SST Set - 5 (Q.21 to 40) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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Class 10 : SST Set - 5 (Q.21 to 40) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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SST Set - 5 (Q.21 to 40)​

Q.21. Why is the co-efficient of variation of annual rainfall low on the west coast of India and high in Kutch and Gujarat?

Ans : The main feature of the monsoon rainfall in India is its variability from year to year. The same place gets different amounts of rainfall every year. When the actual rainfall of a place in a year deviates from its mean annual rainfall, it is known as Variability of rainfall. The variability of annual rainfall is calculated with the help of the following formula:—
Co-efficient of variation =  SST Set - 5 (Q.21 to 40) Class 10 Notes | EduRev


 The coefficient of variation is as low as 15 per cent on the west coast of India.
In these areas, the monsoons have a similar effect every year due to nearness to sea. The co-efficient of variation is as high as 40 per cent in the Kutch and Gujarat. In these areas, monsoons are sometimes weak and inconsistent. These are semi-desert areas. Some parts experience a co-efficient of variation between 50% to 80%. There is no high mountain in this area to check the monsoon.

Q.22. Discuss in brief the mechanism of Indian weather with special reference to jet stream.

Ans : The mechanism of Indian weather depends upon the following factors:—
(1) Surface distribution of pressure and winds.
(2) Upper air circulation.
(3) Flow of different air masses.
(4) Western disturbances.
(5) Jet stream.
The Indian weather is the outcome of inter play of the above factors.
Jet streams are high velocity winds at high altitudes (at upper troposphere). Jet stream is a current of westerly winds blowing over Central Asia and the Himalayas. Indian weather and Monsoon are controlled by jet stream in many ways.
(i) The location of high pressure in central Asia results in N.W. Continental air masses blowing over North India during winter.
(ii) Jet stream current brings these winds along with western disturbances over India. These cyclones or disturbances originate in Mediterranean Sea and give a light rain in winter in Northern India.
(iii) Himalayas bifurcate the westerly winds into two branches—Norhtern and Southern branches. The southern branch flows at a latitude of 25°N.
(iv) In summer, the equatorial low pressure of inter tropical convergence zone. (I.T.C.Z.) replaces the jet stream. This low pressure attracts S.W. monsoons. S.W. Monsoons are continuation of S.E. trade winds.
(v) The easterly jet stream blows over northern India. It steers the tropical depression over India. These cyclones add to monsoonal rainfall. This explains the dry spells due to fluctuating pattern of tropical depression.

Q.23. The mean maximum temperature over most of Northern India remains quite high in September and October, Why?

Ans : June is the hottest month in India. With the onset of monsoon rains, temperature starts falling. Rains Lower the temperature by 6°C in Northern India. The temperature begins to rise steadily after the rainy season. In September-October, the S.W. monsoons begin to retreat. During these retreating monsoons, dry spells are observed. The Southern India experiences high temperatures as the sun shines vertically over the equator. The northern India, gets a second maxima of temperature. The mean maximum temperature in September and October at Delhi is above 33°C.

Q.24. Cherrapunji receives the highest amount of rainfall in the world. Why?

Ans :  rainiest place of the world with an average annual rainfall of 1080 cms. It is located on the Southern slopes of Khasi Hills (Meghalaya) at an height of 1500 metres above Sea level. This place is enclosed by hills on three sides. The relief features gives this place a funnel shaped location. The bay of Bengal Branch of monsoons is trapped in these hills. These winds try to get out of it. These are forced to rise again and again resulting in heavy rainfall. In the year 1861, an amount of 2262 cms of rainfall was recorded here.

Q.25. 'Tamil Nadu coastal region receives most of the rain in winter.' Why?

Ans : Tamil Nadu lies on the Coromandel coast on the eastern costal plain. This region receives rainfall in winter as well as summer. It receives most of rainfall in winter.
(i) In summer, Tamil Nadu remains dry as this plain lies in the Rain shadow of Western Ghats.
(ii) In winter, N.E. Monsoons pick up moisture as they cross Bay of Bengal. These retreating monsoons are on-shore winds in Tamil Nadu coastal plain. The Eastern Ghat forces these winds to give moderate rainfall in this area.

Q.26. What are the Western disturbances? In what parts do this cause precipitation during winter in India? 

