SST Set - 6 (Q.28 to 54)
Q.28. Trace how the 'leftist' and 'rightist' parties derived their appellations.
Ans. In the Central European Legislatures, Socialists and Communists took their seats on the left side of the Presiding Officer, while the other parties (Conservatives etc.) took their seats on the right. This gave rise to the term 'leftists' as applied to Socialists/Communists and members of their thinking. The others were branded 'rightists'.
Q.29. What do you understand by the expression 'Rule of Law'?
Ans. The term connotes absolute supremacy or predominance of regular law as opposed to the influence of arbitrary power.
Q.30. (a) Can the Lok Sabha, after being dissolved or a session thereof prorogued, assemble by its own right?
(b) Is the Rajya Sabha subject to dissolution?
(c) Can the Rajya Sabha assemble, after a session thereof has prorogued, by its own right?
Ans. (a) The Lok Sabha, after being dissolved or a session thereof prorogued, has no authority to assemble by its own right, unless summoned by the President.
(b) The Rajya Sabha is not subject to dissolution.
(c) The House cannot however, assemble, by its own right, after a session thereof is prorogued, unless summoned by the President.
Q.31. The writ of Mandamus will not be granted against certain persons. Who are they?
Ans. Mandamus will not be granted against
(i) the President or Governor of a State and
(ii) a private individual or body, whether incorporated or not.
Q.32.What is common or unique both to the Preamble and the Directive Principles?
Ans. The Preamble promises, among other things, to secure to all Indian citizens, justice (social, economic and political). The Preamble and the Directive Principles together comprise the ideology of egalitarianism.
[Explanatory Note : The Directive Principles specify an ultimate goal; a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of national life. The main thrust is towards a Welfare State through democratic methods.]
Q.33. Trace the sources of inspiration for drawing up the Fundamental Duties in 1976.
Ans. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Constitutions of China, Japan and U.S.S.R. (now defunct) have provided the inspiration for the Fundamental Duties.
Q.34. Before a citizen can claim the writ of quo warranto, he must satisfy the court of certain prerequisites. What are they?
Ans. The citizen must satisfy the court that
(i) the office in question is a public office,
(ii) it is held by an usurper without legal authority and
(iii) the appointment of the said usurper has been made in accordance with law.
Q.35. Define 'Bona Vacantia'.
Ans. When there is no apparent or rightful claimant to a property, such a property accrues to Government. This phenomenon is known as 'Bona Vacantia'.
Q.36. Can the Supreme Court of India sit outside Delhi? Cite the relevant Constitutional provision.
Ans. Yes. It can sit in such other places, as the Chief Justice of India may, with the approval of the President, from time to time appoint.(Art. 130)
Q.37. Mention the relative positions of the two Houses of Parliament and of a State legislature regarding Bills other than Money Bills.
Ans : Bills other than Money Bills may be introduced in either House of Parliament or of a State Legislature.
Q.38. What is a multipurpose project? What is the purpose of building such projects?
Ans : A multipurpose project is river valley project which realises a few objectives simultaneously and hence called multipurpose project. Under this a huge single dam or a series of small dams are built on a river and its tributaries which serve the following purposes:
(i) Impounds huge amounts of rain water for future use;
(ii) Controls floods and protects soils;
(iii) Supplies water for irrigation in command areas;
(iv) Preserves "wild land" and natural ecosystem through afforestation of catchment areas of dams which also helps in avoiding silting of dams, lakes, river channels and irrigation canals thus extending their life and economic viability;
(v) Wild land so developed helps in preserving wildlife, the most precious heritage of mankind;
(vi) Checks soil erosion through afforestation and flood control;
(vii) Generation of hydroelectricity, by making the stored water to fall from high head; hydroelectricity is one of the neatest, cleanest and pollution free forms of energy derived from water which is a renewable resource (i.e. inexhaustible);
(viii) Development of inland waterways which is the cheapest means of transport for heavy goods;
(ix) Reclamation of waterlogged lands and thereby control of malaria;
(x) Development of fisheries;
(xi) Development of river sides as recreation spots and health resorts and hence centres of tourist attraction.
Q.39. State the important geomorphological characteristics and climate characteristics of the Ganga Plan.
Ans. The Ganga plain extends as an alluvial belt between the Himalayas and the Deccan plateau. It lies parallel to the axis of the Himalayas.
