SST Set - 3 (Q.14 to 27)
Q.14. List the code of conduct which the Members of Parliament have to observe during the study tours.
Ans : During the study tours of Parliamentary Committees, members are required to observe the following code of conduct:
(1) Intermediate journeys should be avoided during the tours.
(2) When transport is provided by Government/Undertakings during the tours of the Committee, such transport should be used for Committee work and not by individual members for distant private visits.
(3) During tours, members should take particular care to maintain proper dignity and decorum so that no criticism is made of the Committee in any manner.
(4) During the tour, if a member falls ill and the doctor advises him not to undertake further tour, he should follow the doctor’s advice.
(5) No member should give press statement regarding Committee proceedings to press. Whenever any briefing of the press is required to be done, the same should be done by the Chairman of the Committee.
(6) The members should not accept any costly gifts during the tour. Inexpensive momentos connected with the organisation visited could however be accepted.
(7) The Committee or sub-Committee or Study Group, while on tour, should not accept any invitation for lunch or dinner or other hospitality he might be extended by any private party. At the official lunches or dinners, if any, that might be accepted by the Committee or Sub-Committee or Study Group, no liquor should be allowed to be served.
(8) No member should take any other person during the official tours. An attendant or member’s spouse may accompany a member on medical grounds with the prior permission of the Speaker. In such cases, the member will bear all expenses including hotel charges in respect of his/her spouse or attendant. In case a member is found having any accompanying person without prior permission, he/she would not only bear all the expenses of such a person but would also stand automatically debarred from undertaking any Committee tour thereafter.
(9) The spouse or attendant of a member should in no case, accompany Committee members during official study visit to any installation, undertaking, office or establishment and during informal discussions with officers of the concerned establishment, undertaking, etc.
Code of Conduct during Delegations to Foreign Countries
Members of a delegation to foreign countries not to give any press interview or statement; only the leader of the delegations are authorised to make press statements or interviews.
Q.15. Write notes on : (1) Indira Gandhi Project (2) Gandak Irrigation Project(3) Mahanadi Delta irrigation Project (4) Tawa irarigation Porject (5) Pochanpad irrigation Project (6) Upper Krishna irrigation project
Ans : (1) Indira Gandhi Project
It is an ambitious project to bring new areas under irrigation for cultivation. Under this project the waters of Beas and Ravi are diverted to the Sutlej so that waters of all the three rivers are now being almost fully used to irrigate north-western Rajasthan which is a part of the Thar desert. The project includes:
(i) the Rajasthan Feeder taking off from the Harike Barrage across the Sutlej near its confluence with the Beas in Punjab; and
(ii) the Rajasthan Main Canal taking its water-supply from the Rajasthan Feeder.
The 215 km long Rajasthan Feeder canal, which runs through Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan, is a fully lined masonry work and does not provide any irrigation. It feeds the 469 km-long Rajasthan Main Canal (now called Indira Gandhi Canal) which lies entirely within Rajashthan at a distance of 40-64 km from the Indo-Pakistan border. It is the longest irrigation canal in the world and can irrigate about 11.5 lakh hectares in Ganganagar, Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts.
(2) Gandak Irrigation
This is a joint venture of India and Nepal. It is entirely executed by India (Bihar and Uttar Pradesh) but its benefits are also shared by Nepal in accordance with an agreement signed in 1959. The project includes:
(i) a barrage across the Gandak at Balmikinagar below the Tribeni Canal Head Regulator in Bihar;
(ii) 4 canals, 2 each in India and Nepal; and
(iii) a power house.
Half of the 747.37 m long and 9.81 m high barrage is in Nepal. Inside India the 66 km long Main Western Canal will irrigate 4.84 lakh hectares in Saran district of Bihar and 3.44 lakh hectares in Gorakhpur and Deoria districts of Uttar Pradesh and the 256.68 km-long Main Eastern Canal will irrigate 6.03 lakh hectares in Champaran, Muzaffarpur and Darbhanga districts of Bihar. The western Canal of Nepal will irrigate 16,600 hectares in Bhairwa district. The Eastern Canal of Nepal will irrigate 42,000 hectares in Parasa, Bara and Rautuhat districts. A power house with 15 mw installed capacity on the Main Western Canal has been commissioned and handed over to Nepal as a gift.
