SST Set - 2 (Q.16 to 31)
Q.16. What is meant by the Writ jurisdication of the Supreme Court? How does it differ from original jurisdication?
Ans : The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court to consider an application under Art. 32 for the issue of a constitutional writ for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights is called writ jurisdiction. However, sometimes it is also referred to as an ‘original’ jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. It is in a sense original, for the aggrieved party has the right to directly move the Supreme Court by presenting a petition, instead of coming through a High Court by way of appeal.
Q.17. What are the privileges of a State Legislature?
Ans : The powers, privileges and immunities of a State Legislature are very similar to those of the Union Parliament, as the provisions of the Constitution are identical.
A Bill pending in either House of the Legislature shall not lapse by reason of prorogation of the House or Houses. It follows, therefore, that a Bill which has been passed by both the Houses of the Legislature and is pending for Governor’s assent shall not lapse.
The House has an absolute privilege to prohibit the publication of its proceedings entirely or in parts.
Such part of the “proceedings” of the House as has been directed to be expunged does not form part of the “proceedings” of the House and the publication thereof in a newspaper without the authority of the House will constitute contempt.
However, the power of the Legislature to punish for contempt and the jurisdiction of the courts in this behalf are still the subject-matter of an animated nation-wide discussion.
Q.18. List the code of conduct for Legislator during President address.
Ans : (1) When the President addresses either House of Parliament or both Houses of Parliament assembled together under article 86 or article 87 of the Constitution, he delivers his Address in his capacity as the head of the State and as much a constitutional obligation on the part of the members to listen to the President’s Address with solemnity, dignity and decorum as it is on the part of the President to address Members of Parliament. Therefore, observance of solemnity, dignity and decorum by each and every members or any other person present on the occasion of the President’s Address is of utmost importance.
(2) Any action on the part of member or any person which mars in any form or manner the dignity or solemnity of the occasion of the President’s Address or create disturbances shall be tantamount to an act of discourtesy and disrespect to the President as well as contempt of the House.
(3) When members of either House or of both Houses assemble under article 86 or article 87 of the Constitution, they do so for the specific and only purpose of listening to the President’s Address. This occasion is neither a sitting of their House nor a joint sitting of the two House. No business or proceeding other than the President’s Address is permissible under either of these two articles. Therefore, any interruption, point of order, speech, demonstration or walk-out etc. by any member or other person on that occasion, is contrary to the provisions of the Constitution.
(4) No member shall, therefore, interrupt or obstruct the President’s Address by any point of order, debate, discussion or in any other manner or otherwise mar the dignity of the occasion by walk-out or by any disorderly conduct or in any other manner, either before or during or after the Address, while the President is in the Hall.
(5) The President is incharge of the proceeding and fully competent to preserve order on the occasion of his Address. If any member or other person interrupts or obstructs the President’s Address or mars the dignity of the occasion in any other manner, the President may give such directions as he may consider necessary to preserve order, solemnity and dignity of the occasion.
(6) If any member or other person interrupts or obstructs the President’s Address to either House of Parliament or both Houses of Parliament assembled together, either before or during or after the Address, while the President is in the Hall, with any speech or point of order or walk-out or in any other manner, such interruption, obstruction or show of disrespect may be considered as a grossly disorderly conduct on the part of the concerned member or other person and a contempt of the House which may be dealt with by the House subsequently on a motion moved by a member.
Q. 19. Write notes on :
(1) Rihand Hydro-electric Project (2) Koyan Hydro-electric Project(3) Shravati Hydro-electric Project (4) Sabagiri (Pamba-Kakki) Hydro electric Project (5) Idukki Hydro electric Project
Ans :(1) Rihand Hydro-electric Project
This project is one of the largest man-made lake in India on the borders of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh and comprises a 934 m-long and 91.4 m-high straight gravity masonry dam across the Rihand near Pipri in Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. It impounds 1,060 crore m3 of water. Its power generating capacity is 300 mw.
(2) koyan Hydro-electric
This project in Maharashtra comprises :
(i) a 853.44 m-long and 85.3 m-high dam across the Koyna at Deshmukhawadi in Satara district of Maharashtra; and
(ii) an underground power station at Pophali below the Ghats. The gross storage capacity of reservoir is 277.53 crore m3. Its installed capacity is 880 mw. It feeds power to Bombay-Pune industrial region.
