Q. 19. Write notes on : (1) Histogram (2) Homolographic Projection (3) Index-Number (4) Isobars (5) Isohyets (6) Isotherms
Ans : (1) Histogram : A graphical representation of frequency distribution, such as seasonal frequencies of rainfall.
(2) Homolographic Projection : A projection in which the network of latitudes and longitudes is developed in such a way that every graticule on the map is equal in area to the corresponding graticule on the globe. It is, therefore, also known as equal area projection.
(3) Index-Number : A measure which serves to depict the proportional changes of a characteristic independent of initial magnitude of the data and of the unit in which they are measured.
(4) Isobars : Imaginary lines drawn on a map joining places with equal barometric pressure, reduced to sea level, in order to eliminate differences due to variying altitudes.
(5) Isohyets : Imaginary lines drawn on a map joining places with equal amount of rainfall over a given period of time.
(6) Isotherms : Imaginary lines drawn on a map joining places with equal temperature, reduced to sea level.
Q.20. Write notes on : (1) Land Use (2) Layer Colouring (3) Linear Scale (4) Line Graph (5) Location Quotient (6) Lorenz Curve
Ans : (1) Land Use : The use which is made by man of the surface of the land. In sparsely populated areas, it includes occupation of land by natural and seminatural vegetation.
(2) Layer Colouring : A method of showing relief with the help of contours, especially in atlas and wall maps. The contour scheme is followed universally, e.g., shades of blue for sea, green for lowlaying areas, brown for higher and pink for still higher lands.
(3) Linear Scale : A method of expressing scale with the help of a line conveniently divided and subdivided, so that distances of the map can be directly measured and read off from a map.
(4) Line Graph : A smooth line drawn through a series of points, which are determined by means of two co-ordinates along the X-axis and the Y-axis. Change in one variable is shown with reference to another. Usually, it is used for presenting data regrading rainfall, temperature, growth of population, production etc.
(5) Location Quotient : The ratio of the percentage of some characteristic of an area to the same percentage in the region.
(6) Lorenz Curve : A graphical method of showing the concentration of some characteristics.
Q.21. Write notes on : (1) Macro, Meso, Micro (2) Magnetic North (3) Map (4) Map Projection (5) Mean Deviation
Ans : (1) Macro, Meso, Micro : Terms often used in regional geography to differentiate regions according to their size and level in an interdependent system of regions. Macro refers to large size, micro to the smallest, and meso to an intermediate level.
(2) Magnetic North : The direction pointed to by the needle of the magnetic compass. It is determined with reference to the magnetic north pole, which is different from the geographic north pole and also moves slowly from time to time.
(3) Map : A conventional representation of any area of the earth’s surface, small or large, drawn to scale of a flat surface.
(4) Map Projection : A method of transferring the network of parallels and meridians, i.e., earth’s grid, from the spherical surface of the earth to a plane surface.
(5) Mean Deviation : A measure of dispersion derived from the average of deviations from some central value, Such deviations are taken absolutely i.e. their signs are ignored. The central value is generally mean or median.
Q.22. Write notes on : (1) Median (2) Mode (3) Meridian Square (4) Optical Square (5) Optical Square (6) Orthomorphic Projection (7) Pantogaraph (8) Parallel Scale (9) Plane Table (10) Quartile
Ans : (1) Median : It is the value which divides the number of observations in such a way that half the values are less than this and half of them are more. If the values of a variable are arranged in either ascending or descending order, the median is the middle value.
(2) Mode : The mode is that value of a variable which occurs maximum number of times.
(3) Meridian Scale : the distance along a meridian of longitude which is measured between two parallels of latitude.
(4) Optical Square : The distance along a meridian of longitude which is measured between two parallels of latitude.
(5) Optical Square : An instrument used in chain survey for setting out right angles for measuring short distances from the chain to the objects nearby.
(6) Orthomorphic Projection : A type of projection in which every care is taken to preserve the correct shape of a given area of the earth’s surface. It is, therefore, also known as a correct shape projection.
(7) Pantogaraph : An instrument used for enlargement and reduction of maps with accuracy.
(8) Parallel Scale : The distance along a parallel of latitude which is measured between two meridians. The parallel scale is always correct along the standard parallel.
(9) Plane Table : A surveying instrument by means of which a map of a small area may be drawn and completed in the field with a fair amount of accuracy. It is also useful for filling the details into a network of triangles.
(10) Quartile : Quartiles are the values of the variable which divide the number of observations in four equal parts.