(3) Mahanadi Delta irrigation Project
The purpose of this project is to make use of the releases from the Hirakund reservoir. It includes 1,353-m-long concrete weir and a 386.24 km-long canal with an irrigation potential of 5.35 lakh hectares in the Mahanadi delta in Orissa.
(4) Tawa irarigation Porject
This irrigation scheme in Madhya Pradesh comprises:
(i) an earth-cum-masonry dam, 1630.2 m-long and 57.95 m-high, across the Tawa, a tributary of the Narmada, in Hoshangabad district;
(ii) and two irrigation canals taking off from the reservoir. The 120 km-long Left Bank Main Canal and the 76.85 km-long Right Bank Canal will irrigate 3.32 lakh hectares in Hoshangabad district.
(5) Po chanpad irrigation Project
It is the second largest irrigation project in Andhra Pradesh and comprises :
(i) a 812 m long and 43 m high masonry dam with a storage capacity of 230.36 crore m3 on the Godavari in Adilabad district, and
(ii) 112.63-km-long main canal which will irrigate 2.30 lakh hectares in Adilabad and Karimnagar districts.
(6) Upper Krishna irrigation project
This project in Bijapur-Gulbarga districts of Karnataka includes :
(i) a 1631 m-long and 34.76 m-high dam across the Krishna at Almatti in Bijapur district;
(ii) a second 6,951 m-long and 23.63 m-high dam on the river at Narayanpur in Gulbarga district;
(iii) a 170.58-km-long canal taking off from the Almatti Dam; and
(iv) a 222-km-long canal taking off from the Narayanpur Dam.
The project will irrigate 2.43 lakh hectares in Bijapur, Raichur and Gulbarga districts of Karnataka.
Q.16. What are the main characteristic of the Sultej-Ganga paln?
Ans : The great plain extends in between the Himalayas and the Peninsular plateau. It is 3200 km long and 150 to 300 km wide. Its average height is 150 metres. It covers an area of 7.5 lakh sq km.
q It is an alluvium filled trough. It has been formed by the deposition of sediments brought from the Himalayas by the Ganga, Sutlej, and other rivers
(i) It is a dead flat lowland. The maximum height is 283 metres near Ambala.
(ii) It has a gentle gradient (¼ metre per km).
(iii) It has huge depth of alluvium.
(iv) A large number of rivers flow in this plain dividing it into Doabs.
(v) It has fertile alluvial soils namely Khadar and Bangar soils.
Division of Northern Plain
(i) Bhabar and Terai
(ii) Punjab plains
(iii) Ganga plains
—Upper Ganga Plain
—Middle Ganga plain
—Lower Ganga plain
(iv) Brahmaputra plains
Q.17. Give a brief note on the seasons of India.
Ans : The monsoon type of climate is characterised by distinct seasonality as it reveals a high degree of diversity in the distribution pattern of the elements of weather, particularly temperature and rainfall. As per Indian Meteorological Department, Throughout most of the country, the year can be divided into four distinct seasons : (i) hot-dry season (mid-March to May end). (ii) hotwet or south-west monsoon season (June to September): (iii) retreating southwest monsoon season (October to November), and (iv) cold dry season (December to February).
(i) Hot-Dry Season
There is a progressive rise in temperature from 260C in mid-March to as high as 450C in mid-May, particularly in the Northern Plains whereas in the peninsular region there is a continuous decrease in temperature. The hot air over the Northern Plains, particularly over the north-western part, forms a low pressure centre.
The hot-dry season is characterised by weak wind and dryness over most of the country with some exceptions, such as tornado like dust storms of Punjab and Haryana, the andhis of Uttar Pradesh and the kalbaisakhis (Norwesters) of West Bengal cause some precipitation. Hot dry westerly winds called loos, blowing more frequently during May and June in the afternoons in the north-western parts of the country, desiccate plants and dry up surface moisture. They also render outdoor life difficult often resulting into several casualties. Low rain fall during the proceeding monsoons make the drought situation severe during succeeding season as acute scarcity of water, food and fodder renders life miserable.