(3) Shravati Hydro-electric Hydro-electric Project
Located in Karnataka, this is one of the largest hydroelectric projects in India. It includes : the main dam across the Sharavati near Linganmakki and a balancing dam at Talakalale near Jog Folls in Shimoga district of Karnataka. The 2,750 m-long and 61.28 m-high Linganmakki dam has a gross storage capacity of 441.58 crore m3. The 484.8 m-long and 62.5 m-high Talakalale dam has a gross storage capacity of 14.06 crores m3. The total capacity of power house is 891 mw. It feeds Bangalore industrial region and also some parts of Goa and Tamilnadu.
(4) Sabagiri (Pamba-Kakki) Hydro electri Project
This project in Kerala has 3 storage dams, one each on the Pamba and Kakki rivers and one flanking dam. The total power potential of this project is 300 mw. It fees power to Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
(5) Idukki Hydro electric Project
This project also in Kerala, has 3 storage dams, one each on the Periyar and Cherutheni rivers and one at Idukki and the power house at Moolammattom, all in Idukki district. Its total installed capacity is 390 mw.
Q.20. Divide India into major physiographic divisons and describe the main characteristics of the northern mountain region.
Ans : India is a vast country where severe contrasts are found in relief. The total geographical area is divided into different parts as:—
India is divided into four major physiographic divisions. The Peninsular India is the core of the geology of India. It is the oldest part of India. In the Northern part, the Himalayas adorn like a crown of India. The Gangetic plain is the cradle of Indian Civilisation. The four independent and definite physiographic regions are:—
1. The Northern Mountain Region.
2. The Satlej-Ganga Plain
3. The Peninsular plateau
4. The coastal plain and islands
The Northern Mountain Region
The Himalayas run in an east-west direction in the northern part of India. This mountain range is 2400 km long and 240 to 320 km wide. These are the youngest and the highest fold mountains of the world.
(i) These are young fold mountains.
(ii) These have been formed in tertiary period (5 crore years ago).
(iii) These were formed at the site of Tethys Sea. The sediments were uplifted to form high mountains. The Himalayas are still rising in some parts.
(iv) The Himalayas are a series of parallel ranges intersected by deep valleys and broad plateaus.
(v) These ranges are compared to a sword or a bow.
(vi) The average height of the Himalayas is 5000 metres.
(vii) Youthful rivers form narrow, deep valleys and gorges across the Himalayas.
(viii) The Himalayas show evidence of glaciation such as Karewas in Kashmir valley.
Division. The Himalayas, from Indus valley to Arunachal Pradesh, can be divided into four division:—
(i) Assam Himalayas— Between the Tista and Brahmputra river.
(ii) Nepal Himalayas—Between Kali and Tista rivers.
(iii) Kumaon Himalayas—Between Sutlej and Kali river.
(iv) Kashmir Himalayas—Between Indus and Sutlej river.
(i) Trans Himalayas
(ii) Great Himalayas—Av. Height 6000 metres
(iii) Lesser Himalayas—Av. Height between 3000 — 4500 metres
(iv) Siwaliks.—Av. Height 1000 metres
Q.21. 'The variations in local climates of India arise due to a number of factors'. Discuss.
Ans : The variations in local climates of India arise due to a number of factors including : (i) surface distribution of pressure and winds, (ii) upper air circulation caused by factors controlling global weather and the inflow of different air masses and jet streams: and (iii) inflow of western disturbances during the winter months and the tropical depressions during the South-West monsoon period into India crating weather phenomena conditions for rainfall.
These mechanisms can be described with reference to the two main seasons of the year i.e, winter and summer when striking changes in weather occur.
The distribution pattern of pressure in Central and West Asia generally influences the weather conditions of India during the winter months. A high pressure centre in the region lying to the north of the Himalaya gives rise to the flow of air at the low level from the north towards the Indian subcontinent. It is the dry continental air which is experienced in the north-western part of the Indian Plain during the winter months. The weather maps for north westerly continental air and the Indian trades lying over north-western India. The position of this contact zone is not, however, stable. Occasionally, it may shift its position as far east as the middle Ganga valley with the result that the whole of the north&western India up to the middle Ganga valley comes under the influence of dry north-western winds.
This pattern of air circulation is observed only at the lower level of the atmosphere near the surface of the earth. Higher up in the lower troposphere, about three kilometer above the surface of the earth, a different sure variations have no role to play in its making. The whole of West and Central Asia remains under the influence of westerly winds at this latitude. They blow with a steady velocity across the Asian continent at latitudes north of the Himalaya roughly parallel to the Tibetan highlands which act as a barrier in their path thus bifurcating the westerly wind, known as the jet stream. One branch of the bifurcated jet stream flows to the north of this barrier. A southern branch of the jet stream flows in an eastward direction south of the Himalaya. It has its mean position at 250 N in February at 200 to 300 millibar level. According to the weather scientist, the southern branch of the jet stream has an important influence on the winter weather in India. The western disturbances which enter the Indian subcontinent from the west and the north-west during the winter months are brought into India by the westerly jet. These disturbances normally occur to the east of the aperture generally indicates in advance, the arrival of these disturbances.
