Q.17. Write note on following :
(1) Anemometer (2) Aneroid Barometer (3) Atlas (4) Azimuthal Projection.
Ans : (1) Anemometer : An instrument meant for measuring wind speed. It comprises a system of cups and a speed indicator.
(2) Aneroid Barometer : A portable instrument commonly used for measuring atmospheric pressure. It consists of a partially vacuumed metallic box, a flexible lid and a needle working on a lever. A change in atmospheric pressure is indicated by the motion of the elastic and sensitive top of the box.
(3) Atlas : A collection of maps bound into a volume. Generally, these maps are drawn on small scales. The term atlas first appeared on the title page of the collection of Mercator’s charts in A.D. 1595. the origin of the word, however, goes back further into the past, as it relates to ‘Atlas’ supporting the heavens according to mythological beliefs.
(4) Azimuthal Projections : A type of map projections in which a portion of the globe is projected upon a plane tangent to the globe at some specific point, e.g., the north or the south pole. These projections are also known as true Bearing Projections, because all points have their true compass direction from the centre of the map drawn of these projections. The word azimuth means bearing or direction.
Q.18. Write notes on : (1) Bar Graph (2) Barometer (3) Bench Mark (4) Cadastral Maps
Ans : (1) Bar Graph: A series of columns or bars drawn proportional in length to the quantities they represent. They are drawn on a selected scale. They may be drawn either horizontally or vertically.
(2) Barometer : An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure which is the weight of the aircolumn at a given place and time. Fortin’s and aneroid barometers are examples of such an instrument.
(3) Bench Mark: Exact height of specific points on prominent and durable material objects like rocks or buildings in the field, recorded for the sake of permanent reference. On a map, a bench mark is indicated by B.M., followed by the number giving the actual height of the mark above mean sea level.
(4) Cadastral Maps : Maps drawn on a fairly large scale to show accurately the extent and measurement of every field and plot of land. The word cadastre means “a public register of the lands of a country for defining property and levying taxes.”
Q.19. What are the hazards involved in the use of Pesticides? How can these be minimised? What do you understand about the “integrated pest management” in this regard ?
Ans : The increasing use of pesticides has caused contamination of soil, air surface and ground waters besides affecting the crop plants and produce. Acute poisoning is often caused by careless use of these chemicals. Long term exposure affects the animals, biological system. Carcinogenic, teratogene and thomorogene effects are common.
Q.20. What are the edible oilseeds grown in India? Which regions in India produce edible oilseeds? What is the new strategy for increasing oilseeds production?
Ans. The edible oilseeds produced in India are groundnut, soyabean, rapeseed, sesame, mustard, sunflower and coconut.
Q.21. What measures have been undertaken by the Government to increase the production of foodgrains?
Ans. The policy of the government to raise output of foodgrains can be divided into three parts:
(a) Technocratic measures: Since 1966, with the adoption of the New Agricultural strategy, increased attention has been paid to the use of high yielding varieties of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, modern agricultural implements etc. Farm mechanisations is also proceeding a a rapid pace. Use of tractors, oil engines, pumpsets, tubewells, harvester combines, threshers etc. is increasing rapidly.
(b) Land reforms: It has been recognised that land reforms are an essential condition for promoting agricultural development. Therefore the government introduced measures to abolish intermediary rights on land.
(c) Incentive price policy : The government holds the view that there is a positive relationship between price incentives and production and marketed surplus even under traditional agriculture. Accordingly, Agricultural Prices Commission was set of in January 1965 and a decision was made to announce the ‘minimum support prices’ on a regular basis.
Q.22. What is cropping pattern? What are the factors that determine the crop pattern in India? Is the cropping pattern optimal in India ?
Ans. Cropping pattern is the proportion of area under different crops at a point of time.
Q.23. Write short notes on the following : (1) Amarkot (2) Attock (3) Bijapur (4) Calicut (5) Chenderi
Ans. (1) Amarkot : A small Rajput principality, who gave help and support to Humayun, when he was moving from one place to another after being removed from his kingdom by Sher Shah. It was here that Akbar was born in 1542 and Ranas remained friend of Akbar and Mughals till the end.
(2) Attock : Situated at the bank of Indus in modern Pakistan, this town had special strategic importance. Akbar built a strong fort here to keep a vigil on the North West frontier.
