Q.17. Why is the productivity of rice lower than that achieved for wheat? What are the steps taken to improve it? (Answer in about 150 words)
Ans. Rice is a tropical monsoon crop requiring high temperature and heavy rainfall. Where rainfall exceeds 200 cms, rice is dominant and with less than 100 cm. rains it can grow only with irrigation.
Q.18. What are the criteria for classification of Indian rivers into major, medium and minor rivers? What's the importance of river basins.
Ans : 1. Major rivers are those having a catchment area of over 20,000 square, km. These are large rivers in heavy rainfall areas.
2. Medium rivers have catchment areas between 2000 to 20,000 square km.
3. Minor rivers have catchment areas less than 2000 sq km.
There are 14 major river basins in India. The River basin is a separate hydrological unit and is useful for planning the utilisation of water resources for irrigation, power development, navigation and similar objectives. Their importance is only related to the harnessing of water resources.
They are not useful for other purposes as river basins have varying physiographic and climatic conditions and are not homogeneous regions. The exploitation of river water resources requires integrated planning and a degree of co-operation and understanding between the State concerned for sharing the burdens and benefits in an equitable manner.
Q.19. Discuss the use fixers of biofertilizer. How can it be more useful?
Q.20. What India should do to iron out some of the major deficiencies and revitative the agri-sector to become a growth machine ?
Q.21. Discuss briefly the measures to enhance rice export.
Q.22. What are the reasons for the rapid growth of rubber industry?
Q.23. India's export performance of fresh vegetables is not encouraging and is erratic. Discuss.
Q.24. Discuss the flower export strategies of India.
Q.25. Write a note on the Nalanda Mahavihara.
Ans : According to the Buddhist tradition, Nalanda, which grew to be the foremost Buddhist monastery and educational century in North India, was founded in the 5th century A.D. by Sakraditya, who is generally identified with the Gupta King Kumaragupta I (414-455 A.D.). The excavations at Nalanda have revealed a large area of well constructed monasteries and temples. These buildings were raised and renovated over a period of 700 years from the 5th century onwards.
Nalanda Mahavihara was the most famous Buddhist centre of its times, which maintained a great Buddhist university meant for monks. The Buddhist philosophy of the Mahayana School was taught here. It is said to have had as many as 10,000 students, all monks. According to Huen Tsang the great monastery at Nalanda was supported from the revenues of 100 villages. Nalanda thus had a huge monastic establishment in the time of Harshavardhan. The fame of Nalanda Mahavihara spread far and wide mainly on account of its being the seat of a great university. The Chinese traveller Huen Tsag studied there for several years as did also I-tsing. The former found thousands of scholars flocking to this famous centre of learning from the distant parts of Asia, and the scholars of this University were looked upon as model by every Indian. Huen Tsang says that, here in all its branches, but even other works such as the Vedas, Logic, Grammar, Medicine etc. and discoursed were given from 100 pulpits every day. Huen Tsang was impressed by the atmosphere of learning that prevailed at Nalanda. Nalanda was meant for advanced students only, and the candidates for admission had to pass a sever preliminary test. The teachers and students were men of the highest ability and talent.
Piety of generations of Kings not only adorned Nalanda Mahavihara with magnificent buildings but supplied all the material necessaries for the teachers and the taught. Thus it provided free educational facilities and residence for most of its students. In the 8th century A.D., Devapala patronized the institution and took active part in its management and administration. Before that it was patronized by the Gupta Kings and Harshavardhana. This great monastery of Nalanda was to a large extent responsible for spreading Indian culture in many countries like Tibet, China, Central Asia and Southeast Asia. Nalanda continued to flourish in India for many centuries till it was destroyed towards the end of 12th century by Bakhtiyar Khilji.
Q.26. Write short notes on the following : 1. Aihole 2. Amaravati, 3. Anuradhapur 4. Badami 5. Bhagwanpura, 6. Girnar, 7. Kausambi 8. Kusinagara
Ans : 1. Aihole : The place is situated near Badami. It is famous for its rock cut temples in Chalukyan style. Famous for its eulogical inscription of Chalukyan king "Pulakeshin II', written by court poet "Ravi Kirti"
2. Amaravati : Situated near modern Vijaywada. It is famous for Buddhist stupas. It was the centre of art during Satvahanas rule. It was an important centre of trade with Burma and Indonesia.
