SST Set - 4 (Q.1 to 18)
Q.1. What does market demand function show? Discuss the factors which influence market demand.
Ans : Market Demand Function show how market demand for a commodity (or aggregate demand for a commodity in the market) is related to its various determinants. Or it shows the relationship between market demand for a commodity and its various determinants. It is expressed as under.
Mkt. DX = f ( P, Pr, Y, T E N, G, S, Yd)
Market demand (market demand for commodity X) is a function of price of the commodity (P), Pr = Price of related goods; Y = Consumer’ income T = Taste, E = Expectation; N = Population; G = Government policy; S = Season; Yd = Distribution of Income. We discuss below the factors influencing market demand.
(1) Population : Demand increases with increase in population and decreases with decrease in population. Composition of population also effects demand. If composition of population changes, e.g., female population increases,demand for goods meant for women will go up.
(2) Government Policy : If the government intends to curtail the demand for a given commodity, it may impose tax on it. Tax will raise the price of the thing and so its demand will fall. If the government desires to promote the demand for a thing then it will try to bring down its price by giving different types of subsidies to the producers.
(3) Season and Climate : Season and climate also affect market demand. Demand for woolen garments will be more in cold places. Demand for ice will increase in summer but decrease in winter.
(4) Distribution of Income : Market Demand is also influenced by change in the distribution of income in the society. If income is equitably distributed there will be more demand. If income is not equitably distributed there will be less demand. In the latter case, more income will concentrate with the rich. Large sector of the society will be poor and because of its law income, market demand will also be low.
Q.2. Show the behaviour of different costs in the Short Period ?
Ans : All aspects of short period costs like fixed cost (FC), variable cost (VC), average fixed costs (AFC), average variable cost (AVC), average cost (AC) and marginal cost (MC) can be studied together with the help of the figure, In Figure average fixed cost (AFC) curve is continuously falling downwards, because as production increases AFC falls. Initially, it falls sharply, later the rate of fall slows down. AVC is average variable cost. Point ‘A’ is its lowest point. After point ‘A’, this curve rises upward. It is of ‘U’ shape. SAC is short-period average cost curve. It is also ‘U’ shaped. The lowest point ‘A’ of average variable cost (AVC) occurs prior to the lowest point ‘B’ of short-period average cost (SAC). As it is clear from the above diagram, the gap between average cost and average variable cost becomes narrower as the production goes on increasing. This gap is due to average fixed cost. As the average fixed cost goes n falling, the difference between average fixed cost goes on falling, the difference between average cost and average variable cost becomes narrower and narrower. Marginal Cost (MC) curve is also U shaped. This curve cuts average cost (AC) curve and average variable cost (AVC) curve at their lowest points.
Q.3. What is the meaning and types of Marginal Productivity?
Ans : Before explaining the marginal productivity theory of distribution, it will be advisable to know fully the meaning of marginal productivity and its different aspects.
Broadly the concept of marginal productivity is used in its three different aspects :
1) Marginal Physical Productivity : When we express marginal productivity in terms of increase in the quantity of output (goods), it is called marginal physical productivity. In the words of M.J.Ulmer, “Marginal physical productivity may be defined as the addition to total production resulting from employment of one more unit of a factor of production, all other things being constant.” Supposing, one labourer produces 5 meters of cloth. When the second labourer is employed total production increases to 9 meters of cloth. Thus, marginal physical productivity (MPP) of the second labourer will be = 9 mtrs. - 5 mtrs. = 4 mtrs. of cloth. Marginal physical productivity of one unit of labour can be expressed in the following equation:
MMP = TPPn - TPPn-1
Here, MPP = marginal physical productivity of labour
TPPn = total physical productivity of ‘n’ units of labour
TPPn-1 = total physical productivity of ‘n-1’ units of labour.
