SST Set - 4 (Q.19 to 36)
Q.19. Describe the condition of flood in India. What has been done so far to check it?
Ans : Floods
India is one of the worst flood affected tropical countries. Roughly, about 25 million hectares are prone to floods. Every year floods affect an average of 7.4 million hectares, of which 3.1 million hectares is cropped area.
Nearly 60% of the flood damage in the country occurs from river flood, and 40% from heavy rainfall and cyclones. Himalayan rivers account for 60% of the total flood damage. The damage is least by Central Indian rivers. U.P. accounts for about 33% of the flood damage in the country, followed by Bihar (27%) and Punjab and Haryana (15%).
The national flood control policy comprises three phases :
(i) Immediate phase extends over two years and comprises collection of basic hydrological data, construction of embankments, urgent repairs, improvement of river channels and raising of villages above flood levels.
(ii) Short-term phase concerns the next four to five years. It consists of improving surface drainage, establishing proper flood warning system, shifting or raising of villages over flood level, construction of channel diversions, more embankments and construction of raised platforms for use in times of flood emergency.
(iii) Long-term phase envisages schemes such as construction of dams or storage reservoirs for flood protection and soil conservation in the catchment of various rivers, detention basins, and digging large channel diversions.
Under the National Flood Control Programme, launched in 1954, protection measures have been taken up since second plan. Emphasis has been given to drainage and anti-waterlogging measures, Flood forecasting and warning centres have been established in some of the most flood prone areas. Flood Control Boards and River Commissions have been set up in all states to coordinate and implement the measures. A Central Flood Control Board, at the national level, has been set up to coordinate the work of State Boards and River Commissions.
Multipurpose reservoir with specific storage for flood control have been constructed on the Mahanadi (at Hirakud), the Damodar (at Konar, Maithon. Panchet and Tilaiya); on the Sutlej (at Bhakra); on the Beas (at Pong); and on the Tapti (at Ukai), which have offered considerable protection to the lower areas of the rivers.
A number of multipurpose reservoirs, like the Bhakra Nangal on Sutlej, the Nagarjun Sagar etc., though not having any specific storage for flood moderation, have given incidental benefits of flood moderation in downstream areas. In addition, a number of flood protection works including construction of embankments, drainage channels, town protection works and raising of villages have been carried out. Flood forecasting systems have also been set up at various places.
Q.20. List the flood-prone areas of the country.
Ans : (1) The basin of Himalayan rivers (covering a part of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Rajasthan, U.P., Bihar and West Bengal) gets flooded on account of overflow, erosion and inadequate drainage, steep gradients of the rivers and change in their courses. Kosi and Damodar devastate large areas. The Brahmaputra basin is subject to earthquakes and landslide, which obstruct the free flow of water.
(2) The North Western river basin comprising Jammu and Kashmir, parts of Haryana, western U.P.., Punjab and Himachal Pradesh are flooded by the tributaries of the Indus (Jhelum, Sutlej, Beas, Ravi and Chenab). In Kashmir Valley, the Jhelum is unable to carry the flood discharge. In Punjab and Haryana plains, the problem is mainly of inadequate drainage.
(3) The Central Indian and Peninsular river basin, covering Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra contains the Tapti, Narmada and the Chambal. In their basins, at times rainfall is excessive, causing occasional floods. Heavy floods also occur in the Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery at long intervals, In Andhra Pradesh, the Kolleru lake submerges vast areas along its fringes.
While heavy monsoonal rains cause major floods in the Himalayan regions, the coastal areas suffer from heavy rainfall in association with topical cyclones and storm surges.
Q.21. Define falsh flood.
Ans : Flash floods are a quick and sudden flood that occur in a usually dry valley, They are highly localised phenomenon and are generally caused by cloud burst during monsoons. These floods are characterised by concentrated and rapid runoff giving very high discharges over short periods of time. They generally revitalise the dead/buried drainage systems, the ephemeral streams become very active. Considerable area cultivated illegally in the bed of the buffed/dead drainage system gets inundated. The good micro-environments in low lying areas are severely affected and productivity is lost. In addition the houses, roads and bridges also collapse.