(ii) Hot-Wet Season
This is the season of general rainfall. In early June, the south-westerly winds from the Indian Ocean begin to blow towards the low pressure centre of north-west India, which is at its lowest in July. These are southwest monsoons which bring rains rather suddenly, lowering the temperature substantially. This sudden onset of rain is often termed as monsoon burst, which generally occurs in the first week of June or even earlier in the coastal areas, while in the interior it may by delayed to first week of July. With the onset of rains, temperature starts falling although June is extremely hot at most places in northern India. A second maxima is recorded in September when mean maximum temperature over most of northern India remains quite high.
The Indian subcontinent receives bulk of its rainfall during the south-west monsoon period. The south-west monsoon enters India in the form of two branches, viz, the Arabian sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch. Except the Eastern of Coromondal coast of India, particularly in Tamilnadu, almost every part of India, receives rainfall from these monsoons. The eastern or Tamilnadu coast remains relatively dry because it lies in the rainshadow area of the Arabian Sea current and is parallel to the Bay of Bengal current.
The Arabian Sea branch advances northwards by 1st June on the Kerala coast and reaches Bombay by about 10 June. On the way it is obstructed by the Western Ghats. The windward side of the Sahyadris receive very heavy rains. Crossing the Ghats they overrun the Deccan plateau and Madhya Pradesh causing fair amount of rainfall. Thereafter they enter the Ganga plains and mingle with the Bay of Bengal branch. Another part of the Arbian Sea branch strikes the Saurashtra peninsula and the Kutch. It then passes over west Rajasthan and along the Aravallis, causing only a scanty rainfall. In Punjab and Haryana it too joins the Bay of Bengal branch. These two branches, reinforced by each other cause rains in the Western Himalayas.
The Bay of Bengal branch first strike the Nurmese coast and part of the south-east Bangladesh. But the Arakan Hills along the Burmese coast deflect a big chunk of this branch towards the Indian sub-continent. The monsoon, therefore, enter west Bengal and Bangladesh from south and south-east instead of the south westerly direction. Thereafter this branch splits into two under the influence of the mighty Himalayas and the thermal low in north-western India. One branch moves westward along the Ganga plains reaching as far as the Punjab plains. The other branch moves up the Brahmaputra valley in the north and north-east causing widespread rains in the North-eastern India. Its sub-branch strikes the Garo and Khasi Hills of Meghalaya. It is on the southern face of other hills that Cherrapunji and Mawsynaram are situated at the head of a funnel-shaped valley. Their unique topographical location together with perpendicular wind direction is responsible for causing here the heaviest rainfall in the world. Cherrapunji receives 1,087 cm and Mawsynram 1,141 cm. drawal of monsoon is a more gradual process than its onet. By mid-September the south-west monsoon starts retreating as due to the southward migration of the sun, the high pressure begins to develop over the land and consequently low pressure area moves southwards. The monsoon retreats earlier in the north where September has a hot and sticky weather with distinct rise in temperature which, however, comes down by the end to October giving way to cool weather. The fine weather conditions extend towards eastwards and southwards. In the beginning of October, a low pressure area is centred over northern parts of Bay of Bengal and by the beginning of November it moves further south. The rainy season is, therefore, at this time limited to the east coast of Tamilandu and south of the Peninsula, where the rainiest period is between October and November. By the beginning of December the low pressure area moves further south, and by its end it passes out of Bay limits into the equatorial belt. Similar pattern is followed in the Arabian Sea. In northern India, clear autumn weather, which sets in with the retreat of the monsoon persists till the third/fourth week of December.