Ans : The general circulation of winds system is disturbed by some atmospheric disturbances. Western disturbances are low pressure systems which originate in west Asia and the regions near Mediterranean Sea. These travel Eastwards across Iran and Pakistan and reach India during the winter season. The westerly Jet stream steers these disturbances towards India. These are active in winter in Northern India. On an average, four or five such depressions visit India each month. These give rainfall in areas of J. & K., Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan. These give snowfall in N.W. Himalayas. The amount of rainfall decreases towards the East. This rainfall is of great importance of the rabi crops especially wheat. The average rainfall varies from 20 mm. to 50 mm.

Q.27. Which is the hottest part of India? What makes them so?

Ans : The highest temperatures are found in the western parts of Rajasthan. Barmer is the hottest place where summer temperatures of 50°C are recorded. The high temperatures are due to:—
(i) This place has an inland location and is located away from the India Ocean. The Continental effect raises the Summer temperature.
(ii) Hot dusty winds—Loo raises the temperature of this area.
(iii) The temperatures remain high due to sandy soils and lack of humidity.

 

Q.28. What do you mean by the phrase "Monsoon Burst"?

Ans : Main Characteristics:
(i) It is a seasonal rainfall. Most of the rain comes in summer.
(ii) The rainfall is uncertain and variable.
(iii) The amount of rain decreases sway from the coast. In Northern plain, it decreases westward up the Ganges valley for example-Calcutta 119 cms, Patna 105 cms, Allahabad 100 cms, Delhi 65 cms.
(iv) S.W. monsoon have ‘breaks’ or spells of dry weather. The rain does not fall continuously.
(v) The intensity and amount of rain is increased by jet stream and depressions.
(vi) Tamilnadu and Deccan plateau remain dry as these are rain shadow areas.

Q.29. What are the main characteristics of summer monsoon rainfall?

Ans : The monsoon winds blow in South-west direction on the west coast. These are highly charged with water vapour. It advances rapidly over West coast. The rains begin rather suddenly in the first week of June. This sudden onset of rain is often termed as ‘Monsoon Burst’. The rainfall is heavy accompanied by thunder and lightning. The rain is so sudden and heavy that it appears as it a balloon of water has been burst.

Q.30. What do you understand by the term "Loo"?

Ans : ‘Loo’ is a local wind. It is very lot and dry wind which blows during the day time in northern India. Loo increases the dry temperatures ranging between 40°C to 50°C. The hot and dry winds are unbearable. These result in “heat wave” causing many deaths.

Q.31. Which are the coldest part of India and why?

Ans : The trans-Himalayan region consisting of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh are the coldest parts of India. The minimum temperatures of – 40°C are recorded at Dras or Kargil (Ladakh). This is due to the fact that this place lies at a great altitude. These regions get snowfall during winter and temperature remains below freezing point.

Q.32. What is the intertropical convergence zone?

Ans: Intertropical convergence zone is a narrow Equatorial low pressure belt found near the surface of the equator. It changes its position with the shifting of the sun. I.T.C.Z. shifts northward to 25°N in summer. It forms a zone of contact of winds and results in the attraction of S.W. Monsoons. In winter, I.T.C.Z. shifts southwards.

Q.33. Monsoon exercise an all embracing and unflying influence on the weather conditions of India. Elaborate the above statement. 

Ans : India has primarily a monsoon type of climate. Monsoon system of winds exercises a uniform influence throughout the country. Despite many regional variations of climate, there is a broad unity of monsoon type of climate having same rhythm of seasons. The monsoon climate prevails as much over Thar desert as on Assam and Kerala. Monsoons have a unifying influence on weather conditions of India. Throughout the country due to a seasonal flow of Land to Sea and Sea to Land winds, different seasons are found. Monsoon make India as a whole a single meteorological unit. Agriculture in each part of the country depends upon monsoons. The enclosed character of the country by the unbroken chain of Himalayas in the north has given a distinct character to Indian monsoon. Of course, there are many regional variation; Depressions give rain in the North West, Retreating monsoons give rainfall on the East coast, but these are the resulting facets of monsoons. Thus monsoons create a unity of climate over India.

Q.34. Give an account of distribution of annual rainfall in India. How is it related to the relief of the country. 

Ans : The average annual rainfall of India is 110 cms. Regional variations in the distribution are found due to differences in relief of the country. Rainfall is unevenly distributed throughout the country. India can be divided into the following rainfall regions:
(1) Areas of heavy rainfall. These areas get more than 200 cms of annual rainfall. These include Western Coast and Western Ghats, Sub-Himalayas, and the N.E. Parts of India.
(2) Areas of Moderate Rainfall. These areas get annual rainfall of 100-200 cms. These include West Bengal. Orissa, Eastern parts of U.P. and Madhya Pradesh; coastal plains of Tamilnadu.
(3) Areas of Low Rainfall. These areas experience an annual Rainfall of 50-100 cms. These include western part of U.P., Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, peninsular plateau and Eastern Rajastan.
(4) Areas of Scanty Rainfall. These areas get less than 50 cms of Annual rainfall. These include Ladakh, S.W. Punjab, Southern Haryana, Western Rajasthan, Kutch and Thar Desert.