(2) Marginal Revenue Productivity : The concept of marginal revenue productivity is related to change in total revenue. In the words of M.J.Ulmer, “Marginal revenue productivity may be defined as the addition to total revenue resulting from employment of one more unit of a factor of production, all other things being constant.” Thus
MRP = TRPn - TRPn-1 OR MRP = MPP × MR
Marginal revenue productivity is the multiple of additional units produced on account of the employment of an additional unit of the variable factor on the one hand and additional revenue realised from the sale of an additional unit of output on he other hand. Supposing an additional worker produces 5 metres of cloth and an additional metre of cloth sold in the market. Fetches additional revenue of Rs. 4 MRP in such a case would be [MPP × MR] = 5 × Rs.4 = Rs. 20.
(3) Value of Marginal Productivity : Value of marginal productivity is calculated by multiplying physical productivity (MPP) of a factor by the price (AR) of the product produced by him. In the words of Ferguson, “The value of Marginal Product of a variable factor is equal to its marginal product multiplied by the market price of the commodity in question.” Thus,
VMP = MPP × AR
Supposing, price of cloth is Rs. 5 per metre. If marginal physical productivity (MPP) of the second labourer is 4 mtrs. of cloth, then of marginal productivity (VMP) will be (4 × Rs. 5) = Rs. 20.
Q.4. What is investment ? Discuss the two aspects of Investment ?
Ans : Investment refers to the expenditure incurred by the producers on the purchase of capital goods such as machinery, plant and the like.
- According to Peterson, "Investment expenditure includes expenditure of producer's durable equipment, new construction and the change in invetories."
Keynes considers two aspects of investment :
(i) Induced Investment : An investment which is influenced by expected profit or rising level of income in the economy is called induced investment. At higher levels of income, consumption expenditure tends to increase. Increased consumption expected profitability of the producers who accordingly are induced to make greater investment. Thus, induced investment is positively related to the level of income in an economy.
It is observed that while induced investment is positively related to the level of income implying rising level of investment), autonomous investment may continue to be constant, no matter what the level of income is. Unlike induced ivestment, autonomous investment is not determined by consideration of profit . Instead, it is determined by consideration of social welfare.
(ii) Autonomous Investment : An investment which is not influenced by expected profitability or level of income is called autonomous investment. In fact, it is an investment expenditure incurred by the government with a view to promoting the level of aggregate demand in the economy, when the level of aggregate demand falls short of the aggregate supply (resulting in fall in prices, profitability and unemployment) the government intends to push up the level of aggregate demand by way of its own investment expenditure. Obviously, such an investment in not influenced by profitability, and so is independent of the level of income.
Q.5. What is the difference between Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy ?
Ans : The main differences between fiscal polich and monetary policy are as follows :
1. Fiscal Policy is concerned with the public revenue, public expenditure and government Budget.
2. The main constituents of fiscal policy are (i) Taxes, Public Borrowing and deficit financing. (ii) Public Expenditure on public works, public welfare, defence and subsidies.
3. Fiscal Policy has a direct bearing on all he sectors of the economy.
1. Monetary Policy is concerned with the supply, availability and cost of money.
2. The main constitutents of monetary policy are bank rate, open market operation, change in cash reserve ratio, requirement of the margin etc.
3. Monetary Policy has a direct beraing largely on selective producing sector of the economy.
Q.6. The contex and the manner in which the public sector limits were set up and the objectives which guided them so far in their operation are juxtaposed . Discuss.
Ans : The basic considerations which persuaded the government in setting up huge manufacturing capacities especially in the so called core sector industries like power, steel, aluminium, copper, mining, heavy machinery, paper etc. was to make India a self-reliant economy.
These were also industries involving large investment, long gestation periods in project implementation and consequent long periods of waiting for securing returns on investments made.
In an era in which availability of long term capital was abundant and at low interest rates through bilateral credits and or grants, commercial considerations were secondary or even tertiary, with the overriding objective having been to make public sector attain commanding heights at almost any cost.
The decision to go ahead with setting up of the BHEL's unit at Bhopal for example was taken even when the feasibility report estimated a rate of return on this project, as low a level as at 2%.