(iii) Cold Dry Season
In India the cold weather season starts with December and ends by February. Temperatures during the coldest month (January) may vary from 10-150C in the Nothern plain to 250C in the southern part of the Peninsula. Cold winter conditions lead to the formation of high pressure in the Northern plains. Winds blow out from this high pressure towards the low pressure in the equatorial region, that is they blow from the land to the sea over most part of the country and hence the dry season. These winds are north-westerly or northeasterly in the Ganga plains and become north-easterly over the Bay of Bengal. Most parts of India have fine weather with clear skies, low temperatures and humidity, cool breeze and rainless days.
The fine weather conditions, however, at intervals get disturbed by shallow cyclonic depressions, also known as western disturbances, which originate over the east Mediterranean and Pakistan before bringing light rainfall in the plains and snowfall on the mountains.
The only part of India benefiting from the north-east trade winds is the coast of Tamilnadu which gets most of its rainfall from these winds that absorb moisture content while blowing over the Bay of Bengal. It is in this context these winds are popularly called as north-east monsoons.
Q.18. Describe the various climatic regions of India.
Ans : Tropical Rainy Climate Region : This region has consistently even temperature, which stays above 180 C even in December, April and May are the hottest months, the temperature varying from 180 C to 270 C. July and August are the coolest months, with copious rainfall. The average rainfall exceeds 250 cm, which encourages wet evergreen forests. The western coastal strip, Western Ghats, south of Bombay, Meghalaya, western Nagaland and Tripura come in this climatic region.
Tropical Savanna Region : The chief feature of this climate is the long dry period. Temperatures even in winter stay above 180 C, and in summer may even go up to 460C. Rainfall, except in the south eastern parts, is in summer about 100 cm. In the south eastern parts, the retreating monsoons bring sufficient rains. A major part of the southern peninsula, except the arid tract lying east of the Western Ghats, northeastern Gujarat, south Bihar. major parts of Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, northern Andhra Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra, and eastern Tamilnadu coast come under this region.
Tropical Steppes Region : The average temperature is over 270 C, the lowest temperature being about 230C. April and May are the hottest months, when temperature may rise over 300C. Average rainfall being less than 75 cm, the region comprises a part of the famine zone of the country. The southwest monsoons bring rain to this region. This region comprises the rain shadow areas lying east of the Western Ghats and covers Karnataka, interior Tamilnadu, western Andhra Pradesh and central Maharashtra.
Sub-Tropical Steppe Region : The average temperature rises over 270C, and as high as 480 C is recorded during summer. Rainfall from the southwest monsoons, averages between 50 and 75 cm. It often fails, leading to widespread drought conditions. This region comprises tracts stretching from the Punjab to Kutch and Saurashtra and encompassing western Rajasthan and northern Gujarat.
Tropical Desert Region : The summer temperature rises over 480C, while in winter it goes down to 10C. May and June are the hottest months. Average rainfall is 12.5 cm and very unreliable. Excessive evaporation during summer and intense cold during winter hinder crop production except through river irrigation. Western Rajasthan and parts of Kutch, which are purely sandy plains, come in this region.
Humid Sub-Tropical Region : Summer temperatures are 460C to 480C. Average rainfall, mostly from summer monsoons, is about 62.5 cm, which increases to over 250 cm in the east. Winters are virtually dry. This region is spread over the foothills of the Himalayas, eastern Rajasthan, plains of U.P., Bihar, northern Bengal, part of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.
Mountain Region : Average temperature in June is 150C to 170C, in winter it goes below 80C. On the northern slopes of the Himalayas, the rainfall is scanty, about 8-10 cm, but the western slops enjoy a heavy rainfall of over 250 cm. The entire Himalayan belt comprising both the trans-Himalayas and the main Himalays come under this region.
Q.19. Describe the condition of drought in India. Point out the drought regions. What should be the programmes of drought areas?
Ans : About 12% of India's area receives less than 61 cm rainfall on an average, and only 8% receives more than 250 cm. Drought conditions occur on account of the erratic nature of the Indian monsoons. With long dry spells accompanied by high temperature,. The intensity of drought varies from year to year. It is generally more frequent in areas having low rainfall. The driest parts which are liable to drought lie in Rajasthan, adjoining Haryana and parts of Gujarat. These are areas of recurrent drought. Another area liable to frequent drought lies on the leeward side of the Western Ghats.