  •  Effect of Relief on Rainfall. Geographic features play an important part in the distribution of rainfall in India. The amount of rainfall in an area is determined by the life of the mountains. On the whole, it may be called relief rainfall in India. In mountain areas of Khasi-Jaintia hills the annual rainfall exceeds 1000 cms. In Ganges Valley, the amount of rainfall goes on decreasing up the Ganges Valley. The onshore winds give heavy rainfall on windward slopes: but rain shadow areas remain dry. Garo-Khasi hills get more than 1000 cms of annual rainfall, but the amount drops to 200 cms. over Shillong plateau and Brahmputra  Valley lying in the rain shadow. Malabar coast and Western Ghats get more than 300 cms of rainfall, but Deccan plateau lies in the rain shadow of Western Ghats and remains dry (60 cms rainfall). In Rajasthan, the Aravalli system lies parallel to the direction of the S.W. monsoons and is unable to force these winds to rise. So Rajasthan remains practically dry.

Q. 35. Discuss the formulation of social system in the later vedic period.

Ans.The later Vedic period (1000-600 b.c.) marked a settlement patterns. Society was based on settled agriculture. It expanded towards east in the Indo-Gangetic plains. Also came in the use of iron and the characteristic pottery of this period was Painted Grey Ware (PGW).
In society, the four Varnas appeared. Brahmanas at the top, were previously one of the sixteen priestly classes but came to dominate social hierarchy. They acted as priests as well as advisers to the kings and were also the most important authority of religion and social matter. Theoretically a king could dismiss a Brahmin priests but he did it rarely. Kshatriya or the warrior castes came in  the second place. They protected people and were allowed to collect taxes and obedience from the lower castes (Varnas).
The Vaishyas, who constituted the general mass of people came third. They did most of the cultivation work. Some were artisan.  The shudras were the fourth and the lowest in hierarchy. They faced various indignities. They had to serve all the higher Varnas. Also they were not allowed to wear sacred thread while other Varnas were allowed. In family, power of father increased and he could disinherit his son. Male ancestors were worshipped. In Marriage gotra exogamy came to be practised.
Position of women in society declined. They were not allowed to read though we have certain women theologians and philosophers. Marriageable age was reduced. Though widow remarriage was permissible generally to husband's brother, monogamy was the accepted pattern.

Q.36. Write short notes on the following : (1) Brahmagiri (2) Paithan (3) Burzohom (4) Dhauli (5) Sanchi 

Ans : (1) Brahmagiri : In Karnataka, maintained continuity of cultural heritage from Neolithic to Megalithic. Site of one of the two minor Rock Edicts of Ashoka, which points to Ashoka becoming a monk after two and half years after his conversion to Buddhistm.
(2) Paithan : Pratisthan - at the mouth of river Godavari in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. Capital of Satavahana kings. It lied on route to South India from North.
(3) Burzahom : In Kashmir valley near Srinagar. Associated with neolithic settlement, famous for pit dwellers, wring stone (axe) and bones as weapons and practised fishing.
(4) Dhauli (Tosali) : Near Bhubaneswar in Orissa. Seat of Mauryan provincial governor. Fourteenth Major Rock Edict of Ashoka located, have the first of conquered people and Ashoka's policies regarding them.
(5) Sanchi : In Madhya Pradesh, famous for Buddhist stupas and Ashoka's Minor pillar edicts, Inscriptions of Satavahanas and Guptas found here. It ancient name was Kaknodbota, the land of tribal people Kakar, which was captured by Samudragputa.

Q.37. Why should a phase of non-mass movement or ‘war of position’ inevitably follow a phase of extra-legal mass struggle or ‘war of movement, Why could the national movement not take the form of one continuous mass struggle till freedom was won?

Ans :   The nationalist strategy, under Gandhiji’s leadership, was based on the assumptions that by its very nature a mass movement could not be carried on or sustained indefinitely or for a prolonged period, that a mass movement must ebb sooner or later, that mass movements had to be short lived, and that periods of rest and consolidation, of ‘breathing time’, must intervene so that the movement could consolidate, recuperate and gather strength for the next round of struggle.