Many of the products made by the PSUs like steel, paper, power, coal, fertilisers were subject to price controls to met the social objective of making them available at reasonable/affordable prices, with viability of manufacturing units under such adverse conditions having been supported by budgetary allocations and subsidies.
Whether it was for the government, or for the sake of the individual citizen or for the private sector industry, a major portion of the PSUs had to exist for others benefit by providing inputs (goods/services) at cheap rates. In other words, conditions never existed for their becoming vibrant, self sustaining organisation, based on commercially oriented operations, with profit motive at the core.
Whether at the time of setting up of new projects or in the context of diversification of operations, the choices in respect of technology, location of projects, selection of products for diversification in a number of cases, were not based on considerations, which would have ensured long term viability of the concerned PSUs or their ability to compete effectively in the overseas markets.
To cite one example, the once blue chip HMT sunk into its present perennial loss making situation because of a sorts of ill conceived moves and lapses like setting up of a huge capacity for production of GLS lamps based on a relatively inferior Tungsram technology, not having been able to get into manufacture of CNC machine tools at an early opportune time, setting up of a printing machinery unit based on a technology which the market did not accept etc.
Quite a few units especially relating to products lie heavy machinery based on Russian technology turned out products, which were not efficient either in the use of energy or other inputs.
In the case of another prominent PSU viz. Cement Corporation of India (CCI) the locational decisions with regard to setting up of a few of its cement plants were so far removed away from viability consideration, that at one point of time (towards the end of 1980s) the breakeven level of production for this cement manufacturing conglomerate was estimated to be more than 150%.
A significant number of projects in public sector suffered from time and cost overruns of an unbelievable magnitude, damaging their viability badly and making them almost prematurely sick. The department of programme implementation, government of India documented dozens of such case in its reports.
Q.7. How do you define poverty and poverty line?
Ans : Poverty is a social phenomenon in which a certain section of society is unable to fulfill even its basic minimum necessities of life. In other words, it refers to the inability to secure minimum consumption requirement for life and efficiency.
According to M.L. Dantwala poor are those who live below the poverty line which is defined in terms of per capita household expenditure. In the Indian planning literature, poverty line is determined by the concept of expenditure considered necessary for a minimum level of living or minimum needs.
Poverty Line : The Planning commission has now adopted an alternative definition of poverty provided by the "Task Force on Projections of Minimum Needs and Effective consumption Demand". According to it the poverty line is defined as the monthly per capita expenditure of class having a daily calorie in-take of 2400 per person in rural areas and 2100 in urban areas. This expenditure is officially estimated at Rs. 228.9 per capita per month in rural areas and Rs. 264.1 in urban areas at 1993-94 prices.
In order to study poverty in India economists have particularly relied on national Sample Survey Organisation (NSS) data on consumption expenditure of urban rural population.
There is controversy about the percentage of population below poverty line in India. Different methods have been adopted to estimate poverty line.
Q.8. It is generally said that “The Directive Principles of State Policy do not matter”. State briefly the main points of criticism.
Ans. There has been a lot of Criticism of the Directive Principles of State Policy enumerated in Part IV of the Constitution. Following are the main points of criticism:
(i) It is said that the Directive Principles of State Policy are empty promises and a vote-catching device for the party-in-power. They also are highly vague and repetitive.
(ii) It is contended that these principles are only pious promises which are meaningless as they cannot be enforced by the Courts.
(iii) Another criticism is that these empty promises are just like an undated bank cheque payable when able.
(iv) According to Sir B.N. Rau “The Directive Principles of State Policy are in the nature of moral precepts for the State authorities and are open to facile criticism that the Constitution is not the place for moral precepts.”
(v) According to Sir lvor Jennings “Directive Principles are based on no consistent philosophy.” He further states that “the Directive Principles of State Policy do not matter.”
(vi) Prof. Jennings has questioned the advisability of adopting in the twentieth century, the principles which were followed in Britain during the nineteenth century.