Q.23. Write notes on : (1) Rain Gauge (2) Ranging Rod (3) Relief Map (4) Rhumb Line (5) Scale (6) Scatter Diagram (7) Spot Height (8) Standard Deviation (9) Standard Parallel (10) Surveying
Ans : (1) Rain Gauge : An instrument of measuring accurately the amount of rainfall at a given place over a fixed duration, say, 24 hours.
(2) Ranging Rod : A wooden straight rod, coloured red and white, with a metal shod at one end to fix it securely in ground. Ranging rods are used in chain survey plane tabling and other methods of surveying.
(3) Relief Map : A map showing relief of an area on a flat surface by means of any of the methods such as contours, form-lines, layer colouring, has chures, hill-shading or a combination of these.
(4) Rhumb Line : A straight line of constant bearing intersecting all intermediate meridians at the same angle in a given projection.
(5) Scale : The ratio which a distance between any two points on a map bears to the actual distance between the corresponding points on the ground.
(6) Scatter Diagram : A diagram showing the joint variations of two characteristics on a graph paper.
(7) Spot Height : The exact height of a given spot found out with the help of surveying instruments. It is shown on a map by a dot followed by a number expressing the height in meters or feet.
(8) Standard Deviation : The most commonly used measure of dispersion. The standard deviation is the positive square root of the mean of the squares of deviations from the mean.
(9) Standard Parallel : The parallel of latitude of any projection along which the scale is true.
(10) Surveying : An art of making observations and measurements, both linear and angular, in order to determine the relative position of points on the earth’s surface. It helps to determine the boundaries, extent, position and relief of any part of the earth’s surface.
Q.24. Write notes on : (1) Tabulation (2) Topographic Map (3) True North (4) Variable (5) Watersed (6) Weather (7) Wheather Forecast (8) Wheel Diagram (9) Wind Rose (10) Wind Vane
Ans : (1) Tabulation : The process of putting raw data into a systematically arranged tabular form.
(2) Topographic Map : A map of a small area drawn on a large scale depicting detailed surface features both natural and man-made. Relief in this map is shown by contours.
(3) True North : The direction towards which the north pole of the earth points. It is also known as geographic north.
(4) Variable : Any characteristic which varies. A quantitative variable is a characteristic which has different values the differences of which are quantitatively measurable. Rainfall, for example, is a quantitative variable, because the differences in its different values at different places or at different times are quantitatively measurable. A qualitative variable on the other hand, is the characteristic the different values of which cannot be measured quantitatively. Sex, for example, is a qualitative variable. It can be either male or female. A qualitative variable is also known as an attribute.
(5) Watershed : A narrow elevated tract of ground separating water flowing in opposite directions.
(6) Weather : The condition of the atmosphere at a given place and time with respect to atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, precipitation, coludiness and wind. These factors are known as weather elements.
(7) Wheather Forecast : Prediction with a reasonable amount of certainly the conditions of weather that would prevail in the coming 12 to 48 hours in a certain area.
(8) Wheel Diagram : A circular diagram in which a circle is divided into sectors for presenting data in percentage.
(9) Wind Rose : A diagram showing the frequency and direction of wind blowing from each of the eight directions at a given place over a period of time.
(10) Wind Vane : An instrument used for determining with direction.
Q.25. What are bio-fertilisers and their advantages?
Ans: Bio-fertilisers are cultures of micro-organisms used in supplementing the nutrient requirement of crops. These micro-organisms come under the category of symbiotic bacteria non-symbiotic bacteria, azolla and blue green algae and are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen for utilisation by higher plants.
Q. 26. What factors have hampered bio-fertilisers use in India?
Ans. Where bio-technology in fertilisers has been successfully exploited in developed countries, in India several factors have hampered its use and propagation. They are lack of trained personnel, lack of appreciation of the benefits of inoculation and absence of industrial support.
Q.27. What are main objectives of agro-climatic planning? What measures have been taken by the govt. to base agricultural planning on agro-climatic zones?
Ans. In the face of regional imbalance in agricultural development and the existing unexploited potential, agricultural planning based on agro-climatic zones is being seriously considered. The main objectives of agro-climatic planning are:
(i) To attempt a broad demand supply.
(ii) Maximise net income of producers.
(iii) Generate additional employment to benefit landless labourers.
(iv) Create the framework for scientific and sustainable use of natural resources particularly land, water and forests in the long run.