  • This was so because the masses on whom the movement was based invariably got exhausted after some time. Their capacity to confront the state or to face state repression—imprisonment, brutal lathi-charges, heavy fines, confiscation of house, land and other property—or to make sacrifices was not unlimited. The national leadership made continuous efforts to increase the people’s capacity to sacrifice and face colonial repression through ideological work.

Simultaneously, it recognized the limits of their capacity to suffer, and therefore did not overstrain this capacity over much. It also based its tactics on the fact that the colonial states was not yet, at least till 1945, in disarray, that its state apparatuses were still loyal to it, that it was till 1945 a strong state, any that it had, consequently, a considerable capacity to crush a movement as it did in 1932-33 and  1942.

  • The strategic perspective that there should be two types of phases of the national movement was also based on the perception that though a mass movement needed a ‘standing army’ or ‘steel frame’ of wholetime political workers, it could not be based only on them. Its real striking power could come only from the masses.
  • The national movement produced thousands of these wholetime workers who devoted their entire lives of the freedom struggle. They spent their entire lives in jails, or Ashrams, or khadi bhandars, or trade union and kisan sabha offices. But while they played a crucial role in organizing and mobilizing the masses, the movement had to be based on the masses.
  • Consequently, recourse to a mass movement that confronted the colonial state and then its shift to a phase of non-confrontation were an inherent part of a strategy of political struggle that was based on the masses. The Gandhian strategy was thus based on a specific understanding of the limits to which both the people and the Government could go.

Q.38. What were the cause of partition of India?

Ans :  The partition of India was a most important event in Indian history. But the way and the circumstances, in which the partition took place, made it become one of its saddest events as well. The primary cause of it was the fanatic religious zeal and communal feelings of the Indian Muslims.

  • Though living for centuries together, the Muslims and the Hindus failed to build up sentient of unity and brotherhood among each other. The Muslims kept themselves aloof from English education and western ideas for long and therefore, remained more inclined towards religious fanaticism.
  • The Aligarh Movement too, therefore, became communal. Gradually, the Muslims developed the wrong notion that their interest not only differed from those of the Hindus but was in contradiction with them. Sir Muhammad Iqbal and many other Muslim leaders gave incentive to this idea. Then Mr. M.A. Jinnah and the Muslim League organised and developed this idea under a single banner.
  • The determined leadership of Mr. Jinnah gave good hopes to the Muslims and they became determined to get Pakistan and, if necessary, through violence.
  • The support of the British to Muslim communalism was another cause of the Partition. The Muslim communalism could never grow to such a proportion and the partition of India could not be possible without the active support of the British. The British started patronizing the Muslims from 1870. They actively supported the Aligarh Movement.
  • The policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ was introduced much earlier than the Reform Act of 1909. In 1909, the introduction of Communal Electorates was just a part of it to encourage the Muslims and inflame their separatist attitude. Much before the demand of Pakistan by the League, the British had accepted it as a genuine demand of the Muslims.
  •  They actively supported the ‘two nation theory’ and gave all possible help to the League and the Muslims in general. That is why the League became so determined about its demand and adopted violent means to achieve it which finally convinced the leaders of the Congress to accept the demand of the Pakistan by the League.
  • The policy of appeasement of the Congress towards the League was also responsible for the partition of the country. The Congress always stood apologetic before for League. It was considered its weakness. In preaching high idealism and accepting the safety of the minorities as one of its basic principles, it lost practical wisdom and dealt most undiplomatically with the League. It accepted the unjustified demand of the League many times. Its ‘Lucknow Pact’ with the league was a blunder which gave encouragement to the Muslims.
  •  It became terrified at the declaration of the ‘Communal Award’ in 1932 which clearly exhibited its weakness concerning the unity of the Hindus. The League was benefited by that. The Congress tried to make settlement with the League many times even at the cost of its principles. The Congress leaders and even Gandhi met Mr. Jinnah now and then which enhanced his morale to the tune of being arrogant in his behaviour.
  • The Congress always demanded sacrifice from the Hindus in the name of national solidarity but never asked the same from the Muslims. A fanatically determined religious minority could never listen to reason. The policy of appeasement was bound to fail. But the Congress failed to understand this truth. It, therefore, failed not only to settle anything with the League but, on the contrary, gave incentive to Muslim communalism. Muslim communalism, in return, encouraged Hindu communalism.
  • The worst failure of the Congress had been that it failed to put an ideal, a common cause or a slogan which could appeal both to the Hindus and the Muslims so that they could forget their religious differences. In an effort to eliminate religious differences, it inadvertently emphasized them. 
  • Besides Mr. Jinnah posed a question. What would be the position of the Muslims after Independence? The Congress failed to give a reply to it. But Mr Jinnah himself gave a reply which appealed and stirred to Muslims to action. He said that ‘it would be the slavery of the Hindus for the Muslims’
  • Therefore, the demand of Pakistan was bound to appeal to the Muslims. The Congress failed to convince the Indians that it would establish a secular and socialistic state based on social and economic justice after the Independence. In such, circumstances communalism as preached by the Muslim League was bound to succeed.
  • The inclusion of the members of the Muslim League in the Interim Government which divided the Central Executive into two contending groups making it ineffective in dealing Hindu-Muslim riots was another cause of the partition.
  • The ‘Direct-Action’ of the Muslim League, the declaration of the British government that it would leave India by June 1948 and serious communal riots also led to the Partition.