(i) It is an alluvial plain with a uniform surface.
(ii) It has a gentle gradient; the average gradient is 1/4 metres per one km.
(iii) It has huge thickness of alluvium deposited by river, during a long period.
(iv) It has deep fertile soils.
(i) It has a hot and moist climate
(ii) The amount of annual rainfall decrease towards the West.
(iii) Most of rainfall is received by Summer Monsoons.
(iv) Loo and dust storms blow in Summer while winters are cold due to increasing distance from the sea.
Q.40. What is cyclone and how is it generated? Consider short and long term measures to counter its disastrous effects?
Ans : The term “cyclone” is used by India meteorologists for an area of low pressure where the velocity of the incoming winds, blowing in a spiral, exceeds 64 km per hour. A low pressure area develops when the stagnant moist air over a place becomes warmer and rise to upper atmospheric heights. The rising air is replaced by the air flowing in from all directions. The earth’s rotation prevents the incoming air currents converging at the centre of the low pressure. And instead exerts a deflecting force, causing the wind spiral. The system derives its energy from the latent heat released by the moisturisation of vapour. In the tropics the vertical winds current is generally weak enough to allow the flush-out of the liberated heat which remain trapped, incessantly intensifying the cyclone as long as it is over the warm sea.
Anti-cyclone measures: Coastal cities face greater risk from cyclones because the population growth has been greater there. Measures to minimise cyclone damage have been classified into three categories. Long-term measures, which require 10 to 20 years, include building house strong enough to withstand cyclones—this is cheaper than rebuilding destroyed houses, land planning to keep the most vulnerable areas as green areas; scientific research to minimise or neutralise the cyclone effects. Medium-term measure consist of improvement in the communication network and the warming systems, and establishment of emergency centres and cyclone shelters. Short-term measures come into play the moment a cyclone alert is received and include evacuation from vulnerable area, and public health and sanitation precautions. The INSAT and other weather satellites are able to give a 48-hour notice of cyclones. Thus timely warnings may be given to the people
Q.41. Write short notes (30 words)
(i) MONEX (ii) El Nino Effect
Ans (i) Monex. The mechanism of the Indian monsoon is now explained as due to the shifting of the I.T.C., the northward movement of the Westerly Jet Stream and its replacement by the Easterly jet Stream and the Upper air circulation over Tibet. The World Metereological Organisation conducted a monsoon experiment known as MONEX over the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal to unravel the mysteries of the monsoon. However, the working of the monsoon is still not fully understood. This is partly due to difficulties involved in recording and measuring upper air observations over vast stretches of the seas around India.
(ii) El Nino Effect. The El Nino Effect has a bearing on the monsoon pattern.
The El Nino, a warm Ocean current on the Peru Coast which appears before Christmas affects the Southern Oscillation, i.e., the see-saw movement of weather between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. By measurements of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) it is possible to predict whether the monsoon will be weak or strong.
Q.42. Write notes on
(i) Tropical Evergreen or Rain Forest
(ii) Tropical Decidous Forest
(iii) Montance Forest
(iv) Scurb an d Thron Forests.
Ans : (i) Tropical Evergreen Forest
Trees in these forests do not have a distinct season of shedding leaves and hence they are evergreen. They occur where the average annual temperature is about 250C to 270C and rainfall exceeds 200 cm. They grow on rainy slopes facing the monsoon currents. These areas are in the western parts of the Western Ghats (parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala); the eastern Himalayas (Terai region); northeast India (comprising Lushai, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia and other hills); and most of Andaman islands.
Tropical evergreen forests have a dense growth of trees with climbers and epiphytes, bamboo and ferns. The trees are 45 m high. They produce valuable hardwood such as rosewood, ebony and ironwood used for furniture, railway sleepers and house building.
(ii) Tropical Decidous Forest
Also called the monsoon forests, they form the natural cover almost all over India. They occur in areas of rainfall between 150cm and 200cm. Most trees are deciduous i.e. they shed their leaves for some 6 to 8 weeks in the hot weather. Depending on the species, the period of shedding generally from early March to end of April and therefore at no particular time the forests are absolutely bare. These forest are of two types: (i) moist deciduous and (ii) dry deciduous. It has been observed that moist deciduous forests are getting gradually replaced by dry deciduous forests. The moist deciduous forests occur in the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, (teak in an important species of this region) and are common in the northeastern part of the peninsula, i. e. around Chhotanagpur plateau covering east Madhya Pradesh, South Bihar and West Orissa. They are also common along the Shivaliks in north including the bhabhar and the terai. The remaining area with 100-150cm rainfall within the parameters explained before has dry deciduous forests. The dry deciduous forests have more open and dwarfish composition, the trees being more stunted and widely spaced, though the species are mostly the same as in moist deciduous.