Flash floods can be presented by proper vegetative cover of these areas with suitable silvipastrue system. The field bunds which are often supported by trenched should be covered with grasses on the bunds and trees in trenches. Cultivation near the ephemeral stream should be checked. The embankments of these streams should be strengthened with vegetative means. The bed of the dead/buried drainage system should never be cultivated.
Q.22. How is India called a tropical country when more than half its area is outside the tropics?
Ans : Although more than half of India is outside the Tropic of Cancer, the country as whole is a separate meteorological unit in which the predominant role is played by the monsoon. The climate is best described as tropical monsoon type. The monsoon winds blow into the sub-continent after the hot weather which creates the thermal contrast between the landmass and the southern Indian Ocean. The winds are blocked by the Himalayas and made to shed their moisture on the northern plains. These plains are outside the tropics and should strictly be a sub-tropical temperate region, considering the latitudes only. However, the effect of the monsoon changes this.
All the region south of the Himalayas upto a latitude of 32°N are made to experience tropical conditions because of the diversion of the monsoon winds into the heartland of India by the Himalayas.
Q.23. Discuss carefully the chief features of the summer monsoon rainfall and its significance in the agricultural economy of the country.
Ans : The average annual rainfall in India is about 110 cms. It is estimated that more than 85% of this rainfall is received in summer. The main characteristics of summer rainfall are as follows:—
Most of rainfall is received from S.W. summer monsoons during the period mid-June to mid-September. It is seasonal rainfall.
Summer rainfall is quite uncertain. Some times monsoons start early resulting in floods, often the onset of monsoons is delayed resulting in drought. The early or late retreat of monsoons also results in serious drought.
The rainfall is unevenly distributed over the country. About 10% of the country gets more than 200 cms of rain while 25% of the country gets less than 75 cms of rain.
Indian rainfall is heavy and downpouring type. It is often said. “it pours, it never rains in India.”
The amount of rainfall is determined by the presence of mountains. High mountains force monsoons to rise and give rain.
Summer rain is characterised by breaks or dry spells.
Most of the areas have variable rainfall, as much 30 cms plus or minus. Due to variability in areas of low rain, famines results.
Significance of Monsoons in Agriculture:
(i) India is essentially an agricultural country. Indian agriculture and economy is dependent on S.W. summer monsoons. Indian agriculture is the back bone or pivot of Indian economy. It has been rightly said, ‘Indian budget is a gamble on monsoons.’
(ii) Indian rainfall is seasonal. The summer crops or Kharif crops depend on monsoons.
(iii) The failure of summer monsoons result in famines and food shortage. ‘It monsoons fail, there is a lock out in agriculture industry.’
(iv) Most of foodgrains like Rice, Jowar, Maize etc. grown as Kharif crops depend on rainfall. Good rains have resulted in bumper crops.
(v) The amount of rainfall determines the cropping pattern. Rice, Sugarcane, Tea, Jute etc. are grown in areas with over 200 cms of rain. Dry areas have crops like millets, pulses, oil seeds, etc.
(vi) The uniform distribution of rain results in multiple cropping.
Q.24. The coastal areas of India do not register any significant change in temperature even during summer and winter. Why ?
Ans : The Coastal areas have uniformly moderate temperature throughout the year. This is due to the moderating effect of the Sea. The Sea Water is heated and cooled down slowly. It can retain heat in winter and coolness in summer. The land breeze and sea breeze keep these areas warm in winter and cool in summer. As a result, the annual range of temperature is very low. There is actually no winter season. These areas have uniformly high temperatures throughout the year.
Q.25. Why is the distribution of rainfall all over India not uniform?
Ans : Many regional variations are found in the distribution of annual rainfall in India. The distribution of annual rainfall shows two main trends:
(i) From the coastal areas, the rainfall decreases towards the West and North west.
(ii) The rainfall decreases towards the interior of the country.
The main factors controlling this distribution of rainfall are the presence of high mountains and the distance from the sea. The costal areas get high rainfall. The western ghats, the Garo-Khasi hills and the Sub-Himalayan region get more than 200 cms of rainfall. But Rajasthan is dry as there is no high mountain to check S.W. Monsoons.
Q.26. Why is the western part of Rajasthan arid?