(3) Bijapur : The capital of the Adil Shahi kingdom, founded out of Bahmani kingdom in 1530. It is famous for the Gol Gumbaj and the mausoleum of Muhammad Adil Shah. It was incorporated into the Mughal kingdom by Aurangzeb in 1686 AD.
(4) Calicut : Port town on Malabar coast. Acted as entreport in between Pegu and Malacca in the east and Persian gulf and Red sea in the west. Vasco-da-Gama landed here in 1498 and this felicitated Portuguese trade with India. Rulers of this area were known as Zamorin.
(5) Chanderi : Capital of Medini Rai, the ruler of Malwa, famous for old fort situated in Madhya Pradesh. Balban captured it in 1251. Rana Sanga captured it in 1520 and gave it to Medini Rai.
Q.24. `This Anglo-Maratha War covering nearly nine years from the murder of Narayan Rao to the Treaty of Salbye emphatically discloses the vitality of the Maratha nation which had not been exhausted either by the disaster of Panipat or the death of their great Peshwa Madhavarao'. Discuss.
Ans. The first anglo-Maratha war, which lasted from 1775 to 1782, without any decisive victory for either side reveals the continuing vitality of Maratha empire.
Prior to this war, the Marathas had suffered a disastrous defeat in the third battle of Panipat in 1761. After this Maratha power had again received a setback by the untimely demise of their great Peshwa Madhav Rao in 1772. After this in the court intrigues for succession to Peshwa-ship, the heir-apparent Narayan Rao was killed in 1773. But even after all these setbacks, the Marathas bravely fought against the British continuously for seven years and did not allow the British to register a final victory against them. This clearly reflects that still Maratha power was strong enough to dictate its terms. After the decline of Mughal empire in the early part of the eighteenth century, Maratha power rose rapidly under the able leadership of first three Peshwas. With successive victories against Indian powers Peshwa Baji Rao I had converted the Maratha kingdom into an empire. Maratha power in north India received a disastrous setback with their defeat by Ahmad Shah Abdali in the third battle of Panipat. But fortunes of Marathas were soon restored by the next Peshwa Madhav Rao. This made Raghunath Rao go to the British for help.
British administrators decided to help Raghunath Rao and thereby repeat the gains of their countrymen in Madras and Bengal. British had hoped that Maratha power was on the wane and they would very easily register a victory against them. But this proved to be a British strategic miscalculation. The war involved British for almost seven years without any decisive victory against the Marathas. Finally, the British had to conclude the treaty of Salbai without gaining anything . The treaty restored the status-quo. This conclusion of treaty of Salbai by the British clearly reflects that even after receiving a series of setbacks, Maratha power had not been exhausted..
Q.25. "The role of the East India Company proved disastrous to the handicraft industry in India for a number of reasons". Discuss.
Ans. With the establishment of the rule of East India company in Bengal in 1757, Indian handicraft industries started declining. Various reasons could be cited as responsible for this decline. Basically, British economic policies in India had resulted in a decreased rate of profitability for Indian handicraft. Its conquest of Indian states had caused the loss of internal market and imposition of high tariff barrier on import in Britain had caused loss of external market for Indian handicraft . All these factors produced disastrous effects for Indian handicraft industries and finally India was converted into a supplier of raw materials and a consumer of British manufactures.
From 1600 to 1757,East India company's trading pattern and policies were highly favourable for Indian handicraft industries. But with the assumption of power in Bengal, they started giving it death blows. Company's servants had monopolised the sale of raw cotton. They started selling it at a considerably high prices and since there was no other seller in the market the handicraft men were forced to purchase it at this high price. Not only this, their products were to be purchased only by the company at a fixed low price. Thus, the handicraftsman started losing both ways-as a buyer as well as a seller. This uneconomical situation was bound to leave a disastrous effect on Indian handicraft. Next with the extension of British rule over Indian states , Indian handicraft lost its internal market. Britishers patronised the products of their home country and worked actively for its promotion in Indian markets . After 1813, under the policy of free trade, British administration had given the final push to Indian handicraft industries.
Due to the imposition of high tariff barriers on import by Britain and other European countries, Indian handicraft products lost its external market too. High duties on import of Indian goods were maintained by British till their import to Britain virtually ceased. Thus, the loss of int ernal and external markets and decrease in the rat e of profitability, caused by the British economic policies, proved disastrous for Indian handicraft industries and it started declining.
Q.26. The tragedy of Curzon lay in that, with such an abundance of trained talent; he was denied the crowning qualities . He was never an administrator of the first rank.' Discuss.