The deciduous forests are economically most important forests as they possess a large number of commercially important timber tree species which, due to high degree of gregariousness, are also easy to exploit. The important trees of these forests are: (i) Sal, whose wood is very hard and heavy and immune to termite attacks. It is mostly found in North, Central and North east India (Bihar, U.P., Orissa, M.P., Tripura, Assam). It occurs in large pure 'strands'. Its timber is useful for railway sleepers and house construction. (ii) Teak (tectona grandis) gives very hard and durable timber, suitable for ship building, house construction and furniture. Seasoned Teakwood can resist termites. Also, it does not corrode iron nails. It is found in the forests of M.P., Assam, Orissa, Bihar, Maharashtra and Tamilnadu. (iii) Sandal tree provides sandalwood for handicraft and sandalwood oil, which is used in perfumery. It is mainly found in Karnataka. (iv) Semul is found in Assam, Bihar and Tamilnadu. Its timber is soft and white and is used for packing cases, match boxes and making toys. (v) Myrobalan provides material for tanning leather and dyeing cotton, wood and silk. (vi) Mahua flowers are eaten and used for distilling alcohol and khair provides material for chewing along with betel leaves.
(iii) Montance Forest
In mountainous regions a succession of natural vegetation belts from tropical to tundra region, all compressed into an altitude of 6 km or so, is found. However, even at the same altitude vegetation of sunny areas differs from those that are not so sunny. The Montane forests can be studied under two heads:
(i) Montane (Southern) : The Nilgiri and Palni hills in the South have a wet hill forests at 1,070-1,525 m height; below it occurs stunted type of rainforest and above it the temperate forests begin to replace it. Higher slopes of Sahyadris, Satpura and Aikal hills also have this type of forests. Above 1,500 m on the slopes of Nilgiris, Anamalais and Palnis occur the west temperate forest, locally termed as sholas. At lower levels are found a rich rolling savanna with occasional peat bogs. Shola forests are dense but low with much undergrowth and many epiphytes, mosses and ferns. Common species are magnolia, laurel, rhododendron, elm and prunus. Eucalyptus, cinchona and wattle have been introduced from outside.
(ii) Montane (Northern) : The foothills of the Himalayas, the Shivaliks, are covered with tropical moist deciduous flora. The most dominant and economically important species of this belt is Sal. Bamboo trees are also common.
Wet hill forests occur at 1,000-2,000 m height in the Himalayas. Evergreen oak and chestnut species predominate with some ash and beech. Climbers and epiphytes are common in these forests. At the same altitude in northeastern hills, where it rains heavily, sub-tropical pine forests are found in which chir trees dominate. Chir is useful for extraction of resin and turpentine and is also exploited for timber purpose used for furniture, building and railway sleepers.
Further up, between 1600 m - 3,300 m above sea level occurs the coniferous forests of the temperate region, also called moist temperate forests. Pine, cedar, silver fir and spruce are the important trees forming these forests with undergrowth of oak, rhododendron, laurel and some bamboo. In the inner himalayan ranges and in drier climates where rainfall is below 100 cm these trees along with deodar and chilgozah occur predominantly.
The Himalayas from 2,881-3,640 m height are covered largely with a dense shrubby forest called Alpine forests. They consist of silver fir, juniper, pine, birch and rhododendrons. Alpine forests give way to Alpine grasslands through shrub and scrub and are found on the southern slopes and northern slopes of the Himalayas.
(iv) Scrub and Thron Forests
These occur where rainfall is scanty, less than 100cm, which is insufficient for tree growth. These forests extend over north-western part of India from Saurashtra in South to Punjab plains in north. In east it stretches to northern Madhya Pradesh (mainly Malva plateau) and south-west Uttar Pradesh covering Bundelkhand plateau. Khair, kikar, babul, date palms (Khajur) are common trees of these forests. The trees are stunted and widely scattered. These forests gradually fade away into scrubs and thorny bushes leading to typical desert vegetation.
