SST Set - 7 (Q.21 to 41) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Social Science (SST) Class 10 - Model Test Papers

Class 10 : SST Set - 7 (Q.21 to 41) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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SST Set - 7 (Q.21 to 41)

Q.21. Describe the geo-graphical distribution of  different types of forests in India?

Ans : The forests in India are unevenly distributed. About 19.5% of the total area are under forests. According to the distribution of rain fall and temperature, the following types of forests are found in India.
(1) West Tropical Evergreen Forests. These forests are found in areas receiving more than 250 cms. of annual rainfall. These forests occur in western ghats and Assam. These include rubber, Mahagony Iron wood etc.
(2) Monsoon Forests. These typical monsoon deciduous forests are found in areas with a rainfall of 150-250 cm. These forests occur in Chota Nagpur Plateau, Assam and Southern slopes of Himalayas. Tea and the Sal are the main trees.
(3) Dry Forests. These forests are found in a broad belt having less than 100 cms of rainfall. Khair, Sheesham, are useful for timber. These occur in Punjab, Haryana, UP. and Deccan Plateau.
(4) Coniferous Forests. These occupy about 6% forests of India. These are found in the Himalayas varying according to the height and amount of rainfall. Deodar, Pine, Fir, and Spruce are valuable soft wood trees.
(5) Tidal Forests. These forests are found in the deltas of Ganges, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauveri. The Mangrove forests in the under Bans (Ganges Delta) are the most important.

Q.22. Why does the exotic flora become a problem for us?

Ans : Nearly 40% of plant species found in India have come from outside and are called exotic plants. These plants have been brought from Sino-Tibetan, African and Indo-Malaysian areas. These plants were brought as decorative garden plants in India. These plants grow rapidly as weeds under hot-wet tropical conditions. These rapidly multiply so that it is difficult to eradicate these. These reduce the useful land cover. These prevent the growth of economic plants. These spread diseases and are a hazard to public health.

  •  Lantana and water Hyachinth are two such species. Water Hyachinth is known as “Terror of Bengal”. It has chocked up all the water courses like rivers, streams, tanks, canals, etc.

Q.23.  'In their altitudinal range Himalayas represent a succession of vegetation regions from the tropical to the Alpine'. Substantiate the statement.

Ans : Different types of vegetation regions are found in the Himalayas from its southern foothills to high altitudes. The natural vegetation ranges from the equatorial to Tundra Type. A series of vegetation regions exist according to the changes of temperatures and rainfall with altitude. A gradual changes in vegetation results according to attitude and climate.
(i) Tropical West Deciduous Forests. These forests are found along the Southern foot-fills of Himalayas, upto a height of 1000 metres. Due to high rainfall, dense forests of Sal are found.
(ii) Temperate Forests The dense wet temperate forests occur upto a height of 2000 metres. These include evergreen oaks, Chestnut and pine trees which are commercially useful.
(iii) Broad leaved evergreen Forests. These occur between height of 200- metres and 3000 metres. These include Oak, Laurels and Chestnut trees.
(iv) Coniferous Forests. These occur upto a height of 3500 metres. These include the trees of Pine, Cedars, Silver fir and Spruce. Deodar is commercially important for timber and railway sleepers. At higher altitudes, near the Snow line, Birch, Juniper and Silverfir trees are found
(v) Alpine Pastures. These occur beyond a height of 3500 metres. These include short grasses, these are used for trans-humane grazing by Nomadic tribes like the Gujjars.

Q.24. "Each vegetation has its characteristic life cycle which represent its delicate balance with its environment". Elaborate the statement giving correct examples.

Ans : Vegetation has a close relation with its environment. Each plant species maintains a delicate balance with its environment. It grows as a community under particular conditions of soil, climate and temperature. The vegetation adopts its appearance and form to the ecological frame. Their full development follows different stages of growth. Thus each vegetation passes through a life-cycle. It passes through different stages of growth as young, mature and old. The time and period of each stage varies from plant to plant. The life cycle of plant is controlled by the elements of natural environment such as supply of water, rainfall, sunlight, soils and slope of the land.
For example, Indian Teak is known for its collective growth. Other species do not grow with teak due to its particular environment. This is the climax of the growth of the plant where it develops as a community. Thus each vegetation passes through a definite life cycle, their form, adaptation, stages of growth and collective growth depend upon its environment or ecological balance.