3. Anuradhapur : Capital city of Sri Lanka. Ashoka sent his brother Mahindera as a Buddhist missionary to this place. The place was burnt later by Chola king Rejendra I.
4. Badami : The place is also known as Vatapi. Situated in modern Bijapur District, the place was founded by Pulakeshin I and later became the capital of western Chalukyas. Famous for its cave temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu.
5. Bhagwanpura : An important site of later vedic period. Excavation reveals a forty room mud house which throws light on family structure during vedic period.
6. Girnar : It was situated near Junagadh in Gujarat. Pushyagupta, a Mauryan Governor built famous Sudershan lake here. Famous inscription in chaste Sanskrit, issued by Saka ruler "Rudradaman" was found here.
7. Kausambi : It was an important port town of late vedic period. It was the seat of authority of Vatsa kingdom. The place is famous for Ashokan pillar and Kushana inscriptions.
8. Kusinagara : It is situated in the modern Deoria District of U.P. It was the capital of Mallas during ancient period. The place is famous for Buddha's Parinirvana. Ashok built a stone stupa to commemorate Buddha parinirvana.
Q.27. What are the significance of Alauddin Khilji's economic regulation for his imperialism?
Ans. For Imperialist Policy any monarch need to have a large, efficient and standing army. For maintaining such a army, one need to have a sound financial system and enough revenues at disposal. And Alauddin's economic regulation were directed towards such a goal.
From the very beginning, Alauddin had imperialist aims. He had launched himself on numerous campaigns all around to increase the territorial extent of his empire., He had recruited a large army and stuck to dagh (branding of horses) and Chehra (Minister roll of soldiers). He paid his soldiers in cash, because they were on constant move.
To meet these Alauddin introduced market regulation and agrarian reforms, as he could not pay more to his soldiers. The make them available the needful on such prices that could satisfy his needs because a Cavalry man of those days was a gentleman trooper, he tried to control the prices of goods in the markets. Strict vigil was kept on fraudulent merchants and they were punished. To maintain stability of prices required supply of goods constantly. For this the emperor took initiative.
To maintain food grain prices and supply of foodgrains to market, he asked peasants of Loabs to pay in kind, which were carried by banjaras to capital & other places and there stood in store homes. Even land revenue of doab was raised to half of the produce. But regulation of prices of other goods did not affect much to the peasants, thus there was no rebellion or fights of peasant.
To supply good quality horses Multanis and Khurasanis were given loans and advances and their prices were fixed to make soldier affordable to pay for it.
The prices of costly and luxury items were also regulated, because it was thought that rise in price in this sector would affect the prices in other sector.
Thus, we see that Alauddin's regulation were through and wonderful for those days. This enabled him to recruit huge army at low cost, with which he was able to carry out his imperialistic ambitions and protect his empire against the Mongol threat from North West.
Q.28. Who is regared as the empire-builder in North India of the Sixteenth Century?
Ans. Prior to Akbar, there were attempts to build an empire in north India by Babar but he could not succeed and he died soon. His son and Successor Humayun was capable of but certain quirk of fate denied him and he was dispossessed of his dominion by Sher Shah of Sur dynasty, who had the real potential and vigour and energy for such. But when it seemed that Sher Shah had achieved his ambition of building an empire in north India, he was accidently killed in gun powder blast at Kalinjar in 1545. But his various reforms regarding army and land revenue were to become the base of such by Akbar the real empire builder.
Akbar ascended the throne at the age of 14. Initially he had to get out of the control of powerful nobles and machinations of his foster mother Maham Anaga. After he came out of their influence, he launched on his ambition of building an empire.
Akbar from the very beginning had a clear notion of the nature of his rule and the cause of his administration. He tried to make his empire really suited to soil. He emphasised the religious tolerance towards his subjects. Removed Jaziya and Pilgrim tax, considered obnoxious by the Hindus.
He defeated rulers and gave them opportunity to make peace with the Monarch. He incorporated them in the Imperial Service as friend, confidant and Mansabdars.
He made matrimonial alliances with the leading monarchies of the day irrespective of religion. He allowed his numerous wives to pursue their own religions.