Q.43. What is desert and semi desert vegetation?
Ans : It is found in regions where rainfall is below 25 cm and where average annual temperature is 25-270C. The vegetation mostly consists of thorny bushes, acacia, wild berreies, babul and kikar. These trees are barely six to 10 meters in height but have long roots. They are armed with hard thorns or sharp spines to protect themselves from animals. These are found in Rajasthan, Kutch and Saurashtra in Gujarat, south western Punjab and part of the Deccan.
Q.44. Describe the Mangrove forests.
Ans : These are found in tidal areas along the coasts and rivers. These can survive in both fresh and salt water- the major characteristic of tidal areas. Some of these forests are supported by a number of still like roots, which are under water at high tide; at low tide these can be seen. This tangled mass of root system is a wonderful adaptation for survival in the soft and shifting mud. Tidal forests are found in great abundance and in almost continuous stretch along the edges of deltas on the east coast, namely, the deltas of the Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery and along the coast of Andaman and Nicobar islands. These are also found along the west coast in a few places. In Bengal they are called Sunderbans (meaning forests of the sundari tree). The other principal trees are gurajan and hintal. These forests are a valuable source of fuel.
Q. 45. Discuss the Mauryan policy of regulating and controlling economic activities.
Ans. According to Arthashastra of Kautilya state appointed 27 superintendents (adhyakshas) to regulate the economic activities of the state like agriculture, trade and commerce, weights and measures, crafts such as weaving and spinning, mining and so on. State provided irrigation facilities and regulated water supply for the benefit of agriculturist. State officials measured the land and imparted channels through which water was distributed into smaller channels. Slaves were employed in agricultural operations in state maintained farms (Sita land). These slaves were mostly war captives. But society in India at that time was not a slave society because shudras did in India, what slaves did in slave society of Greece and Rome.
The royal control over vast areas of empire was facilitated by strategic location of Patliputra which was at intersection of rivers, also royal roads ran from Patliputra to Nepal to Peshawar. It was also connected by Kalinga through eastern Madhya Pradesh and from there to south, Andhra and Karanataka. This facilitated easier communication by horses.
In taxation system, Mauryan period marks a land mark. There was a strong machinery for assessment, collection and storage. Greater importance was attached to assessment. Samaharta was the higher officer incharge of assessment, Sannidhata was the chief custodian of state treasury and storehouse. There were granaries in all areas. Taxes were collected in kinds also and peasants could be helped in time of crisis.
Punch marked coins made of silver was the imperial currency. Because of its uniformity, it must have facilitated market exchange in a wider area.
State directly employed some of the artisans such as armours, ship builder, etc.. who were exempt from tax. State workshops were opened and artisans working there were taxed. There were guilds of artisans. And they helped state in collection of taxes. Manufacture and sale of articles were strictly regulated. A toll was fixed at 1/5th of the value of the commodity and a trade tax of 1/5th of the toll was levied. There were no banking but usury was customary.
Q.46. Write short notes on the following : (1) Dwarka (2) Sarnath (3) Hastinapur (4) Surparaka (5) Kalibangan.
Ans : (1) Dwarka : Associated with Krishna legend. It is in Saurashtra on the coast of Arabian sea. Myth had it that ancient city was submerged in sea. Excavations carried out under S.R. Rao, revealed tools dating back to Harappan times.
(2) Sarnath : Near Varanasi, Buddha delivered his first sermon at deer park - ‘Dharma chakra pravartana'. Asokan pillar out of which the lion capital was adopted as the state emblem for India, is here. Important centre for art. Gupta plastic art reached its zenith. Famous Sculpture is Buddha seated in preaching mood.
(3) Hastinapur : Situated along the bank of Ganges. Important town during the 6th century B.C. Associated with Mahabharata legend. Excavation reveal settlements not before 9th century B.C. and urban features not before 7th century B.C.
(4) Surparaka : Port town known to Periplus of the Erythrean sea and Ptolemy. Foreign trade was important. But lost its importance to Broach in first century A.D.. It was 40 miles north of Mumbai. Also known as Sopara.
(5) Kalibangan : In Rajasthan, Neolithic, Pre-Harappan, Harappan and even post Harappan phases of culture found here. Plough field discovered of Harappan time. It was an important town during Harappans.