Q.39. What was Gandhi's role in solving communal problem?

Ans :  Gandhi failed miserably in solving this Hindu-Muslim communal problem. On the contrary, according to a large number of scholars, he accentuated this problem. They contend that Gandhi was basically a conservative though pious Hindu. The Muslims did not fail to perceive it and, therefore, played the game of opportunism with him.

  • Besides, Gandhi forgot that a fanatically determined religious minority could never listen to reason. Therefore, his policy of compromising with the Muslims even on principles was bound to fail.
  • But the worst cause of his failure was that he failed to put up an ideal a common cause or a slogan which could appeal both to the Hindus and the Muslims so that they could forget their religious differences. That ideal could be only Socialism and removal of economic privileges and disparity among the Indians.
  • He did not bring the economic issues to the front and, therefore, failed to create an ideal vision of India after its independence which would bring equal benefits to the Hindus and the Muslims both.
  • Lacking that vision, the Muslims chose to fight for a separate homeland for themselves which could save them from the Hindus who were in the majority in India. Under his influence, the Congress also failed to fix up socialistic objectives.
  • Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, in his presidential address at the annual session of the Congress at lucknow in 1936, made it categorically clear that the primary aim of the movement of the Congress was to attain political independence of India and not radical change in social or economic order.
  • Pt. Nehru was certainly inclined towards Socialism but he did not desire to break off with the Mahatma. Thus, the failure of putting up an economic ideal by the Congress before the Indians was largely the failure of Gandhi.
  • Of course, it can be said in favour of Mahatma that, probably, he felt that the ideal of Socialism would not be understood by the masses and, therefore, would lack the appeal as that of independence from foreign rule.
  • Yet, it is largely accepted that Gandhi was not inclined towards socialism and was against communism. That resulted in his failure to put up a common platform on which the Hindus and the Muslims could collect together. And that remained the primary cause of his failure in solving the Communal problem though no doubt, several other factors beyond his control were also responsible for it.

Q.40. Critically examine the effect of television on the people of rural India. Suggest suitable measures to bring about socio-cultural change through this mass media.

Ans : Communication in developing societies such as India is a mechanism to instil awareness in the public through the spread of information. India primarily emphasized what Wilbur Schramm called ‘developmental communication’. In its strategy of development communication, the mass media played an effective role. Among the mass media radio and television were the two most potent media for political and developmental communication because there were no technological barriers associated with them in disseminating information. They could reach the poor and the rural masses of India. Television, in fact, was more potent than radio as one picture is worth thousand words.
In India, government gave special emphasis on spreading information about the modernisation techniques in agriculture  which was the occupation of seventy percent of our workforce. It tried to utilize the national as well as local media to the maximum for purposes of an effective communication. The local television media turned out to be more useful because they were communicating and there were available means for the audience to report back to the senders of the message. 
Folk media turned out to be too useful in capturing the rural audience. The government placed special emphasis on telecasting rural folk dances and other folk programmes were interspersed with programmes of socio-economic development to foster social change in India. The dance and drama division of AIR and Doordarshan has extensively utilized dances, songs, dramas etc.  for disseminating persuasive massages to the people. Later in the 1980s, Department of Audio-Visual publicity was conferred with this role. It has shown a rejuvenated interest in making audio-visual programmes to spread message of social change, national development. 
However, sometimes there are certain dangers associated with the use of media in effecting social change. For instance too much information and persuasive communication can’t bring change by itself if there is lack of infrastructure and lack of  economic capacity to adopt new practices in the various traditional occupations. Such a scenario can really dishearten and discourage the rural folks towards moving in the direction of social change. 

 

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