He built his administration on a composite pattern-mixing of people of different race and religion. He devised the Mansabdari System which was administrative as well as militaristic in nature. This helped in efficient administration as well as easy recruitment for the army.
Thus by building a system where all nobles-past and native ones even felt a part of the system-even if they were defeated old ruling homes. There was no recurring rebellion during his rule. This pattern of administration and nature of the nobility remained so till the last of the Mughal rule, and only when such characters began to decline that the decline of the Imperial house began to set in.
Q.29. Write notes on the Mughals and European trading companies.
Ans. The Portuguese had established a direct sea route between India and West. They had their base of operation in South India-especially the Malabar coast from the very beginning; since 1498, when Vasco do Gama landed on Indian soil.
At the beginning of 1600 (17th) we find East India Company of Great Britain being set up. Soon the Dutch follow. The main purpose of these companies was to break the monopoly of Portuguese on Indian trade with the west.
The Portuguese had lost the confidence of Indian people and rulers because of their religious attitude and fraudulent trade practices. So, when other companies came, they were greeted by the rulers, even the Mughal emperor welcomed them.
The Surat in Gujarat had been the entry point of trade with the West. And English East India Company got the permission from Jahangir to start trade there in 1618 and soon they set up a factory there.
The trade with west had led to immense increase in Indian manufacturer's export like cotton textile, silk, spices etc. This had led to inflow of large quantities of bullion. It being the age of mercantilism no country was willing to part with bullion. So, alternative to finance Indian trade were being looked after by the European trading companies.
Also, they tried to develop and cultivate new articles for export from India like Calicoe, Saltpetre, Indigo etc. But even this was proving to be costly.
Aslo, their monopolistic ambition was not getting fulfilled because Indian traders had considerable share in foreign trade especially the trade with West Asia and South East Asia. The foreigners were on a lookout to eliminate them from competition.
And they began to harass Indian traders on Sea. But the Mughal empire which was powerful and resilient in 17th C, destroyed such ambitions of theirs. And again they took to the methods of prayers and petition before the Mughal monarch and gained concessions.
The Mughals agreed to their machination because they had tasted the fruits of trade expansion as it had increased their revenue resources. Also, Europeans were powerful at the Seas and they did not want to risk foreign trade of Indians.
And soon, after Mughal empire showed signs of weakness, we find European trading companies gaining territorial possessions, the revenue from which was used for financing the trade from India. And English & French took the lead and finally English became the real ruler of India in mid 18th century onwards.
Q.30. Discuss the emergence of composite culture during the period 16th to 18th centuries.
Ans. Culture is the essence of living. And composite culture means the mixing of cultures of different people. In India the ruler (Muslims) had come from outside and they had made it their own home. The Mughals came from Afghanistan and were of Turko-Mongo racial groups. Prior to them during Sultanate period various people of different social background had come to India and made it their home.
So, by their living in India, they got influenced by Indian culture. Also, Indian culture got influenced by the culture of their rulers. So, we find a different form emerging in India which was neither-Hindu nor Muslim-but a new one-the fusion of the two.
In architecture we find the emergence of Indo-Muslim architecture- using local materials and being built by indigenous actions and taking Indian motif to embellishing them.
In painting also we find the emergence of Mughal painting which was a mixture of the two great traditions of the Indian and Muslim paintings. The religious and exclusively floral painting of Muslims given way to the painting of humans and animals. The Secular themes-like Court Scenes, hunting scenes, etc come to predominate. There is emergence of portrait painting, banned by Muslim laws.
In Music, we find the emergence of Hindustani music which was a mixture of local and Muslim music. The themes being derived from both and also innovations of new ragas. Even today most prominent musicians of Hindustani music are Muslims. There was innovation and incorporation of new instruments.
In language, there emerged the Urdu, which derived from purely Arabic/Persian and local languages of India. And the ruling classes became well versed in this and they produced literacy works of great merit in this.
In the realm of religion, the Bhakti movement among the Hindu and the Sufi traditions among the Muslims, brought both these religions to understand each other on humanistic ground. There developed Syncretic religion in which people of both religions participated in each other's festivals and borrowed such rituals which were thought to be useful. Even Akbar's attempt at Din-e-IIahi- was at fusion of good elements of all religions in to one.