As the summer sets in and the sun shifts northwards the wind circulation over the sub-continent undergoes a complete reversal at both the levels, lower as well as the upper. Near the surface, the Low Pressure Belt, which may be termed as Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) forms an important zone of contact over northern India and Pakistan roughly parallel to the Himalaya. By the middle of July this zone of low pressure lies over India at about 250N. By this time the westerly jet stream withdraws from the Indian region. The ITCZ, being a zone of low pressure, invites inflow of winds from different directions. The maritime tropical air (MT) from the southern hemisphere, after crossing the Equator, rushes to the low pressure area in a general south-westerly direction. It is this moist air current which is popularly known as the south-west monsoon. Some scholars are of the opinion that the south-west monsoon, in fact, is a continuation of the equatorial westerlies which are flowing into the northern latitudes under the influence of the ITCZ. An easterly current of the tropical maritime air converges on the ITCZ along its north-eastern margins. The north-western margin, on the other hand becomes a zone of convergence and subsidence for the dry continental air from the north-west.
The above pattern of the pressure and winds is found only at the lower level. The circulation pattern at the level of the troposphere is altogether different from this. An easterly jet stream, which prevails over the North Indian Plain during the winter months, the easterly jet stream steers the tropical depression over India. These depressions play a very significant role in the distribution pattern of the monsoon rainfall in the sub-continent. The highest rainfall occurs along the track of these depressions. The frequency at which these depressions visit India, their direction and intensity, all go a long way in determining the rainfall patterns during the south-west monsoon period.
Q.22. The onset of South-West monsoon is a highly complex phenomenon. Do you agree?
Ans : The onset of south-west monsoon is a highly complex phenomenon and there is no single theory which can explain it fully. It is still believed that the differential heating and cooling of land and sea during the summer months causes the drift of monsoon winds towards the subcontinent. Since the pressure in the ocean to the south of the landmass is high due to lower temperature, the low pressure area attracts the south-east trades across the Equator. These conditions are favourable for a northward shift in the position of the ITCZ (Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone). The south-west monsoon, which reach the west coast of the south-east trades deflected towards the Indian sub-continent after crossing the Equator.
The shift in the position of the ITCZ is also related to the phenomenon of the withdrawal of the westerly jet stream from its position to the south of the Himalaya. The easterly jet stream sets in only after it has withdrawn itself from the region. The nature of this relationship can be understood with the help of a theory, according to which the easterly jet stream owes its origin to the summer heating of the Himalayan and the Tibetan highlands. With the north-ward shift in the position of the sun, these highlands are excessively heated. The radiation. from this elevated landmass gives rise to a clockwise circulation in the middle troposphere. The two mainstream of air flowing out of this landmass take opposite directions. One of them flows towards the Equator probably to replace the air that crosses the Equator at the surface level, while the other is deflected towards the Pole. The Equatorward flow from these highlands prevails over India as the easterly jet stream, while the poleward outflow prevails over East-Central Asia as the westerly jet stream. It may be noted that the westerly jet steam continues to flow over Central Asia even during the summer months. Thus we see that the Himalayan and the Tibetan highlands play an important role in the development of the south-west monsoon.
The south-west monsoon engulfs the entire subcontinent by 15 July. It sets in over the Kerala coast by 1 June and moves swiftly to reach Bombay and Calcutta between 10-13 June.
Q.23. What do you know about the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch?
Ans : The projecting Indian peninsula divides the southwest monsoon into two branches, namely the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch. The tropical depressions originating in the Bay of Bengal cause rainfall over the West Bengal and the adjoining states, the sub-Himalayan region and the Northern Plains. On the other hand.,, the Arabian Sea current brings rain to the west coast of India including Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. The Arabian sea branch is more powerful as it is larger sea than Bay of Bengal and moreover entire Arabian branch goes to India whereas only a part of Bay of Bengal current enters India, the remainder going to Burma, Malaysia and Thailand. With the sole exception of the east coast of Tamilnadu, every part of India receives its bulk of the annual rainfall from southwest monsoons.
Q.24. Describe the distribution of rainfall in India.
Ans : Annual rainfall of over 300 cm is received over parts of western coast and north-eastern India. Annual rainfall of less than 50 cm is experienced in western Rajasthan and adjoining parts of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab. Rainfall is equally low in the interior of the Deccan plateau, east of the Sahyadris. A third area of low precipitation is the region around Leh in Kashmir. Rest of the country receives moderate rainfall. Snowfall is restricted to the Himalayan region.
