Q.19. Write a note on
(3) Forest Policy
(4) Conservation of Forest.
Ans : (1) Estuaries
Estuaries, an integral part of the coastal environment, are the outfall regions of the river, making the transitional zone between the fluvial and marine environs. According to Pitchard, An estuary is a semienclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water is measurably diluted with fresh water derived from land drainage'. Besides salinity, other parameters that influence the characteristics of an estuary are turbidity, tides, river flow and land drainage.
Estuaries are an important source of natural resources for man and are used for commercial, industrial and recreational purposes. They are the nursery ground for dams and oysters and a variety of shrimps and fin fishes. India has 113 major and minor rivers and their com bined length is 45,000 km. Considerable ecological imbalance has been caused in the estuary ecosystem due to human interference that has finally led to disappearance of their flora and fauna. Release of untreated municipal waste water and industrial effluents into these water bodies leads to serious water pollution including heavy metal pollution, which gets biomagnified and reaches man through food-chain. Overfishing and artificial introduction of species also lead to the imbalance of estuarine ecosystem.
Lagoons are special type of ecosystems comprising the coastal and open ocean waters having a channel or a series of channels, through which the water is exchanged with the adjacent water body. Lagoons may be of saltish or brackish water. Lagoons are of two types (i) coastal lagoon which is a shallow coastal water body separated from the ocean by a barrier, connected atleast intermittently to the ocean by one or more restricted inlets, and usually oriented shore parallel (Phelger's definition), and (ii) atoll lagoon is a lake-like stretch of water, enclosed in a coral atoll or coral reef, in the shape of a ring or of a horseshoe.
In India the coastal lagoons are misused by the people as dumping sites for industrial and domestic waste. Human interference in the lagoons for longer periods is due to the slow flushing rate and shallowness of lagoons. The impact of disturbances like sedimentation, pollution, eutrophication, erosion and overfishing in the lagoons are difficult to assess. Dredging channels to accommodate the navigating vessels into the lagoons generate huge quantitative and qualitative changes in the lagoonal flora and fauna. The various industries which are situated near the coastal lagoons release cold and waste-water into the lagoons which are changing the animal associations in the lagoon systems.
(3) Forest Policy
Indian Forest Policy that dates back to 1894 underwent revision in 1952 and again in 1988. The revised forest policy of 1988 emphasises protection, conservation and development of forests. Its objectives are : (i) maintenance of environmental stability and ecological balance; (ii) conservation of natural heritage; (iii) check on soil erosion and denudation in catchment area; (iv) check on extension of sand dunes in desert areas of Rajasthan and along coastal tracts; (v) substantial increase in forest/tree cover through massive afforestation and social forestry programs; (vi) meeting requirements of fuel wood, fodder, minor forest produce and small timber of rural and tribal population; (vii) increase in productivity of forest to meet the national needs; (viii) encouragement of efficient utilisation of forest produce and optimum substitution of wood; and (ix) steps to create massive people's movement with involvement of women to achieve the objectives and minimise pressure on existing forests.
The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 enacted to check indiscriminate deforestation, diversion of forest lands for non-forestry purpose was amended in 1988 to make it more stringent by prescribing punishment for violations.
(4) Conservation of Forest
A very low per capita forest area with an ever increasing pressure of population is resulting into indiscriminate felling of trees for clearing land for cultivation and to meet the timber and fuel requirements. Overgrazing, encroachment of forests and perhaps a decrease in rainfall have led to a drastic decline in the forest area during the recent times. The increasing destruction and degradation of forest particularly in hilly regions is contributing to heavy soil erosion, erratic rainfall and recurring to heavy soil erosion, erratic rainfall and recurring floods. It is also causing acute shortage of firewood and timber and loss of productivity due to eroded and degraded lands. A wide range of flora and fauna are fast disappearing as their natural habitats are getting destroyed. Though there is an increasing trend in areas and quality of forest, there is a need for massive reforestation programmes, control over hacking and grazing and provision of cheap fuel through alternative technologies such as solar power or bio-gas plants. Some of the important measures being taken for conservation of forests include conservation of biological diversity in terms of fauna and flora; afforestation and development of wastelands; reforestation and replantation in existing forests; restriction on grazing; encouragement for wood substitutes and supply of other kinds of fuel; elimination of forest contractors; discouragement of monoculture practice; special emphasis on forestry research; and creating of a massive people's movement for achieving these objectives.
Q.20. What are the objectives and component of social forestry? How far is it successful?
Ans : The National Forest Policy of 1952 aimed at increasing forest cover in the country to 33% of the total land area. Far from expanding, the area under forest has declined owing to expanding industrialisation, urbanisation, growth of population and illegal cutting of trees. The large scale deforestation apart from other evils have resulted in acute scarcity in rural areas. The lack of fuelwood is supplemented by use of cowdung and residues which means loss of manure to the soil. In order to avoid deforestation and its adverse effects the government introduced a concept, 'Social Forestry', the objectives of which were spelt out by the National Commission on Agriculture (1976) as : (i) to increase green cover ; (ii) to produce and supply fuelwood, fodder, small timber and minor forest produce to rural section; (iii) to produce raw materials for industries; (iv) and to create employment in rural areas through afforestation.