Q.25. What is "Boreal"?

Ans : Most of the of Himalayan and Peninsular areas are covered with indigenous vegetation. But the Indo-Gangetic plain and Thar desert contain plant species that have come from outside. These are known as exotic plants. The plant species receive from Sino-Tibetan areas are known as ‘boreal’.

Q.26. Make an account for depletion of forest in India. What methods are being used for the conservation of forests?

Ans : A country should have at least one third of its total area under forests to have a healthy ecological balance. India has only 23% of its land under forests. Really good forests have been depleted in extent due to the following reasons:—
(i) The clearing of extensive forest areas.
(ii) The practice of Shifting Cultivation.
(iii) Heavy soil erosion.
(iv) Overgrazing of pastures.
(v) Cutting of trees for timber and fuel.
(iv) Human occupance of Land.
There is a heavy pressure of population on forest resources of the country. The increasing population needs more land for agriculture. The livestock farming needs land for pastures. Forests are being rapidly exploited to supply many forest products for industrial uses. Therefore, it is essential to adopt different methods for the conservation of forests.
Afforestation and reforestation is being developed in many areas. Grasslands are being regenerated. Improved methods of Silviculture are being used. Fast growing plant species are being planted. Areas under forests is being increased

Q.27. How forests are beneficial for us? What are the objectivies of forest policy of India? What programmes are undertaken for afforestation in India?

Ans : Indirect benefits from forest are ecological improvements, influence on climate and moderation of temperature, conservation of soil and regulation of moisture and stream flow. Forests cause perennial flow in hill streams and rivers. The intensity of flood in the plains is reduced.
Direct benefits

  • The major forest based industries are: pulp-paper, newsprint, rayon, saw-milling, wood- panel products, matches, resins, medicinal herbs, wild lift and tourism. Fir and spruce are best for rayon and newsprint. Forests provide a verity of minor products like tanning material, honey, lac, dyes, essential oils, grass, fodder etc.
  • Earn foreign exchange from export of teak, rosewood, paper and paper board, natural gums, seeds etc. Forests can help in import substitution. Royalty on forest leases generate revenue for the states. Besides it provides employment to many.

Forest Policy of India

  •  India is among the world’s first few countries to have adopted a forest policy. The policy was revised first in 1952 and again in 1988. The main objectives of the revised forest policy of 1988 were (i) preservation of ecological balance and conservation of natural heritage (ii) to control erosion of soil, denudation in catchment areas and extension of sand dunes in the north-west desert region and along the coasts (iii) to provide rural and tribal people their requirement of forest products (iv) utilising products of forestry in the best manner possible (v) increasing the productivity of forests as well as the forest cover by afforestation programmes among others (vi) involving the people to meet the objective.
  • Also in 1988, the forest (conservation) Act of 1980 to prevent deforestation and use of forest land for non-orestry purposes was amended. Punishments in case of violations were included. To prevent destruction of forest area by fires, a Modern Forests Fire Control Project was started in 1984 with the assistance of the UNDP.

Afforestation Programmes 

  • Different schemes have been undertaken to increase, preserve and maintain forest cover. Conservation efforts have been devised for the fragile ecosystems on hill slopes, catchment areas, canal banks, etc.
  • Social forestry programmes were initiated in the Sixth Plain and included schemes for producing fuelwood without destroying forest. Priority was given in the Seventh Plan to block plantations, strip plantations and farm forestry. A National Wasteland Development Board was set up for reclaiming wastelands through afforestation with people’s participation. Decentralised people’s nurseries were set up in 1986-87 to encourage production of seedlings for local plantations. Research is also being encouraged to improve planting material and efficiency of trees. In order to meet the rural and tribal population’s need of fuelwood and fodder, area-specific programmes for developing these are being pursued.

