Q.18. Describe the Himalayan rivers.
Ans : The Himalayan rivers belong to the three principal systems — the Indus, The Ganga and the Brahmaputra. The Indus rises in Tibet at an altitude of 5,180 m near the Mansarover lake. It flows west the north-westwards and enters Indian territory in Jammu and Kashmir. The river forming a spectacular gorge in this reach peirces the Kailash range several times. The Indus receives its Himalayan tributaries in J&K. The collective flow of its well known Punjab tributaries Sutlaj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum goes to make the Panjnad which falls into Mainstream a little above Mithankot. The Indus flows south-westwards across Pakistan to reach the Arbain sea, east of Karachi.
The Ganga rises in the Uttar Pradesh Himalayas. The river acquires its name after its head streams Alaknanda and Bhagirathi unite at Devaparyag. Flowing west south-westwards the Ganga declutches from the hills near Hardwar. The main right bank tributaries of the Ganga in the region of the plain include the Yamuna and the Son, besides the minor streams of the Tons and the Punpun. On its left bank the Ganga, however, receives a large number of tributaries, including the Ramganga, Gomati, Ghaghra, Gandak, Kosi and Mahananda.
Beyond Farakka, the mainstream of the Ganga flows east-south eastwards into Bangladesh and is known as Padma. Before falling into the Bay of Bengal below Chandpur in Bangladesh, the Padma receives the Brahmaputra known here as the Jamuna and the Meghna.
Q.19. Write a note on :
(i) Green manures
Ans : (i) Green manure
Q.20. Write short notes on
(1) Rice (2) Wheat (3) Coarse grains (4) Pulses
Ans : (1) Rice
Rice is the staple food crop of India. India has 29 percent of world’s total area under rice. It contributes one-third of the world’s rice produce and is only next to China. It occupies 23 per cent of our total cropped area, rising from 30 million hectares in 1950-51 to 42.9 million hectares in 1995-96.The production of rice rose from 25 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 87.12 million tonnes. The yield per hectare has rose to 1,855 kg, an increase of nearly three fold since 1950-51. In spite of a large increase in the per hectare yield of rice in India it is still low when compared to the Korean Democratic Republic and Japan whose per hectare yield is 6,670 kg and 6,220 kg respectively.
Being a tropical plant, rice thrives well in hot and humid climate and, therefore, is essentially a kharif crop in India. It flourishes in areas of heavy and well distributed rainfall of over 100 cm or with extensive irrigation and with a temperature of 25°C or above. It is widely cultivated in almost all states of India except Rajasthan. It is the chief crop of great plains, terraced valleys of low Himalayas (from Kashmir to Assam) and in irrigated areas elsewhere. The largest producer of rice is West Bengal followed by Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Karnataka. Irrigation has enabled even Punjab and Haryana, knwon for their arid climate, to grow quality rice. Cultivation of rice requires hard labour because large-scale mechanisation in ploughing and transplantation is not possible as the fields are flooded for most of the time.
Some of the high yielding varieties of rice are IR-5, IR-8, IR-20, IR-22, Sabarmati, Bala, Jamuna, Karuna, Kanchi, Krishna, Cauvery, Hansa, Padma etc.
In respect of total cropped area and production, wheat is the second most important crop of the country after rice. It occupies 13% of the gross cropped area; rising from 9.8 million hectare in 1950-51 to 25.1 million hectare in 1995-96. During the same period the production of wheat also rose from 6.5 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 74.05 tonnes in 2004-05. There was a substantial increase in gross cropped area and total production of wheat in 1970-71 with the introduction of packate technolology. The cropped arrea increased to 18.3 million hectares. The average yield per hectares was 663 kg in 1950-51, which increased to 1,307 kg in 1970-71 and 2,493 kg in 1995-96. In wheat production we have overtaken many countries and now stand next only to Soviet Union, the United States and China.
Wheat is a rabi or winter crop. It grows best in cool, moist climate and ripens in a warm dry climate. It is grown in areas whose annual rainfall is between 50-75 cm and where some moisture or irrigation water is available in its winter growing season. The crop is therefore avoided in to
Q.21. Write notes on : (1) Cartogram (2) Cartography (3) Central Meridian (4) Central Tendency
Ans : (1) Cartogram : The representation of statistical data on a map in a diagrammatic way by purposefully distorting the original shape etc., of the area concerned. Usually, it is a highly abstracted and simplified map highlighting a single idea in a diagrammatic way. It is one of the important and popular tools of modern geography.