Ans. Lord Curzon, who came to India as Viceroy, was well trained in administration . But his administrative actions in India reflects him as an immature administrator. He failed to understand the existing Indian realities and took a number of wrong administrative steps which were corrected by his successors.
The rising tide of nationalism in India was one of the major concern of British Indian administration during the period and it was tried by almost every Viceroys to contend. Different Viceroys tried to achieve this goal in their own ways. The major concern of Lord Curzon, too , was the same thing. But through his immature administrative steps, Curzon provided strength to Indian nationalism instead of curbing it, One of his major administrative step in India was the partition of Bengal into two parts in 1905. The overt argument extended by him was that this step would provide better administrative efficiency. But in reality he wanted to weaken the Congress by dividing a solid support block. This step brought his administrative genius into doubt. It was Vehemently opposed by the people in Bengal and several other parts of the country. A mighty Anti partition movement developed and exerted tremendous pressure on the Indian Government. Finally the partition was annulled by the Government in 1911 under popular pressure. Thus the real motive related to partition could not be fulfilled. Instead this step of Curzon gave strength to the National Movement and made it more organised. Here Curzon failed to understand the existing Indian socio-political condition and so mistakenly took a step which went against the interests of British empire. In the similar way, several other reactionary administrative steps of Curzon created a number of new administrative complications. On visualising all these, Curzon cannot be accepted as a successful administrator in India. Thus, though well trained in administration Curzon failed to achieve any visible success in India.
Q.27. `The relations of the Native States, however conducted, are essentially relations with the British Crown and not with the Indian Government’. Discuss.
Ans. Throughout the British period, a number of native states under the rule of Indian princes existed. They were considered to be sovereign powers but they ruled completely under the control of British Indian administration. Basically, in every real sense, they were made to exist only in names. Otherwise all the effective powers remained in the hands of British administration. East India Company, with its increasing territorial gains in India, came to be controlled by the British Parliament and crown and so directly or indirectly Indian native states functioned under the overall guidance and control of British crown.
As soon as the East India company succeeded in establishing its political and administrative authority over Bengal, its activities in India came under the control of British Parliament. In India, in many cases, the British administration devised a strategic method of allowing the native states to exist with their Indian ruler. But the activities of all these native states came under the control of British administration with the application of one method or the other. Through their British resident in the courts of all these native states they indirectly controlled the administration of these natives states. The British Indian administration, right from the beginning functioned under the guidance and control of British Parliament. Thus, it could be said that Indian native states had relationship with British crown and not with Indian administration.
Q.28. 'On 23 June 1757, the middle ages of India ended and her modern age began’. Discuss.
Ans. On 23 June 1757, the battle of Plassey was fought between the armies of Siraj-ud-daulah, the ruling nawab of Bengal and the British East India Company. The British army won a decisive victory in this battle. The British victory in this battle started a process of change at every level in India's political, economic, social and cultural tradition. From this point of time onwards, the change took place in every field at every level and so it could be said that it marks the end of Indian medieval period and beginning of modern age.
British had come to India mainly for trading purpose and as long as the Mughal empire remained strong they remained confine to the trading. After the disintegration of Mughal empire, they realised that they could take advantage of the weakness of the small successor states to serve their own economic and political interest. They needed political powers to effectively serve their economic interests. The defeat of Bengal's nawab in the battle of plassey gave them an opportunity testablish their political authority over Bengal, one of the most prosperous and fertile province of India. It paved the way for British mastery over eventually the whole of India. Starting from 1757, by 1848 had converted whole India, either in the territory under their direct rule or under the rule of their allies, native rulers. This British overlordship had thoroughly change Indian tradition and culture.
In the political field, the Indian people now came under the rule of British, who remained perpetually foreigners. Even the Indian native rulers were made to function under the overlordship of British. The Indian administration became responsive to the British needs and totally disregarded the aspiration of Indian masses. Indian economy was made to serve British colonial needs. Even in the cultural field British adopted the policies which suited to their imperialistic ideology. By following these new policies, British had thoroughly changed the existing Indian systems and traditions. Therefore, it could be said that medieval age in India ended on 23 June, 1757.
Q.29. ' No native state should be left to exist in India which is not upheld by the British power or the political conduct of which is not under its absolute control’. Elaborate.