The Irrigation Commission (1962) has identified drought affected areas as those areas with a rainfall of less than 10 cm; where even 75% of this rainfall is not received in 20% or more areas, and wher eirrigation is less than 30% of the cropped area.
Of the total gross cultivated areas of the country, about 56 million hectares are subject to poor and unpredictable rainfall. Poor rainfall leads to drought in a little over 1 million sq. km.
Drought Regions : There are certain well defined tracts of drought. These are :
(i) The desert and the semi-arid regions, comprising approximately 0.6 million sq. km., form a rectangle from Ahmedabad to Kanpur on one side and Kanpur to Jalandhur on the other. Rainfall in this region is below 7.5 cm, and at places below 4cm. Some of these areas, where irrigation is not provided are among the worst famine tracts.
(ii) East of the Western Ghats, to a width of 300 km. The region extends all along the Krishna river almost to within 80 km from the coast. This region accounts for 0.7 million sq. km.
(iii) Scattered pockets of drought, comprises Tirunelveli district south of Vaigai river, Coimbatore area (in Tamilnadu), Saurashtra and Kutch (Gujarat), Mirzapur and Palamau (U.P.), Purulia district (West Bengal), Kalahandi (Orissa). These pockets total an area of 0.1 million sq. km.
Programmes of Drought Areas : The main policy programmes for drought areas should be :
(i) Conjunctive use of water from rainfall, surface and underground.
(ii) Introduction of crop pattern which best protects them from drought and ensures a reasonable and reliable income.
(iii) developing minor irrigation works like anicuts, bandharas, tanks and dug-wells.
(iv) Lining of canals and distributaries to minimise water loss.
(v) Drip of trickle irrigation to reclaim some highly saline desert areas and to develop them for growing high value off-season crops.
(vi) Expeditious completion of continuing projects.
(vii) Dry farming methods to preserve and make the best use of available natural moisture.
Q.20. Do you believe that Mauryan court art was an alien grafting.
Ans. During Maurya period contact with outside world was frequent. There were ambassadors from various countries like Greece, Persia etc. living at the Mauryan court. In the Northwest people from India served in Persian army and there was exchange of goods on a big scale hence the outside influence on Mauryan court especially the Persian influence can be seen.
The discovery of 80 pillared Hall at Kumrahar near Patna was an imitation of Persian Hall of hundred pillars.
The use of wood in architecture and its importation of foreign motif did not lead it to proliferate in India and it failed to influence latter artistic form.
The Asoka is said to have constructed 84 thousand stupas. But the best specimens of Mauryan art are the tall monolithic highly polished columns, standing free in space, often crossed with animals figures. At least 14 pillars are known. These pillars are chiselled out of Grey, Chunar sandstone which presents a lustrous Polish because of applications of silicious varnish on the stone. The invested lotus motif in the Ashokan pillars seems to be imitation of the Persepotitan bell.
Asokan edicts provide the first evidence of decipherable writing in Brahmin, Aramaic and Kharasthi scripts. The later two have foreign origin and have Persian influence is style.
But the development in cave architecture, with Barabar Hills cave and Nagarjuni caves near Gaya, had lasting influence and these contribute to influence later Indian court art and architecture.
Q.21. Write a short notes on th e following : (1) Satara (2) Talikot (3) Tanjore (4) Tarain.
Ans : (1) Satara : In Maharashtra, seat of Maratha power during Shivaji. Later on during Peshwas, the seat of power was shifted to Puna.
(2) Talikot : It is the place where Bahamani Kingdom (when all the splintered states of Bahamani kingdom. joined hands) defeated Vijaynagar in 1565, making the end of Imperial phase and emergence of small Nayaka ruled states.
(3) Tanjore : Capital of Imperial Cholas, and after Vijaynagar declined a Nayaka ruled here. Cholas built massive free standing temples and monolithic temples- carved out of a single mountain. The Brihadeshwara temple was built by Raja Raja Chola.