(2) Cartography : The science of preparing all types of maps and charts and includes every operation from original surveys to the final printing of maps.
(3) Central Meridian : When a meridian, whatever its value, stands at the centre of the projection, it is called the central meridian and has nothing to do with the prime meridian.
(4) Central Tendency : The tendency of quantitative data to cluster around some value.
Q.22. Write notes on : (1) Chain (2) Chain Survey (3) Chorophelth Maps (4) Class Interval
Ans : (1) Chain : A length-measuring device used for the purpose of obtaining horizontal distances between two points. Chains are of various lengths, e.g., metric chains of 20 and 30 meters, Engineers’s chain of 100 feet, and Gunter’s chain of 66 feet.
(2) Chain Survey : measuring of horizontal distances by the chain and the tape. This relatively simple method is used for surveying small areas along with their details with reasonable accuracy.
(3) Chorophelth Maps : Maps drawn on a quantitative areal basis, calculated as average values per unit of area within specific administrative units, e.g., density of population and percentage of urban to total population.
(4) Class Interval : Then difference between the lower and upper limits of any class of a frequency distribution is known as its class interval.
Q.23. Write notes on : (1) Climatic Map (2) Composite Measurement (3) Conical Projections (4) Contours
Ans : (1) Climatic Map : A map of the world or a part of it, showing average conditions of temperature, pressure, wind, precipitation, and sky conditions over a period of time.
(2) Composite Measurement : A measurement of the overall effect of several correlated variables.
(3) Conical Projections : A type of map projections in which a map is projected on a paper cone imagined to be either resting on the globe or intersecting it in a particular manner. A conical projection may be with one standard parallel or with two standard parallels.
(4) Contours : Imaginary lines joining all the points of equal elevation or altitude above means sea level. They are also called “level lines”.
Q.24. Write notes on : (1) Correlation Co-efficient (2) Cross-section (3) Cumulative Frequency (4) Cylindrical Equal-Area Projection (5) Diagonal Scale (6) Dispersion or Spread (7) Distribution Maps
Ans : (1) Correlation Co-efficient : A measure of the degree and direction of relationship between two variables.
(2) Cross-section : A side view of the ground cut vertically along a straight line : It is also known as a section or a profile.
(3) Cumulative Frequency : The measurement of distribution of values in the different class intervals expressed as a percentage of the total frequencies either above or below specified value.
(4) Cylindrical Equal-Area Projection : A kind of Cylindrical projection in which the area between two parallels is made equal to the corresponding surface on the globe by decreasing the distance between the parallels progressively towards the poles.
(5) Diagonal Scale : An elaboration of the graphic scale by which one can measure up to a minute part of a centimeter or an inch. It gives divisions much smaller than the secondary divisions of a graphic scale.
(6) Dispersion or Spread : The degree of internal variations in the different values of a variable.
(7) Distribution Maps : Maps, which with the aid of certain symbols like dots and shading schemes, depict location of various geographic elements and their frequency or intensity or density as the case may be. For example, they may show distribution of crops, livestock, population, industrial output, etc., in a given area.
Q.25. Write notes on : (1) Drainage (2) Flow Maps (3) Frequency Distribution Table (4) Great Circle (5) Hachures (6) Hill-shading
Ans : (1) Drainage : A system of rivers or streams which drain all the rain water that falls in a region.
(2) Flow Maps : Maps in which the ‘flow’ or movement of people or commidities is represented by ribands whose thickness is proportional to the quantity of goods or the number of people moving along different routes.
(3) Frequency Distribution Table : The arrangement of the number of values of a variable falling in different ranges. These ranges of the values of the variable are known as classes and the number of values falling in each class is known as frequency.
(4) Great Circle : A circle on the earth’s surface whose plane passes through the centre of the earth bisecting it into halves. The shortest distance between any two points on the earth’s surface is along the arc of a great circle.
(5) Hachures : Small straight lines drawn on a map along the direction of maximum slope, running across the contours. They give an idea about the differences in the slope of the ground.
(6) Hill-shading : A method of showing relief on a map by shading only those slopes that face south and east, presuming that the source of illumination is in the north-west.