Ans. The statement reflects British attitude to wards the native princely states. Right from the beginning, British representatives in India tried to control the political and administrative activities of these princely states to suit their own strategic and economic interests. Princely states were allowed to exist by the Indian administration but they did not allow them to function independently on their own. They were made to exist only to serve the British imperialistic and colonial interests.
Lord Wellesly, through his subsidiary alliance, had already made them dependent on British power for their continued existence. All the ruling states, who had signed subsidiary alliances with British, were forced to accept a British resident in their courts and to seek advice and even prior permission in all the important political and administrative matters. They were not allowed to function independently though they were still the sovereign powers in their states. Those. who did not accept this alliance, were militarily integrated into British empire. The passage of time seen the existence of only those native states who had accepted the British over Lordship. Those, who refused to accept, were brought under the direct administration of British.
Thus, by the year 1848, no native state existed in the Indian subcontinent, which was not under the control of British administration. Some of the natives states were allowed to exist under British control because of a strategic calculation. It was thought that the rulers of these subservient native states would prove effective allies to the British in time of need. Time had proved the reality of this calculation. Britishers were given every kind of help by these native states in time of need. Thus, with the passing of time, no native state was left to exist in Indian which was not under the control of British power.
Q.30. 'It was in this almost unrecognizable form that the Ilbert Bill was finally enacted...It was primarily a failure of the Viceroy’. Discuss.
Ans. In 1883, the then viceroy of India Lord Ripon tried to pass a bill giving Indian district magistrates and session judges authority to try Europeans in their courts in criminal cases. This was a meagre effort on the part of the Viceroy to remove a glaring instance of racial discrimination. Europeans, staying in India, vehemently opposed the Bill and forced the Viceroy to amend it to suit their demands.
Under the existing system of judicial administration, Indian members of even the Indian civil service were not authorised to try Europeans in their courts in the criminal cases. Europeans were tried only by the European magistrates and session judges. In almost all the cases these European judges used to take a very minor punishments. This provision made the principles of rule of law and equality before law a mockery. At the same time. It was considered to be a glaring instance of racial arrogance and discrimination
Q.31. 'Please remember, in granting separate electorates, we are sowing dragon's teeth and the harvest will be bitter.' Discuss.
Ans. Separate electorate was introduced in India by the British in 1909 by Morley-Minto reforms. Under the provision of this reform Muslims were grouped into Separate constituencies from where only the Muslims could be elected. This was done in the name of protecting the interests of minority Muslim community but in practice it produced disastrous effects in India. It resulted in a rise of communal disharmony and weakened the national movement. In real practice separate electorate proved a dragon’s teeth which finally cut the country into two parts.
Morley-Minto reforms of 1909 introduced with other things, the system of separate electorate under which the Muslims were grouped into separate constituencies from which only the Muslims could be elected. The system was based on the most unfounded notion that the Muslims and the Hindus had separate social political and economic interest and so the needs of Muslim minority could be better represented by the Muslim leaders only. This could not be true. Both the Muslims as well as the Hindu masses were equally suffering in the hands of imperial power. Religious beliefs could not separate the soci-economic and political interests of the people. Even at the time everyone clearly realised this fact. But the British power wanted to weaken the national movement by dividing the people on religious grounds. They did not miss any opportunity of doing this. System of Separate electorate, too, was introduced by the British to satisfy this underlying motive.
But the system yielded bitter harvest for India. It gave rise to the communalism and weakened national unity. Vested interests among both the Hindus and the Muslims used this provision to satisfy their own class interests. Anyway, its existence in the Indian electoral system strengthen the communalism. Finally, this heightened communalism had resulted into the division of country into two independent states.
Q.32. Write short notes on the following : 1. Kot Diji 2. Lumbini 3. Mahabalipuram 4. Nalanda 5. Pratisthana 6. Purushapura 7. Rajagriha 8. Sravasti 9. Srava-nbelgola 10. Sultanganj 11. Surkotada 12. Takshasila 13. Vidisa 14. Valabhi 15. Alamgirpur 16. Aharara 17. Apshad 18. Ratnagiri
Ans : 1. Kot Diji : An important Harrapan site. Famous for remains of Indus Valley civilization which helps to reconstruct the history of the period.
2. Lumbini : Situated in U.P., the place is famous as the birth place of Buddha. Asokan pillar inscription is found here.
3. Mahabalipuram : This port city was founded by the Pallava king "Narasimhavarman". It was the chief centre of Pallava art. The place is famous for seven Rath temple, shore temple and a few other temples.