Q.28. What are the objectives of social forestry programme? 

Ans : Social forestry programmes were initiated in the sixth plan including schemes for producing fuelwood, fodder fruit, fiber and fertilizers (5F) without destroying forest.

  • India’s National Commission on Agriculture spelt out the objective of Social Forestry programme in 1976 as:—

(i) to provide fuel and thus to release cowdung for use as manure;
(ii) to increase production of fruits and thus add to the potential food resources for the country;
(iii) to help conservation of soil and stop further deterioration of soil fertility.
(iv) to help create shelter belts around agricultural fields to increase their productivity;
(v) to provide leaf fodder for cattle and thus to relieve intensity of grazing over reserved forests;
(vi) to provide shade and ornamental trees for the landscape;
(vii) to provide small plots and timber for agricultural implements, house construction and fencing;
(viii) to include tree consciousness and love of trees amongst the people; and
(ix) to popularise the planting and tending of trees in farms, villages, municipal and public lands for their aesthetic, economic and protective value.

Q.29. Describe the Indian participation in silk trade through central Asia.

Ans. The silk trade between China and the western world passed through central Asia to west Asia and then through Mediterranean to the western world. Roman Empire had great demand for silk. Indian merchants wanted to monopolise this trade, because it was highly profitable. The Mauryan state had little interferences in this trade. But after the decline of Mauryan Empire, invasions from north west India began. The Greeks (Bactrians), Parthians, Shakas and Kushanas, opened up new opportunities for Indians in participating in this trade. They were previously based in Central Asia and did not want to lose contact with their original Kingdom so, they facilitated this trade. The Kushanas even maintained territorial dominion in this region, they had their bases at Lo-yong, Yarkand, Khotan, Kashgar, Tashkend, Turfan, Miran, Kuchi, Qara-sahar and Tun-huang.
There grew up monasteries (Buddhist) at these places which helped Indian merchants. Also we find Kanishka jealously guarding his dominion in this region and he is said to have died while fighting in this region. It was, the silk trade, main source of revenue for Kanishka.
Previous to Kushanas, there grew up hostility between Roman and Parthians, and the latter prevented the silk from China to reach the west, so, silk trade was directed through India. Taxila  became the collection point of goods and from there it travelled to Broach on west coast of India and then sailed to west (Romans). In later period, trade with south India developed and became more important to Romans. And to central Asia, the Sassanians, a new and powerful dynasty of Persia came to occupy predominance over the silk route.
Also, Indians began to cultivate silk on Indian soil, so as to fill the loss of trade with China and the west. But on the whole Indian participation in silk trade declined considerably after third century A. D. and it became nil after 550 AD. when people of Eastern Roman Empire came to know of the art of growing silk from the Chinese.

Q.30.  Write short notes on the following : (1) Kanchipuram (2) Tanjore (3) Kapilvastu (4) Thaneswar (5) Karnasuvarna.

Ans : (1) Tamralipti : On East Coast near Kolkata. Important centre for trade with south east Asian countries and sea route to China.
(2) Kanchipuram : Sacred pilgrimage centre for Hindus, important for Jainas also. Rose to prominence under Pallavas in 7th century A.D.. Famous for Kaliashnatha temple, which crystalized the Dravid a style of architecture and paintings.
(3) Tanjore : Seat of Imperial Chola since 9th century A.D.. After the fall of Vijaynagar, it became a Nayaka Kingdom. Famous for the temples, The Brihadeshwara or Raja Rajeshwara temple.
(4) Kapilvastu : Principality town in Nepal Terai where Buddha was born, prosperous town during Buddha's time. Important pilgrimage centre for Buddhist. Ashoka visited it during his Dharma Yatras.
(5) Thaneswar : Near Kurushetra in Haryana, capital of Pushyabhuti dynasty to which Harsha belonged. It was an important centre for trade. Attacked by Mahmud Gazhani in 1014 A.D.

Q.31. Do you feel that the Swarajists did not  serve any useful purpose in the cause of national struggle.