There are three main components of social forestary :
(i) Farm forestry : Farmers are encouraged to plant trees on their own farms with free or subsidised seedlings supplied by the forest.
(ii) Rural (or Community) forestry : Trees are planted by the communities themselves on community lands to be shared equally by the villagers. This is the self financing component of the social forestry project.
(iii) Urban (or Public) forestry : The forest department undertakes the planting of fast growing trees along roadsides canal, tanks and other such public lands for the needs of the community.
In a way, social forestry combines idle land, labour and water resources for optimum production of firewood, fodder, food, manure, and small constructional timber. It essentially involves monolithic integration of forestry, agriculture and animal husbandry.
A massive social forestry programme was launched in 1980-81 in 101 districts of the country which were deficient in fuelwood. This programme included 'Rural fuelwood plantation' and 'A tree for every child'. It is a centrally sponsored programme with technical assistance from Canada and Sweden. The World Bank provided financial support for the programme.
Analysis of Programme
(i) Only farm forestry, one component of social forestry programme, has been successfully implemented.
(ii) The programme has completely neglected the primary objective of ensuring for all rural households and the landless in rural areas ready access to fuelwood and fodder for domestic consumption and thereby : (a) reduce the time women and children spend daily in collecting fuelwood; (b) prevent the use of animal dung as fuel. Under the programme trees are planted more as a commercial investment and not to fulfil basic survival needs of fuels and fodder of the rural folk. In fact the programme has worsened the energy crisis of landless labourers and intensified fodder problem by encouraging the plantation of hybrid eucalyptus which even animals do not touch.
(iii) It has not made any real effort to involve the landless and the tribals in afforestation.
(iv) It has done little for ecological restoration, for enhancing soil fertility and for water conservation.
(v) No serious efforts have been made to create proper awareness among people.
Q.21. Describe the wasteland development in India.
Ans : Soil is the non-renewable natural resource which supports practically all terrestrial plant life and consequently human life. About 130 million hectares of land or nearly 45 percent of total geographical area of the country is wasteland – it is degraded and lacks good tree cover. Even after excluding 35 mha notified as forest degraded area, nearly 95 mha land is non-forest degraded area. The maximum wastelands are in Madhya Pradesh.
These areas are affected by soil erosion through ravine and gully, shifting cultivation, cultivated wastelands, sandy areas, deserts and water logging.
Soil erosion by rain and river that takes place in hilly areas causes landslides and floods, while cutting trees for firewood, agricultural implements, and timber, grazing by a large number of livestock over and above the carrying capacity of grassland, traditional agricultural practices, construction of roads, indiscriminate (limestone etc.) quarrying, and other activities, have all led to the opening of hill-faces to heavy soil-erosion. In the arid west (Rajasthan desert), wind erosion causes expansion of desert, dust storms, whirlwinds, and destruction of crops, while moving sand covers the land and makes it sterile. In the plains one notices stream bank erosion due to floods and eutrophication due to agricultural run-off.
The magnitude of wastelands in both forest area and non-forest area is significant. Severe soil degradation is found mostly on the common property resources (CPR). The main cause of degradation of common property resources has been use (grazing, cutting trees etc.) by villagers in excess of its regeneration capacity. This is mainly due to the reason as CPR belongs to everyone, each feels that if he/she does not use it someone else will.
Therefore, it is necessary to intensify the efforts to curb desertification and soil erosion, to retain and increase the productivity of agricultural land and to control the expansion of the desert areas and landslides.
Measures for Controlling Soil Degradation : (i) Regeneration of wastelands, particularly CPR of communities; (ii) Sharing of the costs and the benefits from regeneration of land and availability of finance, should be just and well defined; (iii) Soil conservation technologies to be adopted. The Indian government has established a National Wastelands Development Board in May 1985.
Q.22. Describe briefly Local self-government under the Cholas.
Ans.The Chola period, which start with the establishment of Chola kingdom by Vijayalaya during the later half of the ninth century is considered to be the golden age of South India. One of the most unique feature of this empire's administrative system was the system of local self government. This system worked well during the whole period of Cholas's rule and gave the empire prosperity and stability.
As usual, under Chola's administrative system, all the administrative powers were concentrated in the hands of the ruler. But for the village administration the Cholas organised local bodies, whose members generally happened to be elected. A number of inscriptions speak about the local self-government at village level. Among these "Uttaramerur inscription" gives a detail narrative of the election of executive committee in a mahasabha type of village. There generally existed two type of assemblies - Ur and Sabha or, Mahasabha. Ur was a general assembly of the village, about which we do not have sufficient information. Sabha or, Mahasabha was a gathering of adult men in the Brahmana villages, known as `agraharas'. The affairs of the village were managed by an executive committee to which educated persons, owning property were elected either by drawing lots or, by rotation. The members of this committee had to retire after every three years. The records of their functioning were presented before the general assembly. There were various other committees, holding the charge of a specific work. Among these tank committee, which looked after the distribution of waters to the fields, was most important. With the existence of these committees, the affairs at local level were managed well without any interference from above. In the similar way, in the administration of towns, local elders and moneyed class were given representation.
