SST Set - 5 (Q.1 to 20)
Q.1. Define Law of Demand.
Ans : The law of demand states that, other things being equal, the demand for a good extends with a decrease in prices and contracts with an increase in price. In other words, there is and inverse relationship before quantity demanded of a thing and it price, provided other factor influencing demand remain unchanged. The term other things being equal implies that income of the consumer, his tastes and preferences and prices of other related goods remain constant.
We demand good and services because these have the capacity to satisfy our wants. The capacity to satisfy human wants is called ‘Utility’.
Thus, we can state that goods are demanded because these possess utility. In fact, production of goods implies creation of utility and demand for goods, implies using-up the utility.
- Marshall, “The Law of Demand states that other things being equal the amount demanded increases with a fall in price and diminishes when price increases.”
Q.2. 'Time element has an important bearing on the production of commodity .' Discuss.
Ans : This is discussed with reference to (i) very short or Market Period (ii) Short Period and (iii) Long Period.
(i) Very short or Market Period : Very short period is also referred to as market period. It is so short a period that production cannot be increased. Accordingly, it becomes immaterial whether the producer covers his cost of production or not at the prevailing price of the produce.
(ii) Short Period : It is the period of time during which production can be increased only by increasing the variable factors. Use of fixed factors continues to remain constant. The producer can control only the variable cost, not the fixed cost. Accordingly, the producer must cover at least variable costs of production during the short period.
(iii) Long Period : It is the period of time during which production can be increased by way of additional application of both the fixed as well variable factors of production. Accordingly, the producer must cover both the fixed as well as variable costs of production. In fact all costs are of the nature of variable costs in the long run because no factor is a fixed factor in the long run. Accordingly, all costs are under control of the producer, and therefore must be covered.
In short, while during the market period, cost factor becomes irrelevant the producer must cover at least variable costs during the short period, and all costs fixed as well as variable during the long period.
urred by a private firm but by the society as a whole. That is why these expenses are called social costs.
Following examples of social costs should make the distinction between private cost and social cost clear:
(1) The expenses incurred by a contractor in felling trees constitute private cost; but the sufferings that the society has to undergo in the form of soil erosion, floods, and deforestation constitute social cost.
(2) Wastes of chemical factory flowing into a river, not only pollute the river water but also cause death to the fish. In order to make this water potable, municipalities have to spend large amounts on water treatment. This expenditure constitutes social cost.
It may however be noted that when we refer to cost we mean private cost only.
Q.3. Study the Marginal Revenue Productivity (MRP) and Value of Marginal Productivity (VMP) under Different Market situations.
Ans : It should be useful to study the concepts of MRP and VMP under different market situations. We may consider broadly, the two types of markets: (a) perfect Competition and (b) Monopoly or Monopolistic Competition.
(a) Perfect Competition : We have already studied that under perfect competition, price of a product is given to a firm or that an individual firm is a price taker. So that AR (or Price) coincides with MR. Which is why both AR and MR are indicated by the same horizontal straight line.
Because MRP = MPP � MR and VMP = MPP � AR and because AR = MR
There is an obvious identity between MRP and VMP Thus, MRP � VMP under perfect competition.
(b) Monopoly and Monopolistic Competition
Both under monopoly and monopolistic competition, AR curve or firm’s demand curve slopes downward. We have already studied that in case AR slopes downward, MR should also slope downward, and faster than AR. A glance at the figure should indicate that for any level of output, AR should indicate that for any level of output, AR should be greater than MR. AR > MR . Obviously therefor, value of marginal physical productivity (MPP � AR) should be greater than marginal revenue productivity (MPP � MR).
Thus, (VMP) > (MRP) under monopoly or Monopolistic Competition.
Q.4. What is marginal efficiency of capital ? Discuss the factors which influence the marginal efficiency of capital.