Despite the aforesaid criticisms, the Directive Principles of the State Policy are a constant remainder to the State what it ought to do for the welfare of the people and establish an egalitarian society in the country. Of course, though not fully implemented, they have helped the country to move forward towards the ideals which the Founding Fathers of the Constitution placed before the future governments both at the centre and at the state levels.
Q.9. State briefly as to what extent the Directive Principles of State Policy have been implemented by the Government?
Ans. Although the Directive Principles of State Policy are not justiciable and they lack any legal force behind them yet the Government has tried to implement them to a great extent. There is no doubt that the expectations of the people have not been entirely fulfilled, still it cannot be denied that some good work has definitely been done by the Government for the implementation of these Principles.
The following points will illustrate the extent to which these Principles have been implemented by the Government:
(i) The main objective of the five-Year Plans was to raise the standard of living of the people as envisaged in the Directive Principles.
(ii) The State tried to provide adequate means of livelihood by creating more jobs in the Public sector through many projects and plants which were established in the country.
(iii) The State nationalized many private enterprises like banks, insurance companies, etc. to control the material resources, to subserve the common good and to prevent concentration of wealth in the ends of a few persons.
(iv) Efforts are also made to ensure equal pay for equal work to both men and women
(v) Many laws have been passed to protect the health of workers. Employees State Insurance Corporation has done commendable work in this regard by opening dispensaries for giving medical aid to the workers.
(vi) Many laws have been passed to protect the children against exploitation and prevent their employment in hazardous occupations.
(vii) Many States have made provision to help the disabled, old and destitute persons who have no means of livelihood.
(viii) Many laws have been passed to improve the conditions of working for the labourers in mines, factories, etc.
(ix) Bonded labour has been abolished in the country which was a great social and economic evil.
(xi) Panchayats have been established in the villages in pursuance of these Principles through the Seventy-third Constitutional amendment.
(xii) The Government has established Village & Khadi Industries Commission to promote village ad khadi industries. For the promotion of cottage industries also many emporiums have been opened.
(xiii) Many steps have been taken to improve the breed of milch cattle in the country through artificial insemination and cross breeding.
(xiv) Many States have passed laws to ban cow slaughter.
(xv) Many laws have been passed to protect the interest of the weaker sections of the people. Much is being done to ameliorate the conditions of the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. A certain percentage of jobs is reserved for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes in the Government Offices as well as in the Public sector Undertakings.
(xvi) Total prohibition has been attempted in a few States whereas in others, there is partial prohibition.
(xvii) The government has under its view to grant right to education to every citizen.
(xix) The foreign policy of India is based upon non-alignment and peace in the world. India has always tried to promote friendly relations with all countries of the world including its neighbours. Since its independence, India has been incessantly working for the establishment of peace in the world.
In conclusion, we can say that the Governments both at the Centre and the States in India have made sincere efforts to implement the Directive Principles of State Policy. Their efforts may not have been a complete success but a lot has been achieved in this regard. Of course, still much remains to be done. Let us hope that in future also, the government will be guided by these Principles and that day will not be far off when a truly democratic society will be established in India on the basis of social, economic and political justice as envisaged in the Directive Principles of State Policy.
Q.10. What is the procedure for Impeachment of the President of India?
Ans. The President of India can be impeached for serious violation of the Constitution. Article 61 lays down the following procedure for impeachment of the president:
(i) When a President is to be impeached for violation of the Constitution, the charge can be preferred by either House of Parliament.
(ii) A resolution containing such charge can be moved after at least fourteen days’ notice in writing signed by not less than one-fourth of the total number of members of that House has been given of their intention to move the resolution.
(iii) Such a resolution has to be passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House which prefers the charge.
(iv) When a charge for impeachment has been preferred by either House of the Parliament, then the other house shall investigate the charge or cause the charge to be investigated and
(v) The President shall have the right to appear and to be represented at such investigation, through his attorney.
(vi) If as a result of the investigation, a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the house by which the charge was investigated or caused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the president has been sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as from the date on which the resolution is so passed.