Distribution of rainfall received from south-west monsoons is very largely governed by the relief or orography. In simple words when moisture laiden air is forced to ascend the slopes of mountain range or the edge of a plateau the ascending air cools down and gets saturated and further ascent leads to heavy rainfall on windward slopes. Whereas on leeward slopes air descends and gets warmed up, shedding less and less rain. Hence on the leeward side of the mountain lies the rainshadow region which receives very low rainfall. For example the windward side of the western Ghats register a rainfall of over 250 cm. On the other hand, the leeward side of these Ghats is hardly able to receive 50cm. Again the heavy rainfall in the north-eastern states can be attributed to their hilly ranges and the Eastern Himalayas. The rainfall in the northern plains goes on decreasing from east to west. The rainfall during monsoon declines with increasing distance from the sea. Calcutta receives about 120cm, Patna 102 cm, Allahabad 91 cm and Delhi 56 cm.
The monsoon rain is never continuous. It comes in spells. The wet spells are followed by dry spells. This pulsating nature of the monsoon is attributed to the cyclonic depression mainly formed at the head of the Bay of Bengal., and their crossing into the mainland. Besides the frequency and intensity of these depressions, the passage followed by them determines the intensity as well as distribution of rainfall. The passage is always along the axis of the "monsoon trough of the low pressure." For various reasons the trough and its axis keep on moving northward or southward. For a fair amount of rainfall in the Northern Plains it is necessary that for the most part the axis of the monsoon trough should lie in the plains. On the other hand, whenever the axis shifts close to the Himalayas there are longer dry spells in the plains, and widespread rains in the mountainous catchment areas of the Himalayan rivers. These heavy rains bring in their wake devastating floods causing great damage to life and property.
Q.25. What are the important features and significance of monsoon?
Ans : The climatic factor that affects the economy of India the most, is the monsoon rain. The amount of rainfall strongly determines the cropping pattern. Nearly 80 percent of agriculture in India is dependent on monsoon rains and a substantial part of the irrigation water which supplies moisture to the remaining comes from stored supplies of rain water in reservoirs. Animal husbandry is also dependent on the supply of adequate rainfall. Indian agriculture is, there fore, rightly, referred to as a gamble in the monsoon.
Besides agriculture, hydroelectricity generation, which accounts for nearly two-fifths of total power generation in India, is also chiefly dependent on rainfall.
Uncertainty, high ariability from normal dates of onset and withdrawals, great fluctuation in monthly and seasonal rainfall., erratic in nature and unequal distribution are some of the peculiar features of monsoon rains in India.
Both excessively high and low amounts of rainfall result in floods and droughts respectively which are so common in India that the country spends more to combat these calamities than on any other development.
It should be noted that it is not the actual amount of the deficiency or excessiveness in the total amount of rainfall or the interval between the two rainfall but the period during which it occurs, is important. Even moderate deficiencies or excessiveness in the total rainfall can be disastrous during the critical periods of crop growth.
Q.26. What do you know the Intellectual revolution in the sixth Century B.C.?
Ans. By 6th century B.C the Aryan culture has passed through various stages and areas in India. From North West India it has reached to eastern India along the Ganga. And the coming of Iron age made sedentary agricultural life possible. The use of iron plough and fertile soil made it possible to produce surplus which led to development of trade and commerce and this led to urbanization. With these developments came developments in the thought of the age. People, especially those who considered traditional religious and social practice as not suitable to changed economic and social life, wanted to reform it. They were against the existing emphasis on rituals and sacrifice and the emphasis of rigid varna hierarchy and rules.
Among the mainstream Vedic religions itself there were changes introduced with the development of Upanishad thought and literature. Its adherents were few and far. during 6th Century B.C, there were various reform movements and we have as many as 62 religious sects preaching various doctrines, like Ajita Keshakambalin who propagated throughout giving material doctrine called annihilation (uchchhedavada). And it further led to Lokayata or Charvaka school of philosophy.
Pakudha Katyayana considers only earth, air, water and light as elements as sorrow, happiness and life and this ideas led to Vaisheshika school of philosophy. Purana Kasapa considered soul as separate from body and later on his philosophy developed as Samkhya school. Makkalli Gosala-Ajivika sect-considered that the soul had to pass though intuitable cycle of predetermined rebirth irrespective of one’s deeds. Mahavira-Jaina-Syadvada-knowledge is relative and nothing is absolute.