Ans : Marginal efficiency of capital is simply 'expected profitability' of additional investment. Or, it may be defined as 'expected rate' of return of an additional unit of capital goods over its cost. We may illustrate it with the help of an example. Suppose, a new machine of any existing kind would cost Rs. 1,000. Technically, this cost is referred to as 'supply price'. Also suppose that this machine is expected to yield Rs. 1,100 during the period of one year, the expected life of the machine. So that expected profitability would be Rs. 1,000, the supply price of machine. The percentage profitability (or the rate of profitability, also called the rate of return) would be
This is what marginal efficiency of capital is. It helps us to get to guess that marginal efficiency of capital depends upon (a) the prospective yield which is Rs. 1,100 in the above illustration and (b) Supply Price of the Capital Good which is Rs. 1000 in the above example. In what follows we explain these concepts further.
(i) Prospective Yield : The prospective yield of an asset is the aggregate net return expected from it during its whole life. In order to determine prospecive yield, annual return from the capital asset is estimated. It refers to the aggregate of net annual returns expected from a capital asset over its life time. Out of the total revenue obtained from the sale of putput produced with the help of capital asset are deducted the costs of production to arrive at prospective yield. Changes in the prevailing prices in the market have their effect on prospective yield. With rise in prices prospective yield is more and with fall in prices prospective yield is less. Prices are likely to change in the short period and as such prospective yield is also likely to change in the short period. Prospective yield can expressed as follow :
Py = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 .........Qn
(Here Py = Prospective yield; Q1, Q2, Q3 .....Qn = Net Annual Return)
(ii) Supply Price : The second factor influencing the marginal efficiency of capital is supply price. The supply price of capital asset is the cost of producing a new asset of that kind. It is also called Replacement Cost. There may be 10 sewing machines in garment factory. It one machine is to be replaced and new machine of the same kind is available in the market for Rs. 10,000, it would be taken as its supply price. Rate of return or profitability is calculated as a percentage of this supply price. Given the expected returns, higher would be the rate of return (or the marginal efficiency of investment) if lower is the supply price, and vice-versa.)
into the system. It leads to expansion of credit.
(iii) Change in Minimum Reserve Ratio : Minimum Reserve ratio refers to the minimum percentage of a bank's total deposits which is required to be kept with the central bank. All the banks have to keep with teh central bank a certain percentage of their deposits in teh form of minimum cash reserve ratio. For example, if the minimum reserve ratio is 10% and total deposits of a certain bank is Rs. 100 crore, it will have to keep Rs. 10 crores with the central bank. If the minimum reserve ratio is raised to 20 percent, the bank will have to keep Rs. 20 crore with the central bank. When the cash flow or credit is to be increased, minimum reserve ratio is reduced, and when the cash flow or credit is to be reduced, minimum cash reserve ratio is increased.
(iv) Change in Liquidity Ratio : Every bank is required to maintain a fixed percentage of its assets in the form of cash or other liquid assets, called liquidity ratio. With a view to reducing the flow of credit in the market, the central bank enhances this liquidity ratio. However, in case of expansion of credit, the liquidity ratio is reduced.
Q.5. What does Foreign Trade Policy do? Define deficit demand and export surplus and excess demand and input surplus. How the financial resources are made for more payments in terms of foreign currency?
Ans : The foreign trade policy seeks to correct the problem of excess demand or deficient demand through export surplus or import surplus. The difference between imports and exports of a country is called balance of trade. When the exports of a country are more comparison with its imports, the balance of trade is favourable. It is a situation of export surplus. On the other hand, when the imports of a country are more in comparison with its exports, the balance of trade is unfavourable. It is a imports of a country are more comparison with its exports, the balance of trade is unfavourable. It is a situation of import surplus. Export surplus raises the level of aggregate demand in the system, while import surplus reduces it.
(i) Deficient Demand and Export Surplus: When there is a condition of deficient demand in a country, that is aggregate demand is less, exports should be increased. The increase in exports has the same impact on aggregate demand as the increase in investment in the country, that is, aggregate demand increases, causing manifold increase in income in tune with the principle of multiplier.
Increase in exports depends mainly on three factors:
(i) increase in income and demand in foreign countries;
(ii) less price of the export goods in the international market;
(iii) surplus production of export goods.
(ii) Excess Demand and Import Surplus: In case of excess demand, when aggregate demand is more than aggregate supply and inflation is widespread imports should be increased to the extent that there is import surplus in the system. As a result of increase in imports, the availability of goods in the country will increase and excess demand will be checked. Consequently, inflation will be controlled.