Ans : The western part of Rajasthan is a desert. It gets an annual rainfall less than 20 cms. This is due to the following reasons:—
(i) Rajasthan is under the influence of S.W. Summer monsoons. The Aravallis system lies parallel to the direction of S.W. monsoons coming from Arabian Sea. So this mountain system is unable to check these winds. So western Rajasthan is practically dry. The southern parts get some rainfall.
(ii) This area lies at a great distance from the Bay of Bengal. The Bay of Bengal monsoons become dry and lost their moisture when they reach. Rajasthan.
(iii) This area is away from the Himalayan region. So it does not come under the influence of monsoons giving rain in Sub-Himalayan region.
Q.27. Do the Maukharis pave the way for the glory of Harshavardhana?
Ans.Maukharis ruled at Kanauj in Uttar Pradesh and they were the bulwark against the Huns. After the decline of Guptas and the frequent invasion of Hunas in the North west, the all traditional ruling dynasties were destroyed. The Maukharis had to fight with later Guptas of Magadha and they defeated them and extended their rule at Gaya. Maukharis prevented Hunas from marching to Eastern India. With the decline of trade and commerce the importance of river based towns decline. The society was becoming increasingly based on land resources. And hence the need for capitals, which were justified and could control vast land of fertile soils, came to fore. Kanauj was ideally suited for shch-the Maukhari capital.
The Maukhari King Grahavarman who had married Rajyasri, daughter of Prabhkar-vardhana and sister of Harshvardhan, was killed by a king of Malwa and people of Kanauj invited Harsha to become their king.This gave Harsha a natural advantage which no other king of his time had and thus facilitated him in consolidating his empire in whole of north India and making him the most important ruler of his days.
Q.28. Write short notes on the following : (1) Ahichhatra (2) Atranjikhera (3) Madurai (4) Ayodhya (5) Nagarjunakonda
Ans. (1) Ahichhatra : In Bareilly district. of U.P. excavated by K.N. Dikshit, a site of continuous habitation since prehistoric and hfirstorical period. Its pottery studies have led to evolution of systematic study of cultures based on pottery. Became important during Harsha's time. During Mahajanapada period Ahichhatra served as the seat of power of Panchala Kingdom.
(2) Atranjikhera : Associated with painted grey ware culture of later Vedic times. Excavation reveals settlements for one to three centuries, without any predecessors. People lived in mud brick homes erected on wooden poles. This site has yielded the proof of Iron use in 8th century B.C.. Also a place of large vedic sacrifice as corroborated by the findings of cattle bones in huge amounts.
(3) Madurai : Pandyan capital in southern India. Here third Sangama was held which led to compilations of Tolkappiyam, the Tamil grammar. It was an important trade and manufacture centre.
(4) Ayodhya : Associated with Rama legend, formed part of the Koshala Mahajan-pada. Excavated evidence do not attest settlement before 8th century B.C.
(5) Nagarjunakonda : In Krishna Valley. Site of Neolithic settlements that were vibrant. It had trading contacts with outside. A Buddhist stupa of early centuries A.D. Beginning of architectural style under the Ikahavakus anticipated later Nagara style in north India.
Q.29. Discuss the formation of INA and the trial.
Ans : The national movement found a new expression outside the country’s frontiers. Subhas Chandra Bose formed the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army or INA for short) to conduct a military campaign for the liberation of India.
He was assisted by Rash Behari Bose, an old terrorist revolutionary.
Before the arrival of S.C. Bose, steps towards the organisation of the INA had been taken by General Mohan Singh (at that time a Captain in the British Indian army).
The INA was joined in large number by the Indian residents in South-east Asia and by Indian soldiers and officers captured by the Japanese forces in Malaya, Singapore and Burma.
The INA joined the Japanese army in its march to India from Burma. Inspired by the aim of freeing their homeland, the soldiers and officers of the INA hoped to enter India as its liberators with S.C. Bose at the head of the Provisional Government of Free India.
With the collapse of Japan in the War during 1944-45, the INA too met defeat, and Subhash Bose was killed in an aeroplane accident on his way to Tokyo.
Even though his strategy of winning freedom in cooperation with the Fascist powers was criticised at the time by most Indian nationalists, by organising the INA he set an inspiring example of patriotism before the Indian people and the Indian army.