So we see that during 6th Century B.C. there were effects on the part of religious preachers to make religion commensurate with people's needs and make them suited to existing economic and political situations.
Q.27. Write short notes on the following : (1) Pondicherry (2) Raichur (3) Rajmahal (4) Rameshwaram (5) Rohtas
Ans : (1) Pondicherry : Under French influence. Arikamedu of ancient time. The English and French secured trading rights of this port town. This developed as an important factory site for trade and later on became famous for its international commerce and culture and its preaching of peace.
(2) Raichur : This doab was the bone of contention between Bahamani and Vijay Nagar kingdoms. Very fertile and rich. It was destroyed many a time in course of struggle between the two kingdom. Previously in history it had given rise to many powerful kingdoms.
(3) Rajmahal : Hills lies along Jharkhand, Bengal border. In the Santhal revolts, Sidhu and Kanhu fought a fierce battle here against the Britishers. The inhabitants of this area were mostly tribals.
(4) Rameshwaram : An island off Kanyakumari in the Bay of Bengal, famous for its linkages with Ram's Lanka invasion. Important pilgrimage centre.
(5) Rohtas : Is in Bihar. It forms part of the hills ranges of south Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. It was an effective base of Sher Shah which provided him refuge in crisis for him and his family.
Q.28. Wrtie short note on : (1) Kashinat Trimbak Telang (2) C. Sankaran Nair (3) Kasinathuni Nageswara Rao (4) Muhammad Barkatullah (5) Tanguturi Prakasam (6) Maulana Shaukat Ali (7) Mukund Ramarao Jayakar (8) Srinivasa Iyengar (9) Birsa Munda (10) N.M. Joshi
Ans : (1) Kashinat Trimbak Telang (1850-1893)—Telang started his career as a lawyer and rose to the position of a High Court Judge. He was a co-founder of the Bombay Presidency Association and was also one of the founders of the Congress and served it well. He was an active social reformer and advocated the cause of women. He also worked for the uplift of the depressed classes. He was the President of the National Social Conference.
(2) C. Sankaran Nair (1859-1934)—A noted lawyer, Sankaran Nair was the first Indian to be appointed the Advocate-General of Madras. He was a Congressman belonging to the moderate group. He was appointed a member of the Viceroy’s Executive Council in 1915 and was incharge of Education. He was responsible for the appointment of Sadler Commission. After the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre, he resigned from the Executive Council. He disliked Gandhiji’s political programmes and severed all connections with the Congress. He opposed Non-cooperation Movement and wrote ‘Gandhi and Anarchy’. He became member of the Council of States. He was elected President of the All Parties Council in 1921.
(3) Kasinathuni Nageswara Rao (1862-1938)—Kasinathuni Nageswara Rao started ‘Andhra Patrika’, a Telegu newspaper in 1907 and later started a Telugu Monthly called “Bharati”. He joined the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920 and mobilised public support. A great lover of art, he devoted much of his time in research of art and culture for which he was rewarded by Sri Durga Kalamandiram at Vijayawada.
(4) Muhammad Barkatullah (1864-1928)—A Bengali revolutionary, Barkatullah joined the Ghadar Party in U.S.A. in 1914. He published ‘Naya Islam’ in Germany and he toured European countries advocating the cause of India’s freedom. He participated in the anti-imperialist Brussels Conference in 1927 and died in exile.
(5) Tanguturi Prakasam (1872-1957)—At the call of Gandhi, Prakasam joined the freedom movement. He started a daily called “Swarajya”. He was given the title “Andhra Kesari” for the role he played in the anti-Simon Commission agitation in Madras in 1928 and the Salt Satyagraha Campaign. In 1937, he became the Revenue Minister in the Ministry of Rajagopalachari. He abolished the Zamindari system in Madras. In 1945 he became Chief Minister of Madras. In 1953 he became Chief Minister of the new Andhra State.
(6) Maulana Shaukat Ali (1873-1930)—A prominent leader of the Khailafat Movement, Maulana Shaukat Ali founded the Anjuman-e-Kaabaa. He took part in the Non-Cooperation Movement.
(7) Mukund Ramarao Jayakar (1873-1941)—M.R. Jayakar was a member of the Congress Commission which enquired into the Punjab disturbance of 1919. He represented the Bombay University in 1923 and helped the Swarajist group in the Bombay Legislative Council. He was a moderate and played an important role in bringing about the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. He had been the Vice-Chancellor of the Poona University and a member of the Constituent Assembly.