More payments in terms of foreign currency are to be made to foreign countries in order to encourage imports. The financial resources for this purpose are arranged in the following manner:
(i) Decreasing foreign capital assets, that is, decreasing the quantity of foreign currency in the country, selling the foreign securities and decreasing the gold resources.
(ii) Taking loans from foreign governments, international financial bodies, for example, World Bank, IMF etc. in order to make payment for imports and thus increasing the volume of foreign debt.
(iii) Getting aid from foreign government in the shape of grants.
Q.6. 'The problem of PSU's are galore'. Discuss.
Ans : Government in its unrestricted enthusiasm to meet social object is like maintaining employment, nationalised many a loss making units, not realising the enormous burden both (managerial and financial) involved in such as action and as had been assessed by all discerning observers, failed utterly in the task of reviving them. The large number of mills in the fold of National Textile Corporation (NTC) bear eloquent testimony to this fact.
Over the past one decade, government's development expenditure had been coming down, affecting in the process, adversely demand prospects for a wide range of products manufactured in the public sector.
Nowhere had this adverse development a more deleterious effect than on PSU's catering to the needs of the railways like coach, wagon and locomotive building units.
The lack of adequate autonomy of PSUs in planning their operations current as well as future, denied to them the opportunities of initiating and implementing short term as also radical long term more for removing their operations suitably and to place them on a viable footing.
Due to lack of adequate budgetary support and their inability to generate adequate surpluses,
many PSUs were unable to invest needed amounts of money on modernisation and technology updating, as a result of which they had accumulated an enormous backing in this respect, specially in the past one decade.
In about another two to three years time when the tariff rates on a wide range of materials/products will come down further to a level of 25-30% as envisaged by the Chielliah committee's recommendations, nearly two thirds of the total number of PSUs could be in a very difficult position as under the evolving situation, a sizable number of the existing PSUs are most unlikely to stand the tough competition from imported goods of varied assortments.
Q.7. What are the cause of poverty in India? What are the strategies so far adopted for its removal?
Ans : Poverty is prevalent both in rural and urban areas of the country. In rural areas, intense poverty is found among peasant cultivators with very small holdings and landless labourers. In the urban area, most of the poor people are unemployed, underemployed or employed in various low productivity occupations or employed in jobs either with insecure employment or with very low real wages.
(i) The most important cause is inequality of income and wealth.
(ii) Low economic growth rate or under development.
(iii) Widespread unemployment, underemployment, chronic unemployment etc.
(iv) Heavy dependence of agriculture sector on the vagaries of monsoon, low productivity level, rising agricultural prices, incomplete land reforms.
(v) Population explosion and high fertility rate among poor.
(vi) Faulty implementation of poverty alleviation programmes (PAP).
(vii) Not so steep rise in industrial growth and allied activities etc.
(viii) Failure of automatic trickle down theory of economic growth which has led to widening of income inequalities, emphasis on production of elitist goods rather than wage goods.
(ix) Low rate of capital formation has resulted in lower saving rate.
The main components of the strategy adopted so far for poverty removal have been:
(i) reliance on overall growth rate through the trickle down mechanism (trickle down hypothesis in the simplest form states that rapid growth of per capita income will be associated with a reduction in poverty);
(ii) distribution of land to the landless in rural areas;
(iii) investment in human capital through education and training;
(iv) creation of additional employment through specific schemes for weaker sections like the IRDP, JRY, EAS, etc; and
(v) direct support to consumption through PDS, midday meal scheme, etc.
Q.8 What are the Powers, Privileges,the Immunities of Parliament and its members?
Ans. Article 105 of the Constitution provides the following powers, privileges and immunities of the Members of Parliament:
(i) Subject to the provisions of the Constitution and to the rules and standing orders regulating the procedure of Parliament, there shall be freedom of speech in Parliament.
(ii) No Member of Parliament shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in Parliament or any committee thereof, and no person shall be so liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of either House of Parliament of any report, paper, votes or proceedings.
(iii) In other respects, the powers, privileges and immunities of each House of Parliament, and of the members and the committees of each House, shall be such as may, from time to time, be defined by Parliament by law, and until so defined, shall be those of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United kingdom, and of its members and committees.
Q.9. What are the special powers of the Rajya Sabha?