Q.26. Write short notes on the following : (1) Chaul (2) Cuttak (3) Diu (4) Davarasamudra (5) Fathepur Sikri
Ans : (1) Chaul : On the coast near Mumbai. Important for foreign trade it was an important trading city during Mughal Period. In 1740, it come under Maratha.
(2) Cuttack : It was the seat of Orissa power during the 11th-12th century the rulers built numerous temples at Bhubaneswar. It is located on the banks of Mahanadi and was an important town and trading centre.
(3) Diu : Along Arbian sea coast near Gujarat. Portuguese wanted to take possession of it to utilise it as a base for their expansion in Gujarat. Numerous confrontation between Gujarat ruler and Portuguese. After capture of Daman, it soon became part of Portuguese contact.
(4) Dvarasamudra : Modern Halebid capital of Hoyasala kingdom. Alauddin Khilji defeated its ruler in 1310. Famous for its temple architecture. Hoyasaleswar temple is here.
(5) Fatehpur Sikri : Capital city founded by Akbar in 1569. Capital till 1585. Famous for Buland Darwaza, Khwaja Salim Chistie’s mausoleum and numerous buildings which show dfirstinct fusion of Indian and Islamic traditions. Its architecture has been described as “Romance in stone".
Q.27. "If the paramount power cast its imperial clock over the Princes it was also entitled to see that what was sheltered was in the main creditable."Discuss.
Ans. The British became the paramount power in India. From the very beginning, they looked for allies among the Indian Princes and states. Through the treaty of subsidiary alliances they were able to control native states by posting army and residents in all the native capitals to look into and control states' administration and foreign relations. They protected the states from within and without. But this was not in the interest of the native states but in the interest of the British. Whenever they saw a state not following policies suitable to their needs, they deposed the rulers and even directly took over the administration of the state, as in case of Awadh in 1856, when they did so on mal-administration ground. But after 1858, when the Indian government became a principality of British crown, and British came to realise the importance of native states as a bulwark against rising tide of nationalism, they avoided direct administration of any native state.
The Princes of these states lived in absolute peace, because their rule was protected by the British Paramount power. The British directed the policies of states, through residents, towards developments which suited their trading and commercial needs. If any state went against such, and tried to harbour nationalist intentions they deposed the ruler as in case of ruler of Baroda in 1873, on the pretext of maltreatment meted out to the British resident there. But the state was not usurped, only the ruler was replaced with another ruler of the same family.
The basic interference in the policies of the state by the British was to make the administration of the state modern and suited to all India development which could facilitate British economic development. Another group of British interference was when the nationalist movements arose in these states during late 19th and 20th against the British and the autocratic and feudal rule of the ruler of native states. Thus, British were ready to give protection to the states which followed it diktat and followed an administration, which appeared modern and development in their eyes, though they might have been more exploitative for the people of these states.
Q.28. 'Nowhere was the influence of the missionaries felt more than in relation to the women's movement'.
Ans. Missionaries had been active on Indian soil long before the British came. St. Thomas is said to have visited India in first century A.D. Thus through trading contacts with Roman empire, and the coming of Portuguese in 1498 onwards provided a period of great missionary activity on Indian Soil. The basic purpose was to convert the people to Christianity.
With this purpose and accompanied commercial greed of the Britishers and Europeans, the Missionaries started training and educating Indians so that they get convinced and get converted to Christianity and they develop a taste for British goods and administration.
Keeping those objective in view, the missionaries attacked the backward and traditional customs of India – like Sati, infanticide, widowhood, slavery, human sactifices etc. and exhorted the rulers to abolish them. Also, to make individuals and groups more conscious they opened schools and colleges to train and educate the people.
In the field of women development, activities of Missionaries was pioneering. They took the lead in utilizing the low position of women, their poor educational standards and opened many schools for women education. They opened such schools in area where no governmental efforts had been made. They opened schools in tribal and forest areas.
Through such education and development we see rise in women consciousness. And Kadam-bari Ganuli becomes the first women graduate of India from Calcutta University in late 19th century. Their efforts and the efforts of social reformers from India made Indian women conscious of their rights and they too began to feel that their condition of misery was because of colonial rule.
So, at the beginning of 20th century we note women’s participation on nationalist question. Through such participation women enhanced their status and role in society. During Gandhian phase the women come out in equal number to sustain the nationalist agitation.