Ans :   It would be wrong to assume that the Swarajists served no useful purpose in the cause of national struggle. In 1922, the non-cooperation movement had proved a failure. Gandhi seemed a false prophet because the goal of Swaraj was nowhere in sight, and the people were feeling frustrated.

  • At that time, the Swarajists put up an alternative. Mass movement could not be carried out and, therefore, they suggested to carry the non-cooperation to the Councils. It brought some dividends.
  •  Some form of opposition to the Government was atleast kept by them which kept alive the enthusiasm of the masses at that time of desperation. The demand of a Round Table Conference, to which the Government agreed in 1930 was first formulated and pushed through the Central Assembly by the Swarajists.
  • The appointment of the Muddiman Committee and, two years later, that of Simon Commission to report on the functioning of the reform scheme of 1919 were also due to the demand of the Swarajists.
  • Besides, the working of the Swarajists in the Councils, on the one hand, certainly exposed the autocratic functioning of the Government and, thus, brought discredit to it and, on the other hand, helped in keeping up the spirit of resistance among the people against the foreign rule.

Q.32. Why was the Simon Commission appointed?

Ans :  The Government of India Act, 1919 contained provision that after ten years, a Commission would be appointed to probe into the functioning of the Act and suggest the Government its future course of action.

  • In view of this provision, a Commission was to be appointed in December 1929. Several attempts were made by Indian leaders of different political parties to accelerate the pace of political progress by revision of the Reforms at an earlier date. But the British Government had steadily refused to accept the demand.
  • But suddenly, the British prime minister constitute the Commission. Outwardly, it was a concession to the demands of the Indians for an early revision of the Constitution. But, the real cause of it was different.
  • The general elections were to be held in England in 1929 and there was every possibility of the Labour Party coming into power. It was generally held in Britain that the Labour Government would be more sympathetic to Indian demands and, therefore, could concede for reforms to the extent which would not be in favour of the vested interests of Britain.
  • It was, therefore, considered safer to appoint the Commission earlier and decide the future course of action in India prior to the installation of the Labour Government.
  • Prof. A.B. Keith, however, has advanced another argument. He is of the opinion that the appointment of the Commission was expedited because of the Youth movement in India.

Q.33. What the Nehru report says?

Ans : Nehru Report envisaged the following.
1. It proposed Dominion Status for India.
2. Responsible governments were to be introduced both at the Centre and the provinces.
3. The government, at the Centre, was to be a Federal one including those of the native states. The residuary powers were kept with the Centre.
4. The Parliament at the Centre were to consist of two houses while the provincial legislatures were to have single house.
5. A committee of defence was proposed at the Centre.
6. Joint electorates were proposed throughout India. However, reservation of seats on the basis of population was proposed for the lower house at the Centre in case of Muslims. In the provinces, no reservation of seats were kept reserved for non-Muslims while in the rest of the provinces, seats were kept reserved for the Muslims on the basis of their population. All these reservations were allowed for a period of ten years.
7. Fundamental Rights were to be incorporated in the Constitution.

Q.34. Why  the Nehru report was not accepted   by the different organisations?

Ans :  The All Parties Conference, however, decided to place this constitution before a representative Convention in Calcutta. The convention met on December 22, 1928. The Muslim League and a section of the Khilafat Committee led by Mr. M.A. Jinnah refused to accept the communal settlement proposed in the constitution. Mr. M.A. Jinnah proposed three amendments.

  • One, the Muslims should have 1/3 representation in the Central Legislature. Second, if adult suffrage was not granted then the Punjab and Bengal legislatures should have representation on the population basis for ten years. Third, residuary powers should be vested not in the Centre but in the provinces.
  • These amendments of Mr M.A. Jinnah were, however, lost. He left the convention in protest. Next day the Sikhs also withdrew, and two days later the convention was adjourned sine die on 1 January, 1929.
  • Apart from the Muslims, some section of the Sikhs, Christians and Depressed classes also did not fully approve the Nehru Report. The Congress, however, accepted the Nehru Report though younger element within it, led by Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose desired to delete the demand of dominion status in it and instead include the demand of complete —Swaraj. But Gandhi was not in its favour.
  • Therefore, the proposal of J.L. Nehru and Subhash Bose was defeated and the Congress, in its Calcutta session in December 1928, decided that the Nehru Report should be placed before the British government for its acceptance by December 31, 1929. In case the Report was not accepted by the British government the Congress decided that it would launch a campaign of non-cooperation in India.