Ans. In spire of the fact that Rajya Sabha being the secondary House is weaker, still it has certain exclusive and special powers. These are as follows:
(i) Under Article 249 of the Constitution if the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution by not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting that it is in the national interest that Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the State List, it will authorise the Parliament to make laws regarding that subject.
(ii) Rajya Sabha can also create any new All India Service by passing a resolution by a two-thirds majority.
(iii) If a proclamation of emergency is made when the Lok Sabha is lying dissolved or the Lok Sabha has been dissolved after the declaration of the Emergency, then the Rajya Sabha approves the declaration of emergency, so that it can continue beyond the stipulated period of two months. Of course, it has also to be approved within thirty days of the convening of the newly-elected House of People.
(iv) The Rajya Sabha is a permanent House not subject to dissolution whereas the Lok Sabha can be dissolved at any time before the expiry of its term by the President of India on the advice of the Prime Minister.
(v) Under Article 67(b), Vice-President may be removed from his office by a resolution of the Council of the States passed by a majority of all the then members of the Council and agreed to by House of the People. Thus, the resolution to remove the Vice-President can only originate in the Rajya Sabha and not in the Lok Sabha.
Q.10. When does a Member of Parliament lose his seat?
Ans. Article 101 lays down the disqualifications of the members which may make a Member of Parliament lose his seat:
(a) No person shall be a member of both house of Parliament and provision shall be made by Parliament by law for the vacation by a person who is chosen a member of both Houses, of his in one House or the other.
(b) No person shall be a member both of Parliament and of a House of the Legislature of a State and if a person is chosen a member of both of Parliament and of a House of the Legislature of a State, then at the expiration of such period as may be specified in rules made by the President, that person’s seat in Parliament shall become vacant, unless he has previously resigned his seat in the Legislature of the State.
(c) If a member of either House of Parliament becomes subject to any of the disqualifications or resigns his seat by writing under his hand addressed to the Chairman or the Speaker, as the case may be, his seat shall thereupon become vacant.
(d) If for a period of sixty days a member of either House of Parliament is, without permission of the house, absent from all meetings thereof, the House may declare his seat vacant; provided that in computing the said period of sixty days no account shall be taken of any period during which the House is prorogued or is adjourned for more than four consecutive days.
Q.11. When is a joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament convened?
Ans. The Constitution provides under Article 108 that the joint sitting of both Houses will be convened in the following cases :
(a) If after a Bill has been passed by one House and transmitted to the other House–the Bill is rejected by the other House, or
(b) The Houses have finally disagreed as to the amendments to be made in the Bill. or
(c) more than six months elapse from the date of the reception of the Bill by the other House without the Bill being passed by it.
(d) In the above cases, the President may notify to both the Houses by message his intention to summon them to meet in a joint sitting for purpose of deliberating and voting on the Bill.
Q.12. What are the main difference between the Speaker of Indian Lok Sabha and the Speaker of the British House of Commons?
Ans. The Office of the Indian Speaker is based upon the Speaker of the British House of Commons but there are many differences between the two. Following are the main differences:
(i) In U.K. there is a convention that once a Speaker is always a Speaker. It means that once a members is made a Speaker then he remains in this office till he does not wish, or retire. But in India there is no such convention. of a Speaker is not able to get him re-elected to the Lok Sabha or the ruling party may decide to nominate another member for the post of speaker, in that eventuality the Speaker of the last Lok Sabha loses his position.
(ii) In U.K. the Speaker is elected unanimously. But in India there is no such like convention. There can be a contest for his election not only for the post of Speaker in Lok Sabha but also in his constituency for being elected as a Member of the Parliament.
(iii) In U.K. the Speaker resigns from his party after assuming his office. But in India there is no such convention. Generally, the Speaker remains a member of his party.
(iv) In U.K. the Speaker does not give his personal views on any political topic either inside or outside the House. He does not participate in political activities. In India the Speaker can give his own views outside the parliament. He may also attend political functions.
(v) In U.K. the Speaker does not accept any appointment after his retirement. He is made a member of the House of Lords. But in India many a time the Speakers have accepted such offices like Ministers, Governors.