Q.28. Wirte short notes on the following : (1) Goa (2) Golkunda (3) Gulbarga (4) Hampi (5) Jodhpur
Ans : (1) Goa : Was an important trading centre on west coast. Albuquerque captured it for Portuguese in 1510 AD. It was an important port town-famous for horse import during Bahamani kingdom and Vijay Nagar.
(2) Golkunda : Seat of Qutab Shahi dynasty, founded on old kingdom of Warangal which was captured by Bahmani kingdom in 1424. Aurangzeb annexed it to his empire in 1687. Since times famous for gold mines.
(3) Gulbarga : Capital of Bahamani kingdom from 1347 to 1422. Famous for mosque and other buildings.
(4) Hampi : An important cultural centre in Hoyasala Kingdom. It is near Dwarasamudra. It has many architectural monuments that attested a distinct Hoyasala Style of architecture.
(5) Jodhpur : Fortress city founded by Rao Jodha, a Rajput of Rathore clan. It had accepted Mughal suzerainty under Akbar, but rebelled when Aurangzeb tried to interfere in its affairs after Jaswant Singh's death, because it was a watan of Rathors.
Q. 29. Write short notes on the following : (1) Kara, (2) Kaveripattinam, (3) Konark, (4) Multan, (5) Murshidabad, (6) Nagpur, (7) Nasik (8) Puri,
Ans : (1) Kara: During the sultanate period, the fief of Kara was held by Malik Chhajju, a nephew of Balban. Later, Jalauddin Khilji and Alauddin Khilji was in charge of the fief of kara. It was here that seeds of ambition were sown in Alauddin’s mind, and Jalaluddin was treacherously killed.
(2) Kaveripattinam: It was the capital of the early Cholas of the Sangam period. It was a great centre of trade and commerce and excavations show that it had a large dock.
(3) Konark: It is famous for the 13th century sun temple, called the 'Black pagoda'.It was built by Narsimha I (1238-1264) of the Ganga dynasty of orissa.
(4) Multan: It was one of the cities taken by the Arabs in the course of their conquest of Sind. Mahmud of Ghazni conquered it. At the time of the accession of Qutb-ud-Aibak, Nasiruddin Qabacha was the governor of Multan. Towards the close of the 14th century Timur occupied Multan and he appointed Khizr Khan its governor.
(5) Murshidabad: The city was named after Murshid Quli Khan who was first appointed as the diwan and faujdar of Bengal. Later he became its subahdar. It was an important centre of trade.
(6) Nagpur: It was the seat of power of the Bhonsle rulers, one of the constituent of the Maratha confederacy. The British brought it under the Maratha ruler in Nasik.
(7) Nasik: An inscription found here throws light on the history of the Satavahanas. Nasik is famous for its caves. Shah Jahan retired to Nasik after his rebellion was crushed. Shivaji established the Maratha rule in Nasik.
(8) Puri: Shankaracharya established a famous monastery there for the propagation of Vedantist philosophy. It is also famous for the Jagannath temple.
Q.30. Write short notes on the following : (1) Rajahmaundry, (2) Ratnagiri, (3) Satara, (4) Talikota, (5) Tiruchirapalli, (6) Vatapi, (7) Vengi
Ams : (1) Rajahmundry: It was a strong fortress on the eastern coast of peninsular India. The fort of Rajahmundry was seized by Nizam-ud-mulk Barhi, a commander of the Bahmami kingdom during Mahmud Gawan’s period. It formed a part of the Northern Sarkars.
(2) Ratnagiri: It was very important Buddhist site (in modern Cuttack district of Orissa) as the excavations have revealed. Ratanagiri, perhaps originating in Guta times, continued to be a cente of Vajrayana till the 13th or 14th century-long after Buddhism had disappeared in North India.
(3) Satara: It was a powerful fort-place and after the fall of Jinji, the Maratha ruler, Rajaram escaped to Satara where he gathered a powerful army and resumed the struggle against the Mughals. Aurangzab finally captured the fort of Satara in 1700.
(4) Talikota: It is mainly famous for the great battle that was fought here between the Vijayanagar ruler and the Deccani Sultans in 1565 A.D. The combined forces of the Deccani rulers routed the Vijayanagar army. The city of Vijanagar was destroyed.
(5) Tiruchirapalli: It was under the rule of the Imperial Cholas. In the reign of Harihar II, Vijayanagar authority was established over it. Aurangzeb levied tribute on the Hindu raja of Tiruchi. During the Carnatic wars, Muhammad Ali took refuge in it. All efforts made by the French to take the fort failed.