4. Nalanda : The place is situated in South Bihar. It was the most famous centre for Buddhist learning. Most important excavation is the University complex. It remained in flourishing condition during the ancient period.
5. Pratisthana : The place was situated on the mouth of the river Godavari in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. It was the capital of Satavahana kingdom. It had an important trade route, linking it with Saravasti.
6. Purushapura : Modern Peshawar. It was the capital of Kushana ruler, Kanishka. It was a famous centre of Gandhara art. Kanishka built a monastery and a stupa here.
7. Rajagriha : It was the first capital of Magdhan empire during 6th century B.C. It is surrounded by hills which made it impregnable during the period. The first Buddhist council was held here.
8. Sravasti : Modern Sahet-Mahet on the border of Gonda and Bahraich district. of U.P. It was a famous trade centre in ancient period. It was the Capital of Kosala kingdom. Later it served as the provincial headquarters of Gupta kings.
9. Sarvanabelgola : The place is situated in the Hasan district. of modern Karnataka. It is famous for its monolithic statue of Gomateshwara which had been erected in 980 A.D. by Chamundya Rai, the chief-minister of Ganga king Rachman.
10. Sultanganj: Situated in modern day Bihar. A very important Pala-Bronze centre where from famous Bronze Buddha has been found.
11. Surkotada. Situated in Gujarat. It was one of the most famous site of Indus Valley Civilization. It had a citadel and a lower town. The place is famous for horse remain.
12. Takshasila : During ancient time, it was important place of learning. Famous as a centre of trade and commerce. Had many trade routes.
13. Vidisa.: Modern Besnagar. It is in East Malwa. It was a part of the Shunga empire. It was famous for its ivory workers. It is famous for its Garuda pillar inscription erected by a Greek ambassador, Helliodorus in memory of Lord Vishnu.
14. Valabhi : It was another famous seat of Buddhist learning. Its high standard of learning attracted even the foreigners. It is here only the final settlements of the Jains Canonical texts took place in 2th century A.D.
15. Alamgirpur : The place is situated in Meerut district of U.P. It was one of the famous site of urban Indus Valley Civilization. Excavation reveals the place as in flourishing condition during the period of Harappan culture.
16. Aharara : The place is famous for Asokan inscription. It was a trading centre during ancient period.
17. Apshad : Situated in M.P., the place was famous for its trade and commerce.
18. Ratnagiri : It was known as Brahamagiri also. The place is situated in South India and during ancient period it was famous for minor rock edict of Asoka.
Q. 33. Discuss how achievement motivation depends on socio-economic and personality factors. Can achievement motivation be improved and strengthened?
Ans : The term achievement motivations was coined by the famous psychologist McClelland. He pointed out that the achievement motivation plays a crucial role in the economic development of a nation. Later on, this concept was tested by Indian psychologists in India settings to see whether it is crucial component in our national development or not. The answer was affirmative and psychologists found that one of the basic reasons behind the attested economic growth in India was low need of achievement prevalent among its masses.
Like McClelland (1961), Indian psychologists such as Srivastava and Tiwari (1967), Sinha and Chaube (1972) and others found that achievement motivation is linked to various socio-economic and personality factors. The main socioeconomic cause they delineated was relative deprivation of the masses. Srivastava and Tiwari (1967) found that individuals belonging to the lower classes and minimum need for achievement. Similarly, Choudhery (1971) also found positive relationship between social classes and need for achievement. Ojha and jha (1979) also found that the highest need for achievement was found in the people hailing from middle class with a nuclear family status.
Achievement motivation has also been found to be linked to various personality factor. Shanmugaham (1957) found that people who have high anxiety levels, exhibit low need for achievement. Sharma (1971) found that the scheduled caste children display high level of anxiety which makes them low achievement motivators. Similarly Rath (1974) found people from low socioeconomic status and who have low need for achievement to be high on neuroticism and insecurity than those who has high need for achievement. Sinha (1977) also found that tribals who usually have low need for achievement were more introvert and anxious than the non tribals. These findings led to the conclusion that personality factors play an important role in achievement motivation.
Achievement motivation can be improved and strengthen primarily by taking certain socio-economic measures. The most important is the indication of poverty. It is usually poverty which plays the most important role in adversely affecting achievement motivation level. Apart from it, There should be a proper emphasis on special compensatory educational and training programmes for the children from the disadvantaged group during the initial years of their life so that they develop a positive self control and more towards higher levels of achievement motivation.