(vi) In U.K. the Speaker becomes absolutely impartial and a no-party man inside and outside the House of Commons; in India sometimes the members of the Opposition Parties have felt that the Speaker has acted in a partisan manner and has not been fair to them.
(vii) In U.K. when the Speaker of the dissolved House of Commons contests the General Elections, no party puts its candidate against him generally. But in India there is no such convention.
Q.13. What is a Money Bill?
Ans. Article 110 of the Constitution has defined the “Money Bill”.
A bill shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the following matter, namely :
(a) The imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax.
(b) The regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the Government of India,, or the amendment of the law with respect of any financial obligations undertaken or to be undertaken by the Government of India.
(c) The custody of the Consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of India, the payment of moneys into or the withdrawals of moneys from any such fund.
(d) The appropriation of money out of the consolidated Fund of India.
(e) The declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure.
(f) The receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of India or the Public Account of India or the custody or issue of such money or the audit of the accounts of the Union or of a State or
(g) Any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f).
A bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for service rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes.
If any question arises whether a bill is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the House of the People thereon shall be final.
There shall be endorsed on every Money Bill when it is transmitted to the Council of States under Article 109 and when it is presented to the President for assent under Article 111, the certificate of the Speaker of the house of the people signed by him that it is a Money Bill.
The certificate of the Speaker regarding a Money Bill is final and it cannot be challenged in any court of law.
Q.14. What expenditure is charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India?
Ans. There are two types of expenditure provided under Article 110 of the Constitution. First the expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India and secondly the expenditure not so charged.
The difference between the two is that under Article 113 of the Constitution the estimates of expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India shall not be submitted to the vote of parliament. But nothing shall prevent the discussion in either house of any of these estimates.
The expenditure which is not charged on the Consolidated fund can be voted upon and discussed by the Parliament. The Parliament may give their assent or refuse assent to any demand or reduce the amount on such an expenditure.
Under Article 112(3) of the Constitution the following expenditure shall be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India:
(a) The emoluments and allowances of the President and other expenditure relating to his office.
(b) The salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People.
(c) Debt charge for which the Government of India is liable including interest, sinking fund charges and redemption and the service and redemption of debt.
(d) (i) The salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Supreme Court.
(ii) The pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Federal Court.
(iii) The Pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of any High Court which exercises jurisdiction i`any area included in India.
(e) The salary, allowances and pension payable to or in respect of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
(f) Any sums required to satisfy any judgement, decree or award of any court or arbitral tribunal.
(g) Any other expenditure declared by this Constitution or by a Parliament by law to be so charged.
Q.15. Enumerate the provisions through which independence of the Judges is ensured.
Ans. The independence of the Judges is ensured by the following provisions:
(1) Every Judge of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President of India after consultation with such of the Judges of the Supreme court and High courts of the States as the president may deem necessary for the purpose.
(2) The elimination of politics in the appointment of Judges is further achieved by prescribing high minimum qualifications in the Constitution itself.
(3) A Judge of the Supreme court once appointed holds office until he completes the age of sixty-five years.
(4) A retired Judge is prohibited from practising before any court in India.
(5) A Supreme court Judge can be removed from office by an order of the President only on the grounds of proved misbehaviour or incapacity after a resolution for the purpose is passed by both Houses of Parliament supported by a majority of the total membership of the House and majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting.
(6) The conditions of service of a judge cannot be altered to his disadvantage after his appointment.
(7) The salaries and allowances of the judges are changed on the Consolidated Fund of India and are not subject to the vote of Parliament.
(8) The independence of the judges is further safeguarded by making all their actions and decisions in their official capacity immune from criticism in Parliament or State Assembly and also providing for an establishment over which the Court has complete control.
Q.16. What are the Powers, Privileges and Immunities of State legislatures and their Members?
Ans. Article 194 of the Constitution has laid down:
(i) There shall be freedom of speech in the Legislature of every State.
(ii) No member of the Legislature of a State shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in the Legislature or any committee thereof, and no person shall be so liable, in respect of the publication by or under the authority of a House of such a legislature of any report, paper, votes or proceedings.