(6) Vatapi: It became the capital of early western Chalukyas and was founded by Pulkesin II. It was once captured by the Pallavas. It has many rock-cut temples as well as structural temples built by the Chalukyas.
(7) Vengi: Originally it was under the Pallavas. Pulkesin II controlled it for a brief period. Then it came under the Eastern Chalukyas who ruled there for 500 years. During this period, matrimonial alliances took place between them and the Cholas. Kulottunga Chola I united the two kingdoms.
Q.31. What ever might have been its original character, it (Rebellion of 1857) soon became a symbol of challenge to the mighty British Powers in India. Discuss
Ans. The 1857 rebellion was started by the revot of Sepoys at Meerut, for their grievances against the Britishers. With the help of British Indian soldiers the company had come to power in India. And they followed policies which allinianted and antagonized their soldiers. The British policies of Doctrine of lapse, dismissal of Awadh on administrative ground and their religious policies and their support to social religious reforms in India, and their introduction of new and modern means of transport and communication like railways, were seen as against traditional religious practices. This had antagonized people. Also, their economic policies had disrupted Indian industries and forced them to move to agriculture. The disappearance of native courts had created large unemployment among traditional employment classes.
Hence, when the sepoys rebelled, there developed a widespread civilian rebellion in North India, who wanted the return of traditional systems of polity and administration. The leaders of such popular rebellion became the traditional Zamindars and Taluqdars who had been dispossessed by the British rules. The poor and illiterate masses rebelled and attacked every symbol of British authority in the countryside. They burnt post offices, thana chaokies, debt bonds, revenue records etc. The British racial policies made Indian realise of a common enemy and they all unitedly attacked them. Even those who did not participate against British, rejoiced at Indian advances against the foreigners.
Q.32. "Impact of government on the people meant essentially the impact of government on the village."
Ans. Any government is to govern its people and improve their condition. In India, Under British Government the impact of the administration on the people meant impact on the village because 85-90% of the people lived in villages. India has been refused to village republic in 18th and 19th century. And hence, any administrative measures taken by the Britishers meant to affect the villages. The Indian economic, political and social structure was based on caste system and its related institution like Jajmani etc. Higher castes owned land and shudras and vaishyas worked on it in majority of villages and provided articles to clients through the Jajmani network.
So, when the British assumed power on Indian soil, their all endeavour was to make Indian villages open to the play of market forces and sensitive to a larger economy and even the world. For this they tried to influence all the infrastructure of traditional India like education, society, religion, economy etc.
They introduced land reforms, system of policy, judiciary, English education on modern and scientific line, new modes of transport-railways, telegraph etc., encouraged social and religious reforms, opened government Services to all irrespective of caste and creed etc. All these measures helped in opening up of the villages to new ideas and thoughts, and thus starting a process, which still continues, of modenization in India and its people and helping people get out of the traditional economic and social frameworks.
Q.33. "Dyarchy was introduced with high hopes and it must be said that, on a theoretical analysis and if worked under ideal conditions, it is not without merits". Discuss
Ans. Dyarchy was introduced on the recommendations of Montague-Chelmsford reports on constitutional developments in India, in 1919 by the Government of India Act. Dyarchy means dual rule. Here it meant the rule of British along with Indians. It was introduced in provinces at first.
The need for Indians association in administration was felt by the British to tame the rising tide of nationalist movement against their rule in India. And for this they granted dyarchy. This introduced Indian Minister i.e. those popularly elected to legislatures in the provinces. Separate departments were set aside for them. They could administer them and be responsible to the legislature. But governors had the veto power, to annul any creations of the legislatures and the Minister. No bill could be introduced without prior permission from the governor. Even the departments, set aside, were the spending ones only. Like education, health, public administration etc. where by a Minister could be made responsible for their malfunction while the finances and other resources out of which funds were to be allotted were under British control. Even the implementing machines, the Indian Civil Services and police were under the control of British.
Hence, the functioning of dyarchy was laden in with contradiction from the very beginning. Nevertheless, it functioned for few years in India and when in contradiction came to the fore, which came very soon, its functioning became dead.
Dyarchy marked an advance in Indian constitutional development when for the Ist time Indians were part of executive and legislature both and it proved to be helpful in future constitutional developments in India.
Q. 34. "The Shimla conference (1945) afforded the last opportunity for the forces of nationalism to fight a reonguard action to preserve the integrity of the country and when the battle was lost, the waves of communalism quickly engulfed it". Discuss.