Thus, we see that policies followed by the Mughals, of not discriminating among the subjects on religious ground and the natural development of living together under similar conditions, made the culture of India a composite culture, the maintenance of which is sought by ll even today.
Q.31. Throw light on the Indo-Islamic architecture during the Khalji and Tughlaq period.
Ans. With the establishment of Turkish rule in northern India towards the beginning of thirteenth century, a process of interaction between two greatly enriched culture-Arbo-Persian culture of the Turks and existing traditional Indian culture began, which in the long run greatly enriched the existing Indian culture tradition in every field-art, architecture, music, painting etc.. In the field of architecture, the Turks brought with them the tradition of construction of buildings on method of "arch and dome". But they did not totally ignored the existing Indian tradition of "Slab and beam". Rather they used both the methods in their buildings.
By the time Khalji came into power, the Turkish empire in northern India was firmly established and so we find a lot of building activities during this period. The most famous Khalji monarch Alauddin khilji built his capital at `Siri' in Delhi which had a lot of buildings built by Indian architect and craftsmen. Unfortunately nothing survives at this place. But another construction of Alauddin, "Alai Darwaja" an entrance door to the Qutub-Minar clearly reveals the mastership achieved during the period. For the first time in India, the dome of this construction was constructed on correct scientific lines.
Tughlaq period, which marked the climax of Delhi Sultanate, saw great building activity. A great palace cum fortress complex, known as Tughlaqabad, was built by the first two Tughlaq rulers-Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq and Mohd. Bin Tughlaq. To give their buildings an impression of strength and solidity, Tughlaqs adopted a new architectural style of sloping walls. This style is known as "batter" and is found present in almost all the constructions of first two Tughlaq monarchs. Tughlaqs deliberately used both "arch and done" and "Lintel and beam" method in their constructions. This is found most markedly in the constructions of Feroz Shah. Hauz Khas and Firuz's new fort at Kotla have buildings built in the above mentioned two styles. To give a more pleasant skyline, Tughlaqs put up some of their buildings on high platforms. The example of this new trend is the tomb of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
Thus, during the whole period of Delhi Sultanate, we find the example of positive development in the filed of architecture., In this development both Indian and Turkish tradition contributed in one way or the other. Basically, this development was the product of the interaction of two well established, enriched architectural systems.
Q.32. The same fire which melts butter hardens steel! Explain this phenomenon in the content of the frustration and stress resolution in personality development with examples.
Ans : The vulnerability of an individual on a stressful situation depends not merely on the nature of the stress. It is rather determined by the interaction of the magnitude and nature of stress and the individual’s ability to cope. In a frustration related situation, if an individual mobilizes all his resources to cope up effectively with the situation he may come out stronger to live another day. On the other hand, if instead of mobilzing his resources he acquires an attitude of helplessness he may succumb for all time to come.
People of weak personality who usually adopt an escapist tendency by resorting more to ego-defense reactions in face of frustrating situations end up developing mental disorder and deficiencies. A student who fails may start blaming the teacher for partiality and parents for disturbing him during the exams. He ends up developing a rebellious attitude by saying that he will not study any more because his teachers are dishonest and the whole system is imperfect. Later this boy may end up as an unemployed and a destructive youth. On the other hand, if the boy says that he will work still harder in order to improve his performance may go on getting better results. Later he may end up as a bright and successful youth. So if one develops a soft and vulnerable personality he will melt like a butter and his personality may get deformed and degenerated. On the other hand if he develops a resilient and strong personality he many go on improving himself and may end up as a healthy and growing individual.
It has been found that people who resort more to ego defensive reactions will more likely fall in the ‘butter’ category while people who try to stand up to the frustrating situations by resorting to task-oriented reactions fall in the ‘steel’ category. Based on such similar criterion another distinction has also been made. It divides individuals into type-A and type-B patterns. Type A people are those who are always tense, harsh, alert, hostile, ambitious etc. They don’t realistically appraise the stress situation and therefore overreact to them. They are more prone to coronary diseases. On the other hand, are the less coronary prone diseases people who are usually relaxed, calm, gentle, humorous, friendly, doesn’t mind delay etc. They respond to the stress provoking situation with calm and cool with realistically appraising appropriate responses. This, then, makes them more resilient and help them develop a healthy and growing personality.