(iii) In other respects the powers, privileges and immunities of a House of the Legislature of a State, and of the members and the Committees of a House of Such Legislature, shall be such as may from time to time be defined by the Legislature by law, and until so defined, shall be those of the House and its members and committees immediately before the coming into force of section 26 of the Constitution (forty-Fourth) Amendment Act of 1978.
Q.17. What is the position of the legislative Council?
Ans. Our Constitution-makers have made the Legislative Council a very weak House. It is weaker even than the Council of States (the Rajya Sabha) at the national level. As compared with the legislative Assembly it is not only a second House but it is definitely a secondary House. It is simply a delaying House. It can delay the Non-money Bills for a period of four months and the Money Bills for only a fortnight. It is thus simply an advisory body without any effective powers. Again the Legislative Assembly of the State can initiate the process of abolition of the Legislative Council. If the Legislative Assembly of the State passes a resolution by a majority of its total membership and a two-thirds majority of its members present and voting demanding an abolition of the Legislative Council, Parliament may provide for such abolition by law. Thus it is not a strong Second Chamber and is only a secondary Chamber.
Q.18. List the general rules and etiquette of the legislators.
Ans : Whilst the House is sitting a member—
(1) shall not read any book, newspaper or letter except in connection with the business of the House;
(2) shall not interrupt any member while speaking by disorderly expression or noises or in any other disorderly manner;
(3) shall bow to the Chair while entering or leaving the House and also when taking or leaving the seat;
(4) shall not pass between the Chair and any member who is speaking;
(5) shall not leave the House when the Speaker is addressing the House;
(6) shall always address the Chair;
(7) shall keep to his usual seat while addressing the House;
(8) shall maintain silence when not speaking in the House;
(9) shall not obstruct proceeding, or interrupt and shall avoid making running commentaries when another member is speaking;
(10) shall not applaud when a stranger enters any of the Galleries, or the Special Box;
(11) shall not shout slogans in the House;
(12) shall not sit or stand with his back towards the Chair;
(13) shall not approach the Chair personally in the House. He may send chits to the officers at the Table, if necessary;
(14) shall not wear or display badges of any kind in the House;
(15) shall not bring or display arms in the House;
(16) shall not display flags, emblems of any exhibits in the House;
(17) shall not leave the House immediately after delivering his speech;
(18) shall not distribute within the precincts of Parliament House any literature, questionnaire, pamphlets, press notes, leaflets etc. not connected with the business of the House;
(19) shall not place his hat/cap on the desk in the House, bring boards in the Chamber for keeping files or for writing purposes, smoke or enter the House with his coat hanging on the arms;
(20) shall not carry walking stick into the House unless permitted by the Speaker on health grounds;
(21) shall not tear off documents in the House in protest;
(22) shall not bring or play cassette or tape recorder in the House;
(23) shall avoid talking or laughing in Lobby loud enough to be heard in the House; and
(24) shall not sit on Satyagrah and Dharna inside the House and in front of the House;
Q.19. Write notes on : (1) Damodar Valley Project (2) Bhakra-Nangal Project (3) Nagarjunasagar Project (4) Kosi Project
Ans : (1) Damodar Valley Project
Damodar, though a small river, was called the river of sorrow owing to devastating floods it caused. It flows from Chhotanagpur in south Bihar to West Bengal.
The Damodar Valley Project was conceived for the unified development of irrigation, flood control, promotion of navigation and power generation in West Bengal and Bihar. The project is administered by the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) patterned on the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) of USA. The project includes: (i) multipurpose storage dams at Tilaiya, Konar, Maithon and Panchet; (ii) hydel power stations at Tilaiya, Maithon and Panchet; (iii) a 692-metre-long and 11.58-metre-high barrage at Durgapur and about 2,500 km irrigation-cum-navigation canals, and (iv) 3 thermal power stations at Bokaro, Chandrapura and Durgapur.
The project provides a flood cushion to about 129.50 crore m3 and has 2,495 km long irrigation canals fed by the 89-km-long right bank main canal. Its total irrigation potential is 3.7 lakh hectares mostly in Burdwan district of West Bengal. It has a total power capacity of 2,146 mw of which 144 mw is contributed by 3 hydro power stations and 1,920 mw by 3 thermal power stations. A 137 km long navigation canal on the left bank connects Durgapur with Calcutta. The major industries situated in Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Burnpur and Kulti and the coal mines of Jharia and Raniganj use DVC power.