(8) S. Srinivasa Iyengar (1874-1941)—In 1916, Srinivasa Iyengar was the Advocate-General of Madras. He renounced his titles and resigned his membership of the Legislative Council. He organised the boycott of Simon Commission in 1928. He started the Independence of India League. He disagreed with the Nehru Report regarding the question of Independence. He stood for secular politics and envisaged a welfare state, planned economy and a socialistic pattern of society. He worked to get rid of communal inequalities when he was President of the Social Reform Association.
(9) Birsa Munda (1874-1902)—A revolutionary who wanted to end the domination of Brahmin and Christian missionaries, Birsa Munda originated new “tribal revivalistic” cult and came to be known as “Bhagawan”. In order to free the tribesmen (Mundas) from the local Zamindars, policemen and Government officials, he asked them to stop paying rent and undertake “begar”. Headed by him, they rose in revolt and attacked the Zamindars, missionaries and policemen. British troops captured Munda and he died of cholera in jail.
(10) N.M. Joshi (1879-1955)—Narayana Malhar Joshi was a philanthropist. He joined the ‘Servants of Inida Society’ in 1909. He helped to promote the cause of labour welfare. He was associated with a number of organisations such as the Bombay Social Service League, Bombay Presidency Social Reform Association, Released Prisoners Aid Society, Legal Aid Society, Indian Trade Union Congress and the Civil Liberation Union. He was also a member of the 1947 Central Pay Commission. As an important leader of the Indian trade union movement he organised creches and dispensaries for women and children and provided industrial training in schools and cooperation societies.
Q.29. Who are they and why are they famous for?
(1) Purushottamdas Tandon (2) Nilakantha Das (3) Jatindra Mohan Sen Gupta (4) Satyapal (5) Saifuddin Kitchlew (6) Asaf Ali (7) Gopinath Bordolai (8) Suryakumar Sen (9) Alluri Sitarama Raju (10) Ramprasad Bismi
Ans : (1) Purushottamdas Tandon (1882-1962)—Purushottamdas Tandon gave up his legal profession to take part in the Non-Cooperation Movement. He pioneered the Kissan Movement in Allahabad district. He played a prominent part in the Civil Disobedience Movement in U.P. It was he who was responsible for the no-rent campaign among the farmers in the Province. He was elected Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of U.P. in 1937. He became President of the Congress in 1951. When differences of opinion with his colleagues in the High Command arose regarding India’s lingua franca, he resigned. He was a great patron of the Hindi Language. He was popularly called the “Rajarshi”.
(2) Nilakantha Das (1884-1967)—Nilakantha Das worked as a teacher in the famous Satyabadi school in 1911. In 1923 he joined the Swaraj Party. He remained a member of the Central Legislative Assembly for more than twenty years. He became the leader of the Independent People’s Party in free India. He was Chairman of the Utkar University and later became its Vice-Chancellor. He was elected Speaker of the Orissa Legislative Assembly. He edited Nababharati Samaj and Seva.
(3) Jatindra Mohan Sen Gupta (1885-1933)—A lawyer by profession, Sen Gupta gave up his legal profession during the Non-Cooperation Movement. He had been the President of Bengal Provincial Congress Committee and Mayor of the Calcutta Corporation in 1925. When he led the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1932, he was arrested and detained in Poona. He was brought to a jail in Ranchi where he died of ill-health
(4) Satyapal (1885-1954)—Satyapal was an assitant surgeon and he was granted King’s Commission during World War. He joined Saifudd in Kitchlew in leading the anti-Rowlatt Bills agitation at Amritsar which resulted in the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre of 1919. He advocated communal harmony. He served as a Speaker of the Punjab Legislative Assembly until his death.
(5) Saifuddin Kitchlew (1888-1963)—A close associate of Gandhiji, Kitchlew took part in all the movements. He played a prominent role in the 1919 Satyagraha Movement. He was transported for life by the Martial Law Commission but later he was released. He was a barrister and defended the accused in the Delhi and Meerut Conspiracy cases. He was the founder-President of the All-India Peace Council and the Vice-President of the World Peace Council. He was the first Indian laureate to be awarded the Stalin Peace Prize in 1954.
(6) Asaf Ali (1888-1953)—Asaf Ali began his career as a lawyer. He joined the Home Rule Movement, participated in all the movements of the Congress and was imprisoned. He became the General Secretary of the Congress in 1927. In 1945, he became Secretary of the I.N.A. Defence Committee. In 1946, he became a Minister in the Interim Government and participated in the proceedings of the Constituent Assembly. He was India’s first Ambassador to Washington and later he served as Governor of Orissa. When he was serving as India’s Ambassador to Switzerland he died.
