Q.21. Distinguish between Terai and Bhabar region.
Ans : Terai
1. Terai is a broad long zone south of Bhabar Plain.
2. It is a marshy damp area covered with thick forests.
3. It is 20-30 kms wide.
4. Many streams re-emerge here from the bhabar area
5. It is suitable for Agriculture.
1. Bhabar is a long narrow plain along the foot hills.
2. It is a pebble studded zone of porous beds.
3. It is 8-16 kms wide.
4. Streams are lost in the region due to porous rocks.
5. It is unsuitable for Agriculture.
Q.22. What is the relation between social forestry and environment?
Ans : Social forestry is closely linked with environmental amelioration and social-economic upliftment, the latter resolution in considerable improvement of the quality of life in rural and urban centers of human habitation.
Q.23. What are the problem areas of social foresty?
Ans : The social forestry programme comprises many areas which open new avenues for people’s participation in forestry management. The following problems are the main areas where participation of the people many be the critical factor.
(i) Stop illicit felling (ii) Control of grazing (iii) Managing Productive forests (iv) Protection of wildlife. (vii) Rehabilitation of degraded forests (viii) Soil and water conservation. (ix) Afforestation Programmes of the government.
Q.24. Which state are the leading producers of the following crops in India?
Ans : Crop Leading producer
Wheat Uttar Pradesh
Maize Uttar Pradesh
Q.25. Discuss the composition of soil?
Ans : Soil is the loose material which forms the upper layer of the mantle rock, i.e. the layer of loose fragments which covers most of the earth's land area. It has definite and constant composition. It contains both decayed plants and animal substances. The four main constituents of soils, present in varying proportion, are :
(i) Silica, present in soil in small crystalline grains form, is the chief constituent of sand. It is derived mainly from the breaking up of rocks, which is a very slow process.
(ii) Clay is a mixture of silicates and contains several minerals such as iron, potassium, calcium, sodium and aluminium. Particles of clay absorb water and swell.
(iii) Chalk (calcium carbonate) provides calcium, the most important element for the growth of plants.
(iv) Hums is not a mineral, it is an organic matter. It is formed by decomposed plant remains, animal manure and dead animals and is the most important element in the fertility of the soil. It helps retain moisture in the soil and helps the plant in absorbing materials from the soil for building its body. A soil looks dark on account of the presence of humus.
Q.26. What is top soil and sub-soil?
Ans : Soil consists of two layers, namely top soil and subsoil. Top soil (the upper layer) is of greater importance. Good top soil means good crops. It varies considerably in depth and also in character and ability to grow crops. It is only a few metres deep. Millions of bacteria, insects and worms live in it. Top soils develop very slowly. It may take years to form top soil suitable for plants, but it can be washed away in a few years if proper precautions are not taken. The resources of sub soil are replaceable but when the top soil itself is gone there is a complete loss.
The sub soil consists of the parent material from which soil is formed. It also contains plant food and moisture but it is not as productive as top soil. It has to be converted into soil and it may take years to convert sub soil into soil. Below the sub soil generally there is solid rock.
Q.27. Discuss the formation of soil. Point out the different factors of soil formation.
Ans : The natural soil are weathering, deposition and biochemical processes.
Weathering is the process of disintegration of rocks into soil. Mechanical weathering involves fragmentation of rocks by forst and temperature changes. Chemical weathering involves crunching of rocks by the chemical action of air, water or both.
Deposition is the process of progressive laying down of rock particles carried by rivers, ice, marine currents, wind or tides.
Biochemical processes involve the biological action of the tree roots of burrowing animals which assist the mechanical and chemical weathering of rocks. As vegetation decays, acids are produced which weaken the rock. The roots of the plants and the burrowing of certain animals decrease the resistance of the ground to other agents of weathering.
Soil formation depends upon the following factors:
Q.28. List the charateristics of soil.
Ans : Sandy soil (light soil) : It contains more than 60 % sand and less than 10% clay. Its particles are loosely bonded, because there is not enough cementing material. They are easily permeable by air and water. This allows good airing for plant roots but they dry up easily. Sandy soil is easy to cultivate and is favoured for fruits and vegetables. It improves if humus in the form of decayed leaves is added to it.
Clayey Soil : It has a high proportion of clay. It becomes sticky when mixed with water. It is not aerated and plant roots find it difficult to dig and plough when dry. It becomes waterlogged when there is too much moisture. The addition of sand and chalk or lime improves it. A soil very rich in clay is called 'heavy'.
Loam is a rich soil and consists of a mixture of sand and clay, together with silt and humus in good balance. It has the qualities of both sand and clay. Loam may be 'sandy loam' depending on whether sand or clay is present in it in higher proportion. All loamy soils are good for farming and general gardening.
Q.29. What is alluvium soil? Discuss the problems associated with the soil.
Ans : This is the most important and widespread group of soils. It covers about 15 lakh sq. km of the land area in Great Plains from Punjab to Assam and also in the valleys of the Narmada and Tapti, Mahandi, Godavari, Krisna and Cauvery. These soils have been brought down and deposited by three great Himalayan rivers- Sutlej, Ganga and Brahmaputra- and their tributaries.
These soils consists of varying proportions of sand, silt and clay. These are predominant in coastal plains and deltas. Geologically, the alluvium is divided into Khadar and bhangar. Khadar is the newer alluvium which is sandy, light coloured and occurs near river beds where deposition takes place regularly and bhangar or older alluvium is of clayey composition, darker in colour. This is because most Deccan rivers flow through the black soil region, whence they carry away large quantities to the delta. Examples are the soils in the valleys of the Narmada, Tapti, Godavari and Krishna.
Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile and therefore the best agricultural soils of the country. Generally, they contain adequate potash, phosphoric acid and lime. The fertility of the soils is due to : (i) mixing up of the debris derived from rocks of the Himalaya; (ii) presence of great variety of salts