(4) Tarain : In North West of Delhi. It was on route to North West Passes looking India with central Asia and Afghanistan. Two battles were fought against Mahmud Gori's invasions in 1191 and 1192. In the second battle Prithvi Raj Chauhan was defeated and this paved the way for establishment of Muslim rule and slave dynasty and the Delhi sultanate.
Q.22. What are the provision for formation of Constituent Assembly? What are its merits and demerits?
Ans : Provincial Legislative Assemblies to elect representatives for Constituent Assembly.
D. Proposal for Interim Government
Merits of Cabinet Mission Scheme
Criticism of the Plan
Q.23. Write short notes on : (1) Atmiya Sabha (2) Tattvabodhani Sabha (3) Deva Samaj (4) Indian National Social Conference (5) Ahl-i-Hadis (6) Satya Shodhak Samaj (7) Faraizi Movement (8) The Birsa Movement (9) Kuka Movement (10) Muhammadan Educational Conference
Ans : (1) Atmiya Sabha—founded in 1815 at Calcutta by Raja Rammohan Roy. Its aim was to attack the evils in Hinduism and to propagate Monotheism.
(2) Tattvabodhani Sabha— Founded in 1839 at Calcutta by Debendranath Tagore. Its aim was to propagate Rammohan Roy’s ideas.
(3) Deva Samaj—Founded in 1887 at Lahore by Sivanarayan Agnihotri. Its aim was same as that of the Brahmo Samaj; but unlike the Brahmos, its followers worshipped their guru.
(4) Indian National Social Conference—Founded in 1887 at Bombay by M.G. Ranade. Its aim was to remove the social evils prevalent in Indian society and to promote the welfare of women.
(5) Ahl-i-Hadis—Founded in the second half of nineteenth century in Punjab by Maulana Syed Nazir Hussain. This group of theologians refused to recognise the existing four schools of jurisprudence and considered only Hadis (sayings of the Prophet) and the Quran as the ultimate authority on Islam.
(6) Satya Shodhak Samaj— Founded by Jyotiba Phule in Maharastra. It was one of the earliest movements which took up the cause of the lower castes against Brahman domination. It insisted on the discarding of sacerdotal authority of the Brahmanas and tried to make the lower castes conscious of their rights through education.
(7) Faraizi Movement— Influenced by the Wahabi Movement, Shariatullah started the Faraizi Movement in East Bengal to organize the peasants for rising against the oppression of Zamindars and Government authorities. It was essentially a Muslim movement since it envisaged an Islamic administration. Later it became more an anti-Hindu revolt than a movement advocating the cause of the peasantry.
(8) The Birsa Movement— Among all the agrarian movements which existed between 1881 and 1895, the Birsa Movement was the most serious revolt under the leadership of Birsa of the Munda tribe. Like the Kuka and Wahabi Movements, “the underlying object of the Birsa movement was internal purification.” Since they felt that the socio-economic changes which affected their society were created by the British, they turned their hostility towards the British later. His popularity alarmed the Government. It arrested Birsa but released after two years. He started his activities yet again. He was captured on February 3, 1890. He died of Cholera while in jail.
(9) Kuka Movement—The Kuka movement in the Punjab is in a way similar to the Wahabi Movement. In the case of Kuka, it was Sikhism and in the Wahabi, it was Islam.
It was founded in the Western Punjab by Bhagat Jawahar Mal soon after the conquest of Punjab by British. It aimed at removing the abuses and superstition that had crept into the Sikh religion, besides revolting against caste distinction, idol-worship etc. The rash action of a group of fanatics in the organisation resulted in its downfall.
(10) Muhammadan Educational Conference: Founded in 1886 at Aligarh by Sir Syed Ahmad khan. its aim was to promote the education of Muslim masses on Western lines. This and other educational and social service activities of Sir Syed and his followers are together known as “Aligarh Movement.”