Q.11. Why an indirect method of election was chosen for the President of India?
Ans. The indirect method of election was chosen for the following reasons:
(i) Under a Parliamentary System of government, the President is to be only a nominal head with a few real powers. Therefore, a direct election would be unnecessary.
(ii) if the President were to be elected by a direct method then he would demand real power which cannot be given under a parliamentary System.
(iii) If the President is elected directly, there may be clashes between the Cabinet and the President as to who represented the real will of the people.
(iv) In the direct election of a President, a huge amount of money will have to be spent on his election.
(v) Direct election may not be suitable for our country where quite a large number of the people are illiterate.
Q.12. What are the Immunities of the President?
Ans. The President is given the following immunities to maintain the dignity and prestige of its office. These are given under Article 361 of the Constitution:
(i) The President shall not be answerable to any court for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of his office or for any act done or purporting to be done by him in the exercise and performance of those powers and duties.
(ii) Of course, the conduct of the President may be brought under review by any court, tribunal or body appointed or designated by either House of Parliament for the investigation of a charge under Article 61.
(iii) If any citizen wants to appeal against any order of the president he has the right to move the courts against the Central Government but not against the president personally. The constitution gives the right to the citizens to bring appropriate proceedings against the Government of India.
(iv) No criminal proceedings whatsoever shall be instituted or continued against the President in any court during his term of office.
(v) No civil proceedings in which relief is claimed against the President shall be instituted during his term of office in any court in respect of any act done or purporting to be done by him in his personal capacity, whether before or after he entered upon his office as president until the expiration of two months, after notice in writing has been delivered to the President, the cause of action there of, the name, description and place of residence of the party by whom such proceedings are to be instituted and the relief which he claims.
(vi) No process for the arrest or imprisonment of the president shall issue from any court during his term of office.
Q.13. Who decides the disputes relating to the election of Vice-President?
Ans. Originally it was written under Article 71 of the Constitution “All doubts or Vice-President shall be inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court whose decision shall be final.”
But under the Thirty-ninth Amendment passed during the emergency it is laid down that the disputes regarding the election of President, Vice-President, Speaker, and Prime Minister cannot be decided by the Supreme Court of India. For deciding these disputes a Special Parliamentary Tribunal will be appointed by the President of India.
By the Constitution (forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978 the original Article 71 of the Constitution has been substituted by the following article, namely: 71. Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or vice-President.
(1) All doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a President or Vice-President shall be inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court whose decision shall be final.
(2) If the election of a person as President or Vice-President is declared void by the Supreme Court, acts done by him in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of the office of President, as the case may be, on or before the date of the decision of the Supreme Court shall not be invalidated by reason of that declaration.
(3) Subject to the provision of this Constitution, Parliament may by law regulate any matter relating to or connected with the election of a President or Vice-President.
(4) The election of a person as President or Vice-President shall not be called in question on the ground of the existence of any vacancy, for whatever reason, among the members of the electoral college electing him.
Q.14. What do you understand by “Collective Responsibility”?
Ans. The principle of collective responsibility is now well recognised and the most important ingredient of the parliamentary type of governments all over the world. U.K. is the mother of Parliamentary type of governments. We have also borrowed this principle from U.K. itself. Article 74(3) of our Constitution also states this principle vividly “The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the House of People.” As far as the principle of collective responsibility of Ministers in a parliamentary type of government is concerned, the following points may be noted:
(i) Collective Responsibility signifies the joint responsibility of the Council of Ministers as a body for all acts of their omissions and commissions. It signifies that all the Ministers stand together and fall together. They swim and sink together.
(ii) The Council of Ministers is formed with the recommendation of the Prime Minister and with his removal, it is also removed. The resignation of the Prime Minister means the resignation of the Council of Ministers.
(iii) Although the Ministers are individually in charge of their own departments but as a team they are responsible for the actions of each and every one of them. In a way, all the members of the Council of Ministers are responsible for the actions of all and every Minister. In short, we can say that collective responsibility means the responsibility of all for all.