The Revolt of 1942 and the INA had revealed the heroism and determination of the people. With the release of the national leaders from jail, the people began to look forward to another, perhaps the final, struggle for freedom.
The new struggle took the form of a massive movement against the trial of the soldiers and officers of the INA.
The Government decided to put on trial in the Red Fort at Delhi Generals Shah Nawaz, Gurdial Singh Dhillon and Prem Sehgal of the INA, who had earlier been officers in the British Indian army.
They were accused of having broken their oath of loyalty to the British Crown and thus of having become ‘traitors’.
On the other hand, the people welcomed them as national heroes.
Huge popular demonstrations demanding their release were held all over the country.
The British Government was this time in no position to ignore Indian opinion. Even though the Court Martial held the INA prisoners guilty, the Government felt it expedient to set them free.
Q.30. The INA prisoners were set free. What were the factors leading to the change of attitude of the British Government?
Ans : The second World War had changed the balance of power in the world. Not Britain but the United States of America and the Soviet Union emerged out of the war as big powers. Both supported India’s demand for freedom.
Britain’s economic and military power was shattered.
The Conservatives were replaced by the
Labour party in Britain, many of whose members supported the Congress demands.
The British Indian Government could no longer rely on the Indian personnel of its civil administration and armed forces to suppress the national movement.
The British soldiers were wary of war. Having fought and shed their blood for nearly six years, they had no desire to spend many more years away from Home in India.
And, above all, the confident and determined mood of the Indian people was by now obvious. They would no longer tolerate the humiliation of foreign rule. They would no longer rest till freedom was won.
Q.31. Why the Wave II plan was offered to India?
Ans : The general election were due in Britain and the Conservative Party desired to justify that it was, like the Labour Party, interested in resolving the deadlock in India.
Both U.S.A., U.S.S.R and the allies of Britain were interested in finding out some solution of the Indian problem.
Q.32. What were the features of the Wave II plan?
Ans : To form an interim government at the Centre with equal representation to Caste-Hindus and the Muslims.
All portfolios except that of Defence were to be transferred to the Indians. Only the Commander-in-Chief and the Governor-General were to remain free from the control of the Indian ministers.
The Interim government, consisting of all Indian Ministers would work under the framework of the Act of 1935 till a new constitution was formed.
The Governor-General would also retain the right to veto the advice of his newly constituted executive council.
Q.33. Why did the Simla conference fail?
Ans : The talk broke down primarily because of the unreasonable attitude of Mr. Jinnah.
The Congress desired to nominate one Muslim on its behalf to the Executive Council. But Mr. Jinnah was not prepared to include any Muslim representative in the Council as the representative of any other party except the Muslim League.
His purpose was that the Muslim League should be recognized as the sole representative organisation of the Muslims. The Congress did not accept this undesirable demand of the League.
The talk, therefore, broke down and Lord Wavell announced the failure of the Conference on July 14. The only result of this Conference was that the hands of Mr. Jinnah were strengthened because Lord Wavell practically gave him the power of veto which resulted in the failure of the Conference.
Q.34. What was Mountbatten plan? What was the terms of the plan? Why the Congress accepted Pakistan?
Ans : Lord Mountbatten arrived in India at the end of March, 1947, and immediately plunged into the task entrusted to him. He held consultations with all important political leaders of India and found that a compromise between the Congress and Muslim League was impossible on the basis of United India, which led him to the alternative of achieving agreement on the basis of a partition.
Terms of the Plan
The Congress accepted the principle of self-determination for those parts of India, which did not desire to remain within the Indian Union, provided that right was also granted to those parts of the provinces, which desired to remain in the Indian Union.
According to this principle, the Punjab, Bengal, Sindh, Baluchistan, N.W.F. Provinces and the Muslim majority district of Sylhet in Assam were given the right to decide whether or not to remain in the Indian Union.
The Hindu majority districts of Bengal and the Punjab were also given this right.
In the Punjab and Bengal the representatives of the Muslim and non-Muslim majority districts of their respective Legislative Assemblies were given the right to decide separately whether they wanted to join India or Pakistan.
In N.W.F. Province and the Muslim majority district of Sylhet in Assam, this was to be decided by a referendum by an adult suffrage. In Sindh, the Assembly was to vote as a whole for the decision. In Baluchistan, a joint meeting of the Representative Institutions was to be held for the purpose.