Side by side, of nationalisation women organise themselves and demand for their status enhancement and equality with the men. The All India Women Congress was convened in 1927. Women showed to the world that they are as powerful and courageous as the men, through their participation in revolutionary terrorism. Rani Guidinliu, sacrificed her prime years in jail for the cause of nation. Thus we see, that the efforts of the missionaries had bore fruits out of the seed they had planted long years after they had started focusing their attention on women's development and education, though their motives were mixed.
Q.29. 'Curzon was an unconscious catalyst who did not understand, let alone, desire, what the new century was about to bring forth, but who helped it to be born’. Elaborate.
Ans. Curzon (1898-1905) was in the mould of paternal despot in Tory tradition of the British. His emphasis on good government was in the belief that this would benefit the people. He took various reform measures like Cooperative Societies Act 1904, Agricultural Research Institute at Pusa, department of Commerce and Industries in 1905 etc. He took measures to protect cultural heritage of India through India Monuments Act. He was particular in sticking to rules. He punished soldiers (white) for raping a Burmese woman and beating a native cook in army.
But his other measures, like the University Act of 1904, which frightened administrative control over the functioning of university, the Official Secrets Act (1904), the recommendations of Police Criminal Intelligence Department (CID) which was used in later years to suppress nationalist movements and his measures to Partition of Bengal in 1905 on administrative pretext, that province of Bengal was too large for efficient administration, was seen by the nationalist intelligentsia as measures directed at weakening the emerging unity of people and leaders in India. Then grew mass outrage against such policies of Curzon, Curzon's view on nationalist movement were also quite reactionary, he had openly professed that his desire was to see congress tottering to its fall. The nationalists saw in such measures, especially the partition of Bengal, a deliberate attempt by the viceroy to weaken the congress and the emerging unity among the intelligentsia. And he reacted to them through mass agitation and popular propaganda through the medium of Swadeshi and Boycott. The movement made the congress emerging into a new militant mood, which was quite an advance over the moderate mendicant methods of the past.
Curzon's rule and his measures acted as catalyst towards such development, people and leaders were disgusted with old moderate methods and new extremist approach had emerged. It was Curzon's policies which hastened such development in nationalism.
Q.30. "We have no right to seize Sind. Yet we shall do so, and a very advantageous, useful and humane piece of rascality it will be". Discuss.
Ans. This statement is by Sir Charles Nappier, who led British forces in their conquest of Sindh. For accomplishing this task he received Rs. 7 lakhs in prize money.
The conquest of Sind was a result of growing British fear of Russian expansion, and threat to India, the prized British possessions, through Persia or Afghanistan, as a result of growing Anglo-Russian rivalry in Europe and Asia. To check such Russian advances, the British Indian government tried to increase its influence in Afghanistan and Persia. And Sindh lying in between, it was though to capture it, necessary for such policies. Also, commercial importance of river Sindh were of added advantage.
Though, the river and roads of Sindh were open to British trade by the treaty of 1832, and the ruler of Sindh, the Amirs accepted subsidiary treaty in 1838, it was captured in 1843, without any provocation, because it suited British imperialist design. The British went back on their previous assurance of maintaining the territorial integrity of Sindh.
Q.31. `The hey-day of the British power in India was also the high noon of laissez-faire economic doctrine’. Elaborate.
Ans. The doctrine of laissez faire preaches little or no interference by the state in economic sphere. Every man or group is free to indulge in trading or commercial activity without any interference. The British in India advocated this doctrine to suit their own commercial and trading interests. The establishment of British rule in India led to opening up on Indian markets for British goods and exploitation of raw materials of India for British industries.
The British became paramount power in India after 1857. And they advocated the doctrine of laissez faire for thorough exploitation of Indian resources. British industrial goods were poured into Indian markets without any customs/toll charges. This made Indian products fight an unequal competition in their own home markets. This led to prosperity of Lancashire and Manchester cotton textile magnates. On the other hand, Indian textile and other products, which were based on handicraft faced unequal competition with industrial products. This led to decline of Indian handicraft. Even the nascent Indian industries were forced to face such competition, while all nations, independent ones, provided tariff protection to their industries.
Also, colonial policies were such that it encouraged import of goods and export of raw materials. The freight charges on railways were specifically devised to suit such policies. Initially, when industrialisation in Britain was in nascent stage, the British government provided protection to its own industries, through charging heavy duties on Indian exports there. But it did not do same in India. Thus, the doctrine of laissez faire was used by British one way, to open up Indian economy for exploitation by the British and in this British Indian government provided enough scope. It did interfere, as opposed to this doctrine, whenever there arose hindrances in free and easy exploitation of Indian markets and resources.