(iv) According to Lord Salisbury “For all that passes in the Cabinet, every member of it who does not resign is absolutely and irretrievably responsible and has no right afterwards to say that he agreed in one case to a compromise while in another he was persuaded by his colleagues... It is only on the principle that absolute responsibility is undertaken by every member of the Cabinet, who, after a decision is arrived at, remains a member of it, that the joint responsibility of ministers to Parliament can be upheld and one of the most essential principles of parliamentary responsibility established.”
(v) In reality, a member of a Council of Ministers who does not agree with any decision of the Cabinet should resign immediately because till he remains in the Cabinet he must support all its decisions.
(vi) Under the principle of collective responsibility, all the Ministers must agree with the prime Minister because ultimately the Prime Minister is responsible for all the policies of the Council of Ministers. When a Minister loses the confidence of the Prime Minister, he should resign from the Council of Ministers or the Prime Minister can get him dismissed by advising the president accordingly.
(vii) No Minister can criticise in public the policies or the decisions of the Cabinet. He may show his difference of opinion in the Cabinet meetings but once a decision is taken by the Cabinet then he has to support it even if he does not agree with it personally; failing which he should quit.
(viii) Under this principle, if the House of the People passes a vote of no confidence against the Prime Minister it means that it is a vote of no confidence against the whole of the Council of Ministers. Similarly even if a vote of no confidence is passed against a single Minister, whole of the Cabinet has to resign under the principle of collective responsibility. Because they come into office together, remain in office together, and go out of office together.
Q.15. Mention the rules to be observed by the Legislators while speaking inside the Parliament or Legislative Assembly?
Ans : A member while speaking shall not—
(1) refer to any matter of fact on which a judicial decision is pending;
(2) make personal reference by way of making an allegation imputing a motive to or questioning the bona fides of any other member of the House unless it be imperatively necessary for the purpose of the debate being itself a matter in issue or relevant thereto;
(3) use offensive expression about the conduct of proceedings of Parliament or any State Legislature;
(4) reflect on any determination of the House except on a motion for rescinding it;
(5) reflect upon the conduct of persons in high authority unless the discussion is based on a substantive motion drawn in proper terms;
(6) use the President’s name for the purpose of influencing the debate;
(7) utter treasonable-seditions or defamatory words;
(8) use his right of speech for the purpose of obstructing the business of the House;
(9) make any reference to the strangers in any of the galleries;
(10) refer to Government officials by name: and
(11) read a written speech except with the previous permission of the Chair.
Q.16. What code of conduct the members are required to observe during the sittings ?
Ans : During the sittings of Parliamentary Committees, members are required to observe the following code of conduct:
(1) Where a member of a Committee has a personal pecuniary or direct interest in any matter which is to be considered by the Committee, he shall state his interest therein to the Speaker through the Chairman of the Committee.
(2) The proceedings of a Committee shall be treated as confidential and it shall not be permissible for a member of the Committee or any one who has access to its proceedings to communicate directly or indirectly to the press any information regarding its proceeding including its report or any conclusion arrived at, finally or tentatively, before the report has been presented to the House.
(3) The evidence given before a Committee shall not be published by any member of the Committee or by any other person until it has been laid on the Table.
Q.17. Write notes on : (1) Chambal Valley Project (2) Tungabhadra Project (3) Ramganga Project (4) Matatila Project (5) Hirakund Project
Ans : (1) Chambal Valley Project
It is a multipurpose inter-state project of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. It aims at soil conservation in the Chambal basin and harnessing the Chambal river for irrigation and power in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
The project includes :
(i) 3 storage dams across the river, namely, the Gandhisagar Dam in Mandsaur district (Madhya Pradesh), the Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and the Jawahar Sagar Dam in Rajasthan;
(ii) the Kota Barrage near Kota City;
(iii) power stations at all the three dams; and
(iv) canals from the Kota Barrage.