Q.35. Discuss the Civil Diobedience Movement?

Ans :  The Second Civil Disobedience Movement was started on March 12, 1930, with Mahatma Gandhi’s famous Dandi March in violation of the Salt Law.

  •  It was symbolic act of defiance of a British-made law. The movement spread rapidly with hartals, demonstrations, boycott of foreign goods and liquor and refusal to pay taxes.
  • The Muslims did not throw in their full support, yet a big section was drawn into the Movement. A notable feature of the Movement was large scale participation of women.
  • The Movement spread far and wide touching both the north-west and eastern-most corners of India. Led by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the Pathans were organized as Khudai Khidmatgar (servants of God), popularly known as ‘Red Shirts’. A more significant event was the refusal of Gharwali soldiers to open fire on demonstrators at Peshawar.
  • In one more corner of India the echoes of the movement were heard. In Nagaland, Rani Gaidinlieu responded to the call of India. At the tender age of 13 she raised the banner of revolt.
  • She was captured in 1932 and sentenced to life imprisonment and she was released only in 1947 by the government of free India. In Manipur, too, there was some trouble.
  • The Government made an effort to crush it by imprisoning Gandhiji and other congress leaders. About 60,000 people were imprisoned. The Congress was declared illegal. The nationalist Press was gagged. There was a reign of terror led by troops and punitive forces. South India in particular experienced repression in its most severe form.

Q.36. The spirit of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was marred by several happenings. Discuss.

Ans : The spirit of the Pact was already marred by the execution of Sardar Bhagat Singh and his comrades on the eve of the Karanchi session of the Congress. Certain other changes also took place between the period of the Pact and holding of the Pact and holding of the Second Round Table Conference.

  • Lord Irwin was replaced by Lord Wellington as the Viceroy of India. Lord Wellington was a determined Conservative and he revived the repressive policy of the Government just after his arrival in India.
  • In England, while the Second Round Table Conference was still in session, general elections took place and the Conservative Party came in power in November, 1931. It changed the situation completely.
  • The Conservative government was in no mood to grant any concession to India. Gandhi returned to India in December 1931, as a dejected person. Here, he found that the Government had already revived its policy of repression.
  • Therefore, Gandhi decided to revive the Civil disobedience Movement and the Congress Working Committee approved it. The Movement was again started in January 1932.

Q.37. What are the causes of the failure of Civil Disobedience Movement?

Ans : The brutal repression and non-compromising attitude of the Government were primarily responsible for the failure of the Second Civil Disobedience Movement. But, the diversion of Gandhi’s attention towards the ‘Communal Award’ and the fate of the untouchables was also responsible for its failure.

  • Gandhi had practically given up the fight for freedom in August 1932. His decision to suspend the mass Satyagraha movement in June 1933 was simply the final step in that direction.
  • Gandhi halted the movement just when it was at matured stage. That is why young Congress leaders had decried the suspension of the movement by Gandhi. It proved fatal to the movement. Thus the Civil Disobedience Movement came to an ignoble end.
  • Yet, the movement, on the one hand, demonstrated the awakening of political consciousness among the Indian masses and their ardour and ability to take an active part in the struggle for freedom to a degree undreamt of before and, on the other hand, exposed the British rule in India in all its naked hideousness and lowered its prestige in the eyes of world.

Q.38. What was the circumstances which forced Churchill to depute Cripps Mission to India?

Ans : The Congress rejected August Offer and, in November 1940, started Individual Satyagrah as a symbolic protest against the attitude of the government. Nearly 25,000 people courted imprisonment. However, the movement remained strictly non-violent.