Q.24. Wirte short notes on : (1) Social Service League (2) Boy Scout's Association (3) Dharma Sabha (4) Seva Samithi (5) Women's Indian Association (6) Dar-ul-ulum (7) Ahl-i-Quram (8) Barelwis (9) Qadiani or Ahmedia Movement (10) Chuar and Ho Risings
Ans : (1) Social Service League—Founded in 1911 at Bombay by N.M. Joshi. Its aim was to secure for the masses better and reasonable conditions of life and work.
(2) Seva Samithi Boy Scout’s Association—Founded in 1914 at Bombay by Shri Ram Bajpai. Its aim is to bring about the complete Indianisation of the Boy Scout Movement in India.
(3) Dharma Sabha (1829)—Founded at Calcutta by Radhakanta Dev. It was founded as a rival to Brahmo Samaj and its aim was to defend orthodox Hinduism.
(4) Seva Samithi (1914)—Founded at Allahabad by H.N. Kunzru. It was for organizing social service during natural calamities, and to promote education, sanitation, physical culture etc.
(5) Women’s Indian Association (1923)—Founded at Madras to promote the welfare of Indian women (from 1926 All India Women’s Conference began to hold annual meetings)
(6) Dar-ul-ulum (1866)—Founded by Maulana Hussain Ahmad and others to resusciate classical Islam and to improve the spiritual and moral conditions of the Muslims. The liberal interpretation of Islam by its founders created political awakening among its followers, and some of them, like Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, played an important role in the National Movement.
(7) Ahl-i-Quran—Founded at Punjab by Maulvi Abdullah Chakravarti. They considered only Quran as the ultimate authority on Islam.
(8) Barelwis—Founded in the second half of 19th century, in Punjab by Maulana Ahmad Riza Khan. They preached the revival of many old Islamic practices. They vehemently opposed the Deoband school and its preachings.
(9) Qadiani or Ahmedia Movement—Founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad to reform Islam and to defend it against Christian missionaries and Arya Samajists; it gave religious recognition to modern industrial and technological progress; it was the most closely knit and the best organised Muslim group in India.
(10) Chuar and Ho Risings (1766-72)—Famine, enhanced demands and economic privation drove the Chuar aboriginal tribesmen to revolt in 1766.
Q.25. Write short notes on : (1) The Sanyasi Revolt (2) Kol Risings (3) Ahoms Revolt (4) Khasi Rising (5) Santhal Risings
Ans : (1) The Sanyasi Revolt—The disastrous famine of 1770 and the harsh economic order of the British compelled a group of Sanyasis to fight the Britishers.
p They raided Company factories, state treasures and fought the Company’s forces. After prolonged action Hastings subdued the Sanyasis.
(2) Kol Risings (1831)—The Kols of Chhotanagpur opposed the transfer of land from Kol headmen to outsiders. A large military force had to be deployed to suppress it.
(3) Ahoms Revolt (1828-33)—They revolted due to the non-fulfilment of the pledges of the Company after the conclusion of the Burmese War.
(4) Khasi Rising—The Britishers occupied the hilly region between Jaintia and Garo hills.
(5) Santhal Risings (1855-56)—The Santhal rebellion in the Rajmahal hills area of Bihar, beginning primarily as a reaction against their exploitation by the outsiders, developed into an anti-British movement.
Q.26. Who are they and why are they famous for?
(1) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya (2) Ranade (3) Badruddin Tyabji (4) Vithalbhai Patel (5) Maulana Mohammad Ali (6) A.D. Savarkar (7) K.M. Munshi (8) Rafi Ahmed Kidwai (9) Rahimatulla M.Sayani (10) Madhusudan Dass
Ans : (1) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya (1838-1894)—Born at Kanthalpara in West Bengal. First graduate of Calcutta University. He wielded a powerful pen and wrote about nationalism, religion, society and the ideals of life. He brought out the spirit of sacrifice and the nobility of character inherent in women. The great song Bande Mataram composed by him inspired millions of his countrymen.