(2) Bhakra-Nangal Project
It is a joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan and is the largest multipurpose project in India. It comprises: (i) the Bhakra Dam across the Sutlej at the foot of the Siwalik range in Himachal Pradesh; (ii) the Nangal barrage across the river, 123 km below the Bhakra Dam; (iii) the Nangal Hydel Channel and the Bhakra Main Canal taking off from the Nangal Barrage, and (iv) 4 power houses, 2 at the foot of the Bhakra Dam and 2 on the Nangal Hydel Channel.
The Bhakra Dam is built at a strategic point where two hills on either side of Sutlej are very close to each other and therefore, is not very wide. It is the highest gravity dam in the world with a length of 518 m and height 226 m and holds a reservoir with a gross storage capacity of 986.78 crore m3. The Nangal Barrage is 305 m long and 29 m high. It serves as a balancing reservoir and directs the river water to the 64-km-long Nangal Hydel Channel which supplies water to the Bhakra Main Canal. The Bhakra Main canal, 174-km-long, feeds nearly 1,100-km-long irrigation canals and 3,400 km-long distributaries providing irrigation to 1.46 million hectares. This is one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. The project has 4 power houses with a total installed capacity of 1,204 mw. Two of these are situated at the foot of the Bhakra Dam, one on either side and the other 2 on the Nangal Hydel Channel at Gangwal and Kotla, 19 and 29 km respectively, from the Nangal Barrage.
(3) Nagarjunasagar Project
The Nagarjunasagar Project, initiated in 1956, is one of India's largest irrigation project. The project comprises : a 1,450 m-long and 124.7 m-high masonry dam with storage capacity of 546.19 crore m3 across the Krishna in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, and 2 canals, one on either side of the river along with their irrigation distributary systems. The Right Bank Canal, 204 km long and the Left Bank Canal, 179 km long together irrigate 8.60 lakh hectares in Khammam, West Godavari, Guntur, and Nellore districts.
The project also envisages a power house at the toe of the Nagarjunasagar dam with 2 units of 50 mw each capacity. Work on this pumped storage hydel scheme began in 1970.
(4) Kosi Project
It is an international project set up in accordance with an agreement signed between India and Nepal in 1954 and revised in 1966. The project is entirely being executed by India (Bihar state) but its benefits are being shared by Nepal.
The main purpose of the Kosi project is irrigation, flood control and power generation. The project includes:
(i) a 1,149 m long barrage across the Kosi near Hanumannagar on the Indo-Nepal border;
(ii) flood-embankments, 270.36 km in length, on both sides of the river in Saharsa and Darbhanga districts of Bihar and in Nepal; and
(iii) 3 canal systems– Eastern Kosi canal, Western Kosi canal and Rajpur Canal– in Bihar and Nepal.
The 43.5 km long Eastern Kosi Canal provides perennial irrigation to 5.16 lakh hectares in Purnea and Saharsa districts of Bihar. The canal has been extended to irrigate 1.60 lakh additional hectares in Saharsa and Monghyr districts. The 9.66-km-long Rajpur Canal will irrigate about 1.13 lakh hectares in Saharsa and Darbhanga districts of Bihar and the Western Canal, 112.65 km long, taking off from the right bank of the Kosi barrage will provide irrigation to 3.25 lakh hectares in Darbhanga district (Bihar) and 12,120 hectares in Saptari district (Nepal). The ultimate irrigation potential is 8.75 lakh hectares in Bihar. A 20-mw capacity power house under construction on the Eastern Kosi Canal will provide 50 per cent of the power to Nepal.
Q.20. What is a water divide? Where does the Indo-Gangetic divide lie in the Northern Plain ?
Ans. Water divide is a highland separating the two adjoining river systems. In the northern plain, the Indus and the Ganges systems are separated from each other. Ambala region in Haryana acts as water shed or water divide. It is known as Indo-Gangetic divide. Its maximum height above sea level is 278 metres. It lies in between the Sutlej and the Yamuna River. The Yamuna, Ganges flow towards East of it, while the Ghaghar, Sutlej-flow towards West of it.