Q.47. What are the causes of the failure of 1942 revolt?
Ans : Jay Prakash Narain expressed that the movement failed because of the lack of coordination among the people, lack of organizing it, absence of a clear-cut programme of action and the selfishness of the wealthy class of people.
Q.48. Was the Quit India movement a spontaneous outburst or an organized rebellion?
Ans : There were many who refused to use or sanction violent means and confined themselves to the traditional weaponry of the Congress. But many of those, including many staunch Gandhians, who used ‘violent means’ in 1942 felt that the peculiar circumstances warranted their use.
Q.49. How did the use of violence by the people in the in the freedom struggle square with the overall policy of non-violent struggle.
Ans : As a consequence of the growth of nationalism and, in particular, of the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930-34, the Congress emerged as the dominant political force in the elections of 1937. Various political parties of landlords and other vested interests suffered a drastic decline.
Q.50. What was Naval Mutiny of 1946? What was the attitude by the Muslim League and Congress towards the mutiny?
Ans : On 18 February, 1946, ratings in the Signals training establishment Talwar went on huger-strike against bad food and racist insults. Next day the strike spread to some barracks on the shore and twenty two ships in Bombay harbour. The Hindus and the Muslims forgot their differences and distinct political affiliations.
Q.51. Do you believe that the importance which the Mutiny deserved was not given?
Ans : The Mutiny of the Royal navy has not been given the importance which it deserves in the history of Indian National movement. The national leaders soon forgot the cause of the mutineers though Pt. Nehru praised the role of the mutineers afterwards.
Q.52. ‘The famous INA trials were a grim battle of determination between the people and the rulers.’ Discuss.
Ans : The Government put on trial in the Red Fort at Delhi Shah Nawaz Khan, Gurdial Singh Dhillon, Prem Sehgal and Lakshmi Bai, all officers of Azad Hind Fauz (INA). Earlier, they had been officers of the British army but, later on, after being taken as prisoners of war by the Japanese and the formation of INA, they had taken over command of the soldiers under Subhash Chandra Bose.
Q.53. What are the factors responsible for change in the British attitude after the war. Discuss.
Ans : A change in the attitude of the British Government was noticed due to various factors: (i) the war had changed the balance of power in the world; the United State of America and the Soviet Union had emerged as big powers and both supported India’s demand for freedom, (ii) the economic and military power of Britain had been shattered. (iii) the Conservatives were replaced by the Labour Party, many of whose members supported the Congress demand, (iv) the British soldiers were weary of war and were not prepared to spend many more years in India suppressing the freedom movement, (v) the British Government lost confidence in the Indian personnel of its civil administration and the armed forces. The INA had shown that patriotic ideas had entered the ranks of the professionals of the Indian Army. It was confirmed by the revolt of the Indian naval ratings in Bombay in February, 1946. There were also strikes in the Air Force. Signs of nationalist leanings were in evidence among the police and the Civil services. The British felt that all these instruments could no longer be safely trusted. This fear of theirs was confirmed by the police strike in Bihar and Delhi, (vi) the British could not afford to ignore the confident and determined mood of the Indian people. They realized that the people were not prepared to tolerate the foreign rule any longer. Numerous agitations, strikes, hartals, and demonstrations all over the country, including many of the Princely States, during 1945-46 were clear indications of the people’s determination. There was also large scale labour unrest all over the country.
Q.54. Discuss the psychological factors that make communication in an organization effective.
Ans : Communication refers to the transference and understanding of meaning among the members of group. It is the sharing of information and experiences between two or more individuals. Every communication is intended to influence the person for whom it is intended, but it does not always have its desired effects. There are many factors which influence the effectiveness of any communication.
In order to make any communication effective, the following factors should be taken care of.
The foremost thing is the clarity of the communication. An idea, no matter how great, is useless until it is transmitted and understood by others exactly in the manner as that envisioned by the sender. Otherwise, there will be no communication. Therefore, much depends upon the clarity of the message.
Secondly, the message should be adequate in terms of coverage as well as in terms of quantity of various types of messages.
Thirdly, communication is not an end in itself. Rather it is a means to achieve certain goals. Therefore, it requires that information should be persuasive and convincing enough regarding that goal.
Fourthly, timing is also an important factor. At what time a particular message should be conveyed, helps in making an effective communication.