Ans. The revolt of 1942 had convinced the Britishers of the depth of nationalist sentiments among the Indians. The changing world conditions during world war II, had convinced British master in Britain, that they have to make settlements with Indian leaders and they would have to leave India sooner or later. The victory of allies was a foregone conclusion in the beginning of 1945, and the British in India was not prepared to face any 1942 scale agitation in India, they released all the important congress leaders in 1945, and convened a conference of major political parties on June 25th, 1945 at Shimla and proposed to leave the executive councils to Indians except Commander in Chief of the British to give equal representation to Hindus and Muslims in the executive council.
How could a congress, which was led at this time by a Muslim Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, accept this. Also, Muslim league of Jinnah by this time did not represent even the Majority of the Muslim Public opinion. The failure of the Shimla conference and the British prop of Jinnah as a deadlock, made Indian politics volatile and Muslims League propaganda during 1945 and 1946 led to massive communal outburst is August 1946 with Calcutta killings, Noakhali (East Bengal), Bihar riots, Delhi killing, and led to the partition of India and India getting independence with mass transfer of population on unprecedented scale on communal lines.
Q. 35. `The hunt of the Pindaris became merged in the Third Maratha war. Elaborate.
Ans. Pindaris were band of robbers who followed Maratha armies in battles and plundered the defeated territories of its resources. They shared the loot with the Maratha sardar. Pindaris were ruthless in their operations. After the signing of treaties by impotent Maratha clans with the British, they were faced with the hard life because they had nothing to do. They were immense in number.
When the Maratha sardar started to get restless under British control and the Third war with the British seemed imminent, the Maratha Sardar fomented Pindaris to go on rampage.
Pindaris were residents along the route from Delhi towards Agra, Rajputana and Malwa. They began to disrupt the route and cut off the British movement of goods and materials. In 1917-18, Pindari chiefs Kasim Khan, Amir Khan, Chitu and other had previously attended to the Maratha armies. They started devastating Malwa and Rajputana and after that they even entered British territories.
So, British realised soon that prior to fighting Maratha, they would have to fight the Pindaris to make the route of communication safe and secure. So, Hastings collected a huge army of 1,13,000 and moved to crust the Pindari menace, whose number was immense and they moved with large number of cattle. Lord Hastings defeated Pindaris and made them to surrender to Pindari chief like Karim Khan got a Jagir. Amir khan got Tonk in Rajputana as his jagir etc. And then immediately British launched campaign against the Maratha Sardar. Daulat Rao Sindhia in whose domain and influence, the Pindaris were located was the first victim of British attack and had to agree to a humiliating treaty. And other sardar like Holkar, Bhonsle and Peshwa followed suit. Thus, the war against Pindaris became inextricably mixed with the third Maratha war, because this war was a necessity for Britishers in their war against Maratha.
Q.36. What is mental retardation? Discuss the genesis of different types of mental retardation. Suggest measures for this rehabilitation.
Ans : Mentally retarded children are those who do not find themselves able to cope up with everyday tasks of life in an effective manner. They have also been defined in terms of scores on an scale. On an IQ scale, those individuals who score below 70 are referred to as mentally retarded as they usually don’t find themselves competent enough to cope effectively with the demands of everyday challenges.
The mentally retarded have been classified into various groups based on their scores on the IQ scale. For instance, individuals scoring an, IQ score of in the range 55-69 have been categorized as mildly retarded, while those between 40-45 as moderately retarded, those between 25-39 as severely mentally retarded and finally those who score below 25 are categorized as profoundly mentally retarded :
Individuals belonging to these different categories show differential abilities in coping up with everyday life tasks. The mildly retarded group, for instance, is capable of performing independently the everyday life tasks with the help of only a little training. They can also take up small jobs or other work if provided. There are adequate safeguards in their working condition.
Those belonging to the moderately retarded group can also be rehabilitated to a significant extent, if they are given intensive training. With such intensive training, they can be made to learn certain basic verbal and motor skill which will go a long way in helping them to survive on their own. But the researchers have pointed out that despite these intensive training, they can’t acquire mental age of more than a 6 to 8 years old child. Although they can be made to go for basic formal education.
On the other hand, individuals belonging to the severely and profoundly retarded group get so much mentally and physically debilitated that ever an intensive training can’t enable them to acquire formal education successfully. These group of retarded individuals need profound care for surviving in the world. They also desperately need family care to live properly.