(2) Ranade (1842-1901)—Political preceptor of Gokhale. Founded the Deccan Educational Society which was responsible for the starting of Fergusson College at Pune. He was deeply interested in Indian Economics. He organised a Social Reform Congress through which he gave definite shape to his ideas of social reform.
(3) Badruddin Tyabji (1844-1906)—Made history by becoming the first Indian Chief Justice of Bombay High Court. In 1887 he presided over the Congress session. He organized the Anjuman-I-Islam in Bombay for the uplift of Muslims.
(4) Vithalbhai Patel (1871-1933)—He was invited to England as a Congress man to tender evidence before the Joint Committee on Reforms. Rendered yeoman service in the city of Bombay, as its Mayor. In 1925 he was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly and was elected its President during a very stormy period.
(5) Maulana Mohammad Ali (1878-1930)—In the Khilafat Movement of the 20s of this century, Hindus and Muslims of the country found common meeting ground and inspired by Maulana Mohammad Ali and Mahatma Gandhi, they fought side by side. Started the Jamia Millia Islamia University. He attended the Round Table Conference in 1930. He was sick at that time and died in London.
(6) V.D. Savarkar (1883-1956)—While he was a student in London, he became a prominent revolutionary leader organizing the movement in England. In India he was sentenced to transportation for life and deported to the Andamans. He was released in 1937. Became a prominent member of the Hindu Mahasabha and became a tireless fighter against Muslim communalism. He was also known as a poet and journalist.
(7) K.M. Munshi (1887-1971)— A great writer, lawyer and prominent Congress leader. He participated in the Salt Satyagraha of 1930 and also joined the CDM. He founded the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan in 1938. He was Union Minister for Food and Agriculture (1950-52) and Governor of U.P. (1952-57). He left the Congress and joined the Swatantra Party of which he was made the Vice-Chairman.
(8) Rafi Ahmed Kidwai (1894-1954)—He was secretary to Motilal Nehru. Led an agrarian movement and a No-Tax campaign in Rae Bareilly. In 1935 he became Minister for Land Revenue in U.P. In 1952 he became Minister for Food and Agriculture.
(9) Rahimatulla M.Sayani (1847-1902)—Sayani was Justice of Peace in 1876, President of the Bombay Municipal Corporation for 25 years and Member of the Bombay Legislative Council in 1888. He became a member of the Imperial Legislative Council in 1896. He encouraged Muslims to join Congress.
(10) Madhusudan Dass (1848-1934)—Madhusudan Dass can be called the architect of Modern Orissa. With the desire to make Orissa industrialised, he founded Orissa Art Wares Factory in 1897 and Utkal Tannery in 1903. He voiced the grievances of the people of Orissa through the English journal the ‘Oriya’ which he edited. He condemned the caste distinctions and advocated women’s education. He worked for the uplift of Harijans.
Q.27. Analyze the process of early socialization. Discuss the effect of exclusive mothering and substitute care on the child’s later personality development.
Ans : Socialisation refers to the process by which a primarily biological infant is transformed into well-developed social being. It is a process which teaches him the various social and cultural trait which are necessary for a proper living in the society. Socialisation during childhood is much more important than at other stages of human life cycle because it is during the childhood that the child learns the basic building blocks necessary for the development of a fully-functioning individual. It is the ‘critical period’ for acquiring a number of basic behavioural cmpetences so that if they are not acquired during this stage the child will develop relatively permanent behavioural deficiencies. This happens usually when the child is required to be exposed to certain experiences at this stage but, in fact, he does not exposed to such required experiences. This lack of proper stimulation and needed experiences retards the capacity of the child to move towards more differentiation and complexity within the prescribed phylogenetic limits.
The development of behavioural deficiencies owing to the deprivation of required or needed experiences during the childhood has been well demonstrated by the case of those organisms who have not had proper natural nourishment during the initial years of their life and so, later on develop on erratic and some times, even pathological behavioural pattern. The area of maternal care and comfort has proved to be a fertile ground for studying the impact of social deprivation during the initial years of life on overall personality. This is due to the fact that it is through maternal association during the initial years of one’s life that one acquires a socially adequate emotional pattern.