In the event of a decision for the partition of the Provinces of the Punjab, Bengal and Assam, independent Boundary Commissions were to be appointed to fix the dividing lines between the two parts of the Provinces.
An arrangement was also to be made for division of assets and liabilities between the two Dominions viz. the Indian Union and Pakistan.
Congress working committee accepted the Plan. It was ratified by the All India Congress Committee on June 15, 1947. Muslim League accepted it on June 10, 1947.
Why the Congress accepted Pakistan? On June 3, 1947, Mr Jawaharlal Nehru, while recommending the proposal for partition to the people said, ‘For generations we have dreamt and struggled for a free, independent and united India. The proposal to allow certain parts to secede is painful for any of us to contemplate. Nevertheless, I am convinced that our present decision is the right one.’ This shows that the Congress accepted Pakistan as a necessary evil.
The following are some of the causes which led the Congress to that decision:
1) It was the only way to check Hindu-Muslim riot.
2) As a price for immediate independence.
3) A smaller, unified and strong India better than a bigger and weak India.
4) Acceptance of ‘truncated’ Pakistan by Jinnah.
Q.35. Discuss the Independent Act, 1947.
Ans : The Act gave legal shape to 3rd June, 1947 Plan. It did not provide for any new constitution for India or Pakistan, but gave full powers to Constituent Assembly of each dominion to frame its own constitution.
British Indian territories to be divided into two independent dominions of India and Pakistan w.e.f. August 15, 1947.
Pakistan to include Sind, British Baluchistan, N.W.F.P., West Punjab and East Bengal (boundaries of last two provinces to be settled by Boundary Commission).
Free India to include the rest of the provinces of the former British India.
British Paramountcy over Indian States withdrawn.
Indian States free to join India or Pakistan.
Each dominion to have a Governor—General.
Legislature of each dominion to be free to enact any laws for its own country.
Constituent Assembly of each dominion to function as its legislature.
Unless otherwise altered or omitted, Government of India Act, 1935 to be operative in each dominion.
Governor—General of each dominion to be responsible for effective operation of Indian Independence Act.
Provision made for safeguarding interests of former I.C.S. officers.
Armed forces of British India to be divided between India and Pakistan.
Provision made for exercise of functions of Secretary of State and Auditor of Indian Home Accounts.
Significance of Indian Independence Act
It marked the end of British sovereignty over India.
Crown of England ceased to be source of authority in India.
Henceforth Governor— General and Governors to act as constitutional heads.
It marked the end of colonial era in Indian sub-continent.
Q.36. What do you understand by the term ‘National Character’. Critically examine the present Indian National Character according to your perception.
Ans : The term ‘national character’ refers to some total characteristics of a section of population which goes on to make the personality of group and consequently the ability to perceive the salient traits of the population as a whole. It primarily refers to the internalization of the characteristic traits of a nation by its individuals through the process of socialization. This process is also referred to as the process of ‘political socialisation’
Abram Kardiner and Ovesy define national character as “a common personality integration showed by a significant member of individuals who have had similar socialization experiences”. The concept of national character is, therefor based on the difference in cultural patterns which tend to produce different stereotyped personalities in different nations.
The Indian National character is marked by the feelings of dependence, low achievement, risk-avoidance, anxiety and insecurity prone behaviour. The reason behind this can be traced to the initial socialisation experiences in India. The way in which Indian child is nurtured makes him excessively dependent on his parents for falsifying his seeds and desires. There is a neglect of independence training among the Indian children. Moreover, the vast majority of India is poor and during the childhood, they are reared by parents who have internalized low aspirations and excessive dependence. Rearing by such fathers also breeds in the children a socialization to apathy and underachievement. This all makes him adopt a modal personality characterized by low need for achievement, excessive dependence, high anxiety and risk avoidance.
Another marked feature of Indian national character is the inculcation of different types of pre-mordial loyalties and prejudices. The way an Indian child is reared, he gets caste and religion conscious before adolescence and, as he grows, he inculcates various caste, religious, or tribal prejudice. These, then, are the salient characteristics of a modal Indian personality pattern and their etiology lay purely in the realm of the unique socialization experiences in India.