  • On December 7, 1941, Japan entered the war against the allies and posed immediate danger not only to south-east Asia but to India as well. The Indian government started releasing the Satyagrahis.
  •  The Congress, on its behalf suspended the Satyagrah movement but insisted not to cooperate with the government unless India was assured of Independence after the war.
  • Japan occupied Singapore on 15 February. It disturbed U.S.A., the chief ally of Britain. It’s President Mr. Roosevelt put pressure on Winston Churchill to come to some settlement with Indian leaders.
  • Yet, Churchill did not move. But the capture of Rangoon by Japan on 7 March 1942 forced Churchill to do something. Roosevelt was seriously pressing for it and American help was dear to Britain.
  • Besides, the quick success of Japan in the East convinced Churchill that India was in real danger. On March 11, he declared to depute Cripps Mission to India. The Mission reached Delhi on March 23, 1942.

Q.39. Indian leaders rejected the Cripps Mission?

Ans :The proposals of the Cripps Mission were rejected by the Indian leaders. There were several reasons for it. The proposals accepted the demand of Pakistan by the Muslim League though indirectly; the native rulers, and not their subjects, were given the right to send their representatives in the constitution making body; the native states were allowed to keep themselves aloof from the Indian Union if they so desired; no limit was set for the actual grant of Dominion Status. Somebody dubbed the plan as a “postdated cheque”. It was not clear what rights of the Minorities the British government would insist to be guaranteed at the time of making the treaty.

  •  But the chief difficulty in arriving at an agreement concerned with the defence measures and the powers of the governor-general. What powers the Indian members of the Council of the govenor general would enjoy? The Congress insisted that it should be a Cabinet government with full powers concerning administration and defence. Cripps had agreed to it in the beginning but, later on refused.
  • The negotiations between Mr. Cripps and the representatives of the Congress broke down on April 10, and on April 11, 1942, the proposals were suddenly withdrawn. The Hindu Mahasabha and the Sikhs had rejected the proposals earlier. The Liberals also rejected them as “a travesty of self-determination”. The Muslim League rejected it because its demand of Pakistan was not clearly accepted in them.
  • There was a general impression at that time that the mission failed due to the reactionary attitude of Mr. Churchill. Churchill did not want any compromise with the Indian leaders. The Cripps Mission and its proposals were designed merely to placate American opinion and humour Roosevelt.
  • There is much justification in this opinion. But British official view blamed the pacifism of Gandhi for the failure of the talks. Of course, the proposals of Cripps received scant attention of the Congress and Gandhi left Delhi at an early stage of negotiations but it would be wrong to say that Gandhi or the Congress was responsible for the failure of these talks.
  • The proposals suffered from certain fundamental drawbacks and unanimity was not possible on them. Therefore, Gandhi is not to be blamed for that. If at all somebody has to be blamed for their failure then, above everybody, it was the Conservative government headed by Winston Churchill which was not sincere in its intentions.

Q.40.  Write short notes on the following : (1) Amarkot, (2) Asirgarh, (3) Aurangabad. (4) Belur. (5) Burhanpur. (6) Chanderi (7) Chandernagar  (8) Golkunda. (9) Hansi, (10) Janijira, (11) Jaunpur, (12) Junagarh (13) Kanchi, (14) Kandahar, (15) Kannauj,