Q.32. `The new India was not to be built up, as late nineteenth century patriot had thought, by frequent injections from the energetic contemporary west'. Discuss.
Ans. The rise of renaissance and reformation movements in India, which was started with Ram Mohan Roy’s efforts led to different tendencies among the reformers. Some wanted to go back to the past golden age- the society of Vedas, the affluence of the Gupta era etc. The rise of revivalist tendencies among reforms, emphasising the greatness of Indian past and reviving the society of the vedas, led to tensions in Indian society. The advocation of such principles by Dayanand Saraswati through his Arya Samaj, led alienation of Muslims. Also, such invocations were not suited to the changed situations of the late 19th century world. So, another group, called for removal of outdated religious and social practices. They did not advocate blind imitation of the west. But to take only those elements of the west, that were suited to universal good like the doctrines of rationalism, humanism, democratic outlook etc. which had made west a resilient and strong society.
The reformers, in the context of India under a foreign rule, also were taking to vicarious nationalism, by emphasising on Indian's past glory. They tried to build self confidence and strength among Indians, by emphasising that it was not always that Indians had been under a foreignness rule. In course of such efforts they started to negate even the good points in western societies. So, other scholars who were more rational and numismatic, while trying to rejuvenate Indians did not denigrate west. But they tried to take good points from the western societies, those that had made them strong, and tried to apply them into the Indian societies, so that the ill prevalent in religious and social practices of India, could be removed and Indians could become strong and dynamic and in due course independent,
Q.33. Lord Mountbattan came with an order to organise retreat, in military parlancan operation? Elaborate the facts.
Ans. On 20th February 1947, British Prime Minister, Clement Attlee announced that British could quit India by June 1948, because it was realised by British that Indians would no longer accept British rule. The second world war and the Indian nationalist movements during that and also developments after 1945 showed such portents. And British were eager to make transfer of powers to Indians, the soonest. All through, the 2nd world war, British had been trying to make compromises, through talks with the leading political parties of India- like the Indian National Congress and the Muslims League etc. The talks with Cabinet Mission in 1946, led to the formation of interim government held by Jawahar Lal Nehru and formation of Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution for independent India.
Lord Mountbatten came as viceroy to India in March 1947 previously has been Commander in Chief of Allied forces in South East Asia. So, his military background provides for his approaches in India, which took the shape of an operation. In three months, he held talks with all the leading political parties on independence issue. He wanted to free India the soonest. In this regard he did everything very fast.
The developments in India, like the massive communal riots, the uncompromising stance of Congress and Muslim League on the Pakistan question made him realise, and also the British statecraft policies of weakening India for geostrategic considerations, made him realise that Indian independence had to be accompanied with partition. For this he held hundreds of talks and meetings with political parties and leader. And this led to his 3rd June plan, where he declared India to be free by 15th August 1947. He worked on specific time schedule. He had the mandate from the British government to grant India independence, the soonest. He worked over time and gave India freedom within five months. This was like a military operation.
Q.34. Outline the necessary steps for developing a test for the measurement of scientific aptitude or intelligence.
Ans : For developing a test for measuring intelligence, following steps are required.
(1) make a conceptual definition of intelligence clearly outlining various dimensions of intelligence.
(2) operationally define intelligence and devise operational procedures for the measurement of the different dimensions of intelligence.
(3) construct items on the various dimensions of the intelligence with the help of eminent experts. It should be done to ensure the face validity of the items.
(4) frame the schedule of questionnaire on the basis of which the above mentioned items were to be constructed and arranged in the test according to the schedule.
(5) after performing the above mentioned steps, go for pilot-testing.
(6) administer the test on a sample for population collect the scores and analyse the data.
(7) while analysing the data, item-analysis should be done in such a manner that those items which have a low discriminative index are eliminated.
(8) establish the reliability of the test by any of the possible methods, viz, split half method, test retest method. It is always better to measure the reliability by ascertaining the Cronbach-alpha coefficient.
(9) develop norms of the scale on the basis of which other individuals were to be evaluated and to test the significance their scores on the intelligence test.
With this final step, the test is required for getting administered on any other sample of population. Apart from other mentioned steps, the researcher should also take into account the general principles adhered to scale construction.