The 3.2 km long Left Bank Canal taking off from the Kota Barrage and the 376.6 km long Right Bank Canal together irrigate about 5.66 lakh hectares of which 2.83 lakh hectares are in Kota, Bundi and Sawaimadhopur districts of Rajasthan and the other 2.83 lakh hectares in Bhind and Morena districts of Madhya Pradesh. The total power capacity of this project is 386 mw of which the power house at Gandhi Sagar contributes 115 mw, Rana Pratap Sagar 172 mw and Jawahar Sagar 99 mw. The power from this is supplied to Rajasthan and the western districts of Madhya Pradesh.
(2) Tungabhadra Project
This project is jointly executed by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Its main objectives are irrigation and power generation. The project includes :
(i) 2,441 m-long and 49.38 m-high straight gravity masonry dam across the Tungabhadra in Bellary district of Karnataka;
(ii) 2 canals on the right side and one canal on the left side of the river taking off from the reservoir;
(iii) and similarly 2 power houses on the right side and one on the left side.
The project provides irrigation to 3.92 lakh hectares– 3.32 lakh hectares in Raichur and Bellary districts of Karnataka and 0.60 lakh hectares in Anantapur and Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh.
(3) Ramganga Project
This project in Uttar Pradesh includes:
(i) a 625.8 m-long and 125.6 m-high earth and rock-filled dam across the Ramganga and a 75.6 m-high saddle dam across the Ghuisot stream near Kalagarh in Garhwal district;
(ii) a 546 m-long weir across the river at Hareoli;
(iii) an 82 km-long feeder canal taking off from the Hareoli Weir;
(iv) 3,880 km long new branch canal and remodelling of 3,388 km of existing canals– Lower Ganga Canal, Agra Canal, Upper Ganga Canal and Ramganga Canal; and
(v) a power house on the right bank at the toe of the dam with an installed capacity of 198 mw. The project irrigates 5.75 lakh hectares in western and central Uttar Pradesh and supplies 200 cusecs of water for the Delhi Water Supply Scheme and reduces the flood intensity in central and western Uttar Pradesh.
(4) Matatila Project
This project serves Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. It includes :
(i) a 6,378 m-long and 36.6 m-high earthen dam on the Betwa, 56 km south-west of Jhansi town;
(ii) a power house with 30 mw installed capacity at the foot of the dam; and
(iii) a III-km-long irrigation canal taking off from the reservoir. The project irrigates 1.65 lakh hectares in Jhansi, Jalaun and Hamirpur districts of Uttar Pradesh and Gwalior district of Madhya Pradesh.
(5) Himkhand Project
The main purpose of this project is irrigation, flood control and power generation. The project comprises :
(i) the Hirakund dam across the Mahanadi in Orissa and
(ii) a canal taking off from the reservoir.
The Hirakund dam, with a maximum height of 51m and length 4,801m, is one of the longest in the world. It has a gross storage capacity of 810 crore m3.
A 147-km-long canal taking off from the reservoir irrigates 2.54 lakh hectares in Bolangir and Sambalpur districts. The installed power capacity of the project is 270 mw– the main power house contributing 198 mw and second power house at Chiplima contributing 72 mw.
Q.18. What are the main characteristics of the peninsular plateau?
Ans : The Deccan Plateau is the oldest plateau of India. It is surrounded by oceans on three sides. Therefore it is often called Peninsular plateau . It covers an area of about 16 lakh sq km. The average altitude of the plateau varies from 600 to 900 metres. Its limits are formed by the Aravallis in the North. Rajmahal Hills and Shillong plateau in the East. The Southern most point is known as Kanyakumari.
(i) It is an ancient, stable, hard block formed by Igneous and Metamorphic rocks.
(ii) It was a part of Gondwana Land which included plateaus of Africa, Arabia and Australia.
(iii) Most of Deccan plateau has been formed by flow of lava and is called Deccan trap.
(iv) It is the store house of mineral wealth of India.
(v) This plateau has been dissected by river valleys and escarpments.
(vi) It has been divided into several parts by erosional work.