(7) Gopinath Bordolai (1890-1950)—One of the architects of modern Assam, Bordolai was imprisoned for taking part in the individual Satyagraha and Quit India Movement. He was chiefly responsible for setting up the Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Colleges and the Guahati University. He worked hard for industrialising Assam.
(8) Suryakumar Sen (1895-1934)—He was one of the revolutionaries who were active in Chittagong. He was involved in the Assam-Bengal Railway political decoity at Chittagong but evaded arrest. He reorganised the revolutionary movement and became involved in the setting up of a bomb factory at Dakshineswar. He escaped arrest and later returned to reorganise his group as Indian Republican Army. He was caught and executed.
(9) Alluri Sitarama Raju (1857-1914)—Alluri Sitarama Raju worked for the uplift of the tribals. He lived among them. At the call of Gandhi he joined the non-cooperation movement. He led the tribals into an armed rebellion against British authorities secretly when the police and officials treated the tribals at Vishakapatnam very badly. He surrendered to police expecting a fair trial but was brutally shot by the police on allegations of escape from jail.
(10) Ramprasad Bismil (1897-1927)—Ramprasad Bismil became politically active even from a very young age. He became a leader of the military wing of Hindustan Republican Association. He was involved in the Kakori train hold up and was sentenced to death. He was executed on Dec. 19, 1927.
Q.30. Who are they and why are they famous for?
(1) Ashfaquallah Khan (2) Yusuf Meherally (3)Jatindranath Das (4) Ajay Kumar Ghosh (5) Udham Singh (6) Dinshaw Wacha (7) Vasudeo Balvant Phadke (8) Rashbihari Ghosh (9) Madame Cama (10) Hakim Ajmal Khan
Ans : (1) Ashfaquallah Khan (1900-1927)—A trusted comrade of Bismil, Ashfaquallah Khan joined the Non-Cooperation Movement. He was also a member of the Hindustan Republican Association and was, like Bismil, involved in the Kakori hold up of August 1925. He was caught by the police when a friend betrayed him and sentenced to death.
(2) Yusuf Meherally (1903-1950)—Yusuf Meherally was the co-founder of the Bombay Provincial Youth League in 1928. He joined the freedom movement. He edited the “Vanguard”. In 1929 he launched the National Militia, a volunteer body. In 1934 he became the General Secretary of the Congress Socialist Party. He fought for the rights of the clerical employees of the commercial firms in Bombay by organising “Gumastha Mandel”. He was elected Mayor of Bombay. Later he organised the People’s Volunteer Brigade.
(3)Jatindranath Das (1904-1929)—Jatindranath Das took part in the Non-Cooperation Movement. He manufactured explosive bombs for the revolutionaries. In connection with the Lahore conspiracy case, he was arrested. He undertook a hunger-strike, while in jail, in protest against the brutal treatment of the prisoners in 1929. After 63 days of heroic struggle, he died.
(4) Ajay Kumar Ghosh (1909-1962)—A revolutionary belonging to the Punjab and U.P. groups, Ajay Kumar Ghosh became a member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army. He joined the Mazdoor Sabha of Kanpur in 1934. He later joined the Communist Party of India. He was an eminent Marxist theoretician and contributed immensely in shaping up the basic policy documents.
(5) Udham Singh—Enraged by the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, Udham Singh took revenge by killing Sir Michael O’Dwyer on March 13, 1940. He was arrested and tried for murder. He was executed on June 12, 1940.
(6) Dinshaw Wacha (1844-1936)
At a time when men like him were more interested in furthering their own prospects in life and basking under the sunshine of imperialistic patronage than in promoting the interests of the country as a whole, Wacha worked for the progress of his country towards the goal of freedom. He allied himself with such stalwarts as Dadhabhai Naoroji and Pherozeshah. Mehta. He was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress. As a member of the Imperial Legislative Council along with Gokhale, he took keen interest in legislative work particularly in the field of finance.
(7) Vasudeo Balvant Phadke (1845-1883)
Phadke is regarded as the first revolutionary of modern India to take up arms to drive away the British. He is called the father of the armed struggle for India’s freedom and it is said that he inspired Bankim Chandra Chatterjee to write the patriotic novel ‘Anand Math’. He joined the public agitation for redressing people’s grievances at Pune in 1870 and he took a vow to use only homespun cloth and Swadeshi articles. He established the first school of national education in Pune in 1974. With the help of about three hundred men, he founded a secret organisation to work on his objective of overthrowing the British power in India. He was captured in 1879 and sentenced to life imprisonment
(8) Rashbihari Ghosh (1845-1908)
Rashbihari had a very distinguished academic career. He was keenly interested in education and was a member of the Calcutta University syndicate. He presided over the Surat Session of the Congress. In 1908 he presided over its Madras Session. In politics he was a moderate. He was content with autonomy under the benign, overall guidance of the British. He welcomed the Swadeshi movement because he was convinced that it was essential for the growth and development of indigenous industries.
