ruler, Prithivi Raj Chauhan. Later again it was here that in second battle he defeated Rajput rulers and established his authority over northern India.
Q.33. What are the significance of the written works of Mughals?
Ans. During the whole period of Mughal rule, official histories were written by eminent historians of the time about the individual ruler and a few Mughal monarchs had written their autobiography. Here, single exception was Aurangzeb, who disallowed writing history and its publication. But even during his rule, history of the time was written without his knowledge by a few authors. The importance of these historical works and autobiographies lies in the fact that they provide a definite written chronology to the important events and give us official versions of a particular happenings.
Among all the Mughal rulers, three rulers-Babar, Jahangir and Bahadur Shah II had written their autobiographies. Among all these three, Babur's autobiography "Tujuk-i-Babari" is considered to be a literary marvel. These autobiographies help us in understanding the personality of connected ruler and gives a clear picture of his understanding of the existing realities.
Among the various authored books recording the important historical events of the time, "Ain-i-Akbari", authored by the famous Abul Fazal stood apart. It does not only provide a narrative of the political happenings of Akbar's period but provides invaluable information on the socio-economic conditions too. It gives a detail account of agricultural conditions and on the relationship among the various sections of people living in the villages. In the similar way, many historical works of Akbar's time help us in understanding the religion founded by Akbar. It is these historical narratives which clear out understanding that instead of founding a religion, Akbar wanted to establish a new religious faith based upon his broader policy of tolerance to give stability to his empire. The historical works written during the period of other rulers, is found to be equally useful.
Thus, the historical works and autobiographies of Mughal period help us in reconstruction of historical events to the utmost proximity of reality. This is the greatest significance of these written works.
Q.34. What are the impact of the Portuguese control of the Indian Ocean ?
Ans. The arrival of Portuguese on the western coast and their domination of the Indian sea and of the eastern trade during fifteenth and sixteenth century had changed the existing Indian pattern of trade and produced far reaching effects.
The trade with Europe in oriental goods considerably increased during the twelfth century. The newly generated demands for oriental goods in Europe produced high profit margin which made the trading in oriental products a very rewarding one. The India's trade with Europe during the period was largely in the hands of Indian and Arab merchants. Arab merchants were basically interested in trading and so did not try to interfere in Indian affairs.
But the situation started changing with the arrival of Portuguese on the western coast in the beginning of 16th century. Their domination of the Indian ocean thoroughly changed the existing trade pattern. They did not allow anyone to participate in the sea trade and started dictating unprofitable terms on Indian merchants. Thus, the main chunk of the profit from European and eastern trade started to be going to the Portuguese instead of Indians. Their strongholds on the Gujarat coast and absence of a powerful kingdom in south India allowed them to milk away the profits from Indian merchants.
Not only this, their religious bigotry and their backwardness in the field of science, is considered to be one of the most important reason in preventing the European Renaissance making an impact on India. India developed its own cultural effloretscence under the Mughal but remained backward in the field of science and technology. Finally, Portuguese domination had attracted other European power to India, which finally laid to India's colonization by the British.
Thus, Portuguese domination of Indian seas and of the eastern trade during fifteenth and sixteenth century produced for reaching effects in India.
Q.35. Discuss briefly the characteristics of the following art form : (1) Gandhara art (2) Mathura art (3) Amarvati art.
Ans : (1) Gandhara art
(2) Mathura art
(3) Amravati art
Q.36. Describe briefly the characteristics of the following art form: (1) Gupta art (2) Pallava art (3) Chola art.
Ans : (1) Gupta art
(2) Pallava art
(3) Chola art
Q.37. Write short notes on : (1) Hoyasala art (2) Pala art
Ans : (1) Hoyasala art
(2) Pala art
Q.38. Write short notes on the following styles of architecture : (1) Nagara (2) Dravida style (3) Vasara Style
Ans : (1) Nagara
(2) Dravida Style
(3) Vasara Style
Q.39. Discuss briefly the following schools of painting : (1) Mughal Painting (2) Deccani Paintings (3) Rajput Painting (4) Bundi style (5) Kota style.
Ans : (1) Mughal Painting
(2) Deccani Paintings
(3) Rajput Painting
(4) Bundi Style
(5) Kota Style
Q.40. What are the basic psychological problems of the adolescents in the home and school situations? Suggest measures for the proper adjustment of the adolescents both in homes and schools.
Ans : Adolescence, says the famous psychologist Hall, is a period of storm and stress. He pointed out that it is an upheaval which disrupts the peaceful growth process of the individual. It begins with the onset of puberty i.e. when an individual starts moving in the direction of sexual growth and development. It is marked by the development of primary as well as secondary sexual characteristics. It ends with the full sexual growth of the individual. The whole development activity during this stage is carried out primarily by the sex hormones.
The beginning of adolescence marks the beginning of a process when an individual starts defining himself. This is referred to as the ‘search of identity’. If the adolescent does not find himself able to successfully resolve his search for identity, he may suffer from an identity crisis. Sometimes adolescents who suffer from identity crisis may take to adolescence conies, youth culture, drug abuse, etc.
Adolescence also brings in a situation of role stress and role conflict for the individual. The adolescent is required to play the role of a boy as well as of an adult. Facing up to some adult psychological problems may bring undue stress upon him. This may lead to the feelings of guilt, loss of interest in various activities, sleep problems and even suicidal thoughts on part of the adolescence.
Adolescence also sees the rise of the tendency for self assertion and independence in the student. If the teacher demands too much of a student, he may either become a rebel or may retaliate against the teacher. Sometimes the adolescent may find the school activities as too boring and may engage himself in some destructive activities. He may move towards drug abuse, alcoholism, and gang culture, etc.
For making proper adjustments in schools and homes, the adolescent needs to develop adequate self control and a sense of maturity. The parents and teachers should help them in resolving their identity crisis successfully so that there remains no fear of their going deviant. If they decide their future aims and goals they will start working constructively in particular directions. They also need to make a realistic appraisal of life stresses and should develop proper understanding of their role during the adolescence. They should, therefore, overcome any sort of role stress or role conflict.