 Ans: (1) Amarkot: It is the birth place of Akbar. When Humayun moved from place to place in search of shelter,it was the Rana of Amarkot who received him with hospitality and agreed to help him to conquer Bhakkar and Thatta
(2) Asirgarh: It was originally a fortress belonging to a Hindu chieftain but was captured by Malik, the ruler of Khandesh. During the time of Akbar, the fortress was besieged as a sequel to the failure of the ruler of Khandesh to submit to the imperial authority. Finally it was captured by Akbar.
(3) Aurangabad: Its original name was Khirki, the new capital of Nizamshahi Kingdom. It was named Aurangabad after Aurangzeb. It was the alternative headquarters of Aurangzeb’s government during his second viceroyalty of Deccan in 1653. The tomb of Aurangzeb’s queen-ud-Daurani, was erected here in 1679 on the model of the Taj Mahal.
(4) Belur : It was the capital of the Hoyasalas for some time during the time of Ballala I (A.D. 1100-1106). The Kesara temple at Belur is famous for ornamentation. It is an example of the Deccan style of architecture at its best.
(5) Burhampur: The city of Burhampur was built by the ruler of Khandesh, Nasir Khan. It took its name after a Muslim saint Shaikh Burhan-Ud-din. The city was sacked by the Brahmani army in the course of a power struggle.
(6) Chanderi: It was under a Rajput ruler on the eve of the Muslim invasion of India. Alauddin Khilji conquered it. Chanderi was one of the confederate states which challenged Babur who was able to storm the fortress in spite of the gallant opposition of the Rajputs.
(7) Chandernagar: In Bengal, it was the site which the Nawab Shaista Khan granted to the French in 1674 and on which they built the famous french factory of Chandernagar in 1690.
(8) Golkunda: It was under the control of the Hindu principality of Telingana in the 14th century. Muhammad Shah, the Bahmani sultan acquired it from the Telingan ruler. The Bahamani governors of Teliagana, Quli Shah, declared his independence in 1518 A.D. One of his successors, Ibrahim fought against Vijayanagar in 1565. It was annexed to the Mughal empire in 1687 by Aurangzeb.
(9) Hansi: It was captured by Qutbudin Aibak in 1192 but went out of control after Iltutmish’s death, but was again captured. Firuz Tughluq built a canal here.
(10) Janjira: It was an island on the west coast, held by the Siddis (the Abyssinians). They were the permanent enemies of Shivaji who wanted to occupy Janijira. After the death of Shivaji, the siddis raided the Maratha territory at the instance of Aurangzeb.
(11) Jaunpur: This city was founded by Firoz Tughluq on the banks of the river Gomti. A sultanate was established at Jaunpur by Malik Sarwar. It became a notable centre of learning during the time of Ibrahim Shah. It is also the site of Atala masjid. Husain shah Sharqi built a Jami masjid there.
(12) Junagarh: It was also known as Girnar of  Girinagara. According to Junagarh inscription of Rudradaman. I, Saurashtra was a province of the Mauryan empire. It was ruled in the time of Chandragupta Maurya by his governor named
(13) Kanchi:Pushyagupta who built Sudarshan lake here.
It was a place of  the Pallavas and great educational centre. It was visited by Husan Tsang in 640 A.D. During the period of Narsimhavaarman, the Pallavas built the famous Kailash nath temple here.
(14) Kandahar: It was a place of strategic importance in the north-western region. It was conquered by Babur. Since the time of Humayun it became a bone of contention between the Persians and the Mughals. Akbar took possession of it in 1595. Finally it was lost to the Persians in time of Shah Jahan.
(15) Kannauj: It was the capital of the Maukhairs. Its ruler Grahavaman was married to Rajyasri, Harshavardhan’s sister. After the former’s death, Harsh became its ruler. The control of Kanauj became the chief aim of the powers involved in tripartite struggle-the Palas, Pratiharas and Rashtrakutas.

Q.41. What are the various problems of measuring intelligence by means of intelligence tests? 

Ans : Intelligence has been defined variously by many authors. Some authors emphasize the role of mechanical skills, others the role of verbal and comprehensive skills, some other the role of quantitative skills, and so on and so forth. It is due to the disagreement over the conceptual definition of intelligence that it has become difficult to measure intelligence in a way that it satisfies the aspirations of every expert on the psychology of intelligence. To obviate this difficulty, psychologist sought to desire intelligence as the ability for problem-solving behaviour. But still the problem of measuring intelligence remained as this definition could not solve the question of the composition of the intelligence test. For instance, if one seeks to measure people’s intelligence by Raven’s Progressive Matrices test than he is testing only his ability for comprehension of figures. And there may be a subject who has low ability for comprehending figure but high ability on other dimensions of intelligence. So, he will register a low score on the Raven’s Test despite the fact that he is a man with a high IQ. 

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