(9) Madame Cama (1861-1936)
Madame Cama, known as Bhikaji, belonged to an affluent family. She was inspired by Dadabhai Naroji and she became a revolutionary. She acted as the moving spirit behind the secret society ‘Abinav Bharat’. She trained youngmen to make bombs and from abroad exhorted her countrymen to fight against the British. She was imprisoned in a French jail on the instigation of the British. She unfurled her version of Indian flag in the socialist Congress in Europe.
(10) Hakim Ajmal Khan (1865-1923)
He was a renowned Unani Physician in Delhi. He started the Tibbia College with a view to making the system popular. He was nationalist Muslim. He took a leading part in the agitation against the imposition of the Rowlatt Act. He participated in the Khilafat Movement and Gandhji’s Non-Cooperation Movement. He founded the Jamia Millia Islamia in Delhi. He was a staunch advocate of communal amity.
Q.31. How does discrimination Learning differ from learning by instrumental conditioning?
Ans : Instrumental learning takes place when the organism makes a response which is instrumental in fetching him the goal that he directed towards. And since the response brings in reward or reinforcement, the organism gets motivated to learn that particular response and also associate them with that set of environmental factors and the response come to acquire a permanent place in the repertoise of the organism.
Instrumental learning occurs under the following four conditions. Firstly, it occurs when the organism’s response is accompanied by positive reinforcers. Secondly, it occurs when organism’s wrong response is accompanied by negative reinforces but as soon as he makes the right response, the negative reinforcer is removed. Thirdly, it occurs when the individual’s wrong response is accompanied by punishment. Fourthly, if occurs when a positive reward is withdrawn after a wrong response. So, instrumental learning is based primarily on the basis of manipulation of reward and punishment mechanisms.
Discrimination learning on the other hand, is learning which utilized the phenomenon of generalization in learning situations. In fact, discrimination learning is referred to as the breaking down of generalizations. Under this type of learning, the organism makes similar responses to similar types of environmental stimuli and different responses to different types of stimuli. If an organism makes a pecking response when a yellow light is turned or, he will also make a pecking response when a light yellow light is turned on. On the other hand, if a red light is turned on, he will not make a pecking response.
Discrimination learning therefore involves learning based on a proper understanding of environmental conditions. It also gives special emphasis on the understanding of relationship between stimuli in the experimental setting. For instance, Kohler found that in an experiment that when a chimpanzees was asked to make the appropriate response to the grey surface, he did not respond to the gray surface but to black surface. It happened because, Kohler points out, chimpanzees learn relationship between stimuli in the experimental conditions rather than associations with specific stimuli.
The associative explanations of discrimination learning were put forth by the famous behaviorist B.F. Skin ner, in his method, the organism is reinforced for making some response in the presence of one stimulus and not reinforced when the response occurs in the absence of that stimulus. It is a gradual process whereby the organism’s task is to learn under what conditions it is appropriate to respond and not to respond during the whole learning process, the opposing forces of reinforcement and extinction are at display. For instance, whenever the blue light is turned on, the organism responds but whenever any other light is turned on, the organism does not respond. So, in such cases, the organism does not respond so in such cases, the organism learn discrimination through association. As in this example, the organism associated blue light with making appropriate response while at the same time, being indifferent to any other light. This Skinierian successive method supports the associative as opposed to the relational explanation of discrimination learning.
Now the association explanation. In this method, the environment contains a correct stimuli and an incorrect stimuli and job of the organism is to respond to the correct stimuli. He must learn to discriminate it from the incorrect stimuli by associating a proper response with correct response. For example when rats responded to vertical strips, they were given food pellets while when they reponded to horizontal strips they fell down on the floor. In this case, the rat learned the appropriate response by associating vertical pellets with reward and horizontal pellets with punishment. In this method, the organism is confronted simultaneously with a number of relevant stimuli and chooses among them by performing some distinctive response. This is easier than the successive method as in it the organism gets a chance to compare stimuli. So, even the simultaneous method of learning discriminations is based on the principles of association rather than on principles of relationship among stimuli.
So, the successive as well as simultaneous method famous the associative type of explanation of discrimination learning as opposed to the relational type of explanation. It is only in those cases where there is a clear-cut and distinct relationship among stimuli that the relational explanation of discrimination learning seems more effective. Otherwise, it is the associative explanation which holds its sway in discriminative learning.