Thus, during the Cholas's rule a system of local self government was evolved in South India and it worked well both at the village and town level.
Q.23. Write short notes on the following :
1. Sandabur 2. Seria-mpur, 3. Srirangapatnam,
4. Thatta, 5. Tri-chinopoly,
6. Uttaramerur, 7. Warangal.
Ans : (1) Sandabur : Situated on the west cost (Malabar), is now known as Panaji.
(2) Serampur : A place in Orissa. First printing press was established here. A Dutch factory was also situated here.
(3) Sringapatnam : Important religious centre for Hindus. Press was established here.
(4) Thatta : In Sindh where Feroz Tughlaq led an expedition and suppressed the rebels. But lost track of route on way back and wandered into the Rann of Kutch for sometime. Important trading link with central Asian states and Afghanfirstan.
(5) Trichinopoly : Tamil Nadu. Pilgrimage centre, centre for higher learning.
(6) Uttaramerur : Tamil Nadu. Inscription belonging to Pallava and Chola period found, which reflect the working of village administration and their independence and selfrule. Inscription found here reflect the local self government under Pallavas & Cholas.
(7) Warangal : In Andhra Pradesh, Kakatiya dynasty ruled here. Invaded by Alauddin Khilji.
Q.24. Was the welfare of the people, the primary motive of the British in carrying out social and educational reform in India ?
Ans: The Liberals and the Humanitarians found large scope for satisfying their conscience in carrying out social and educational reforms in India, the Evangelists expected large conversion to Christianity particularly by introducing English language as medium of instructions. Both, in their own way, claimed superiority of the British people over the Indians and contributed in propagating the theory of ‘White Men’s Burden’.
Q.25. What were the major objectives of the founders of the Indian national movement.
Ans : India had just entered the process of becoming a nation or a people. The first major objective of the founders of the Indian national movement was to promote this process, to weild Indians into a nation, to create an Indian people.
Q.26. “The foundation of the INC in 1885 was not a sudden event or a historical accident”. Discuss.
Ans : It was the culmination of the evolution of several political ideas and organisations which preceded it through the reactionary measures of Lord Lytton and the Anglo-Indian agitation over the Ilbert Bill hastened the process.
Q.27. The INC was founded by Hume to provide a safe, mild, peaceful, and constitutional outlet or safety valve for the rising discontent among the masses or Was the Congress leaders hoped to use Hume as a lightning conductor?
Ans : The core of the myth that a violent revolution was on the cards at the time and was avoided only by the foundation of the Congress, is accepted by most writers.
Q.28. Do you believe that the Indian National Congress was a body representing only a ‘microscopic minority of India’s vast population’.
Ans : The Indian National Congress which has been accepted as the first organised political body on a national level was described by Lord Dufferin in 1888 as a body representing only a ‘microscopic minority of India’s vast population’ and maintained that it represented only the Western educated class of Indians.
Q.29. Do you believe that the ‘safety valve’ theory is, in fact, a small part of the truth.
Ans : It is not certain that it was because of the advice of Lord Dufferin or fear of Russian attack or the necessity of outdoing the efforts of S.N. Banerjee. The ‘safety valve’ theory is, infact, a small part of the truth’.
Q.30. What are the resolutions passed by the Congress in its first session?
Ans : In the first session, the Congress discussed and passed nine resolutions. The more important among them were placed in the forms of demands to the government of India.
Q.31. Why did the founders of the Congress needed Hume to act as the chief organizer of the Congress’?
Ans : It is undoubtedly true that Hume impressed—and quite rightly—all his liberal and democratic contemporaries, including Lajpat Rai, as a man of high ideals with whom it was no dishonour to cooperate. But the real answer lies in the conditions of the time.
Q.32. Role of education and propaganda media in fostering national integration.
Ans : The role of education in fostering national integration has been long recongnised. Based on their findings, various psychologists have pointed out that education helps an individual to think more rationally about the various issues rather than responding to them in an emotional and impulsive way. It also makes the individual more scientific and secular in his outlook.
For having and effective education and propaganda program for fostering national integration, one needs to begin with a careful planning of the programme. The programmes should be made after keeping in mind the abilities of the recipient population. It should be framed in the language of the general audience so that the messages are easily comprehensible.
The message should emphasize upon the roles of national integration. It should resort to persuasive communication to bring intended changes in attitude. It can make use of fear arousing appeals by vividly portratying the dangers of rising communalism, linguism and regionalism and the havoc they will bring the country if they are left unchecked and unrestrained.
The programme should specially concentrate on undereducated ones. In this regard the Satellite. Television Instructional Experiment (SITE) played an important role in spreading educational and informative messages to the hitherto untouched villages of India. Satellite, television as well as radio broadcasting of such programmes will really go a long way in curing the evils of ethnic and communal prejudice in India due to its extensive coverage and quality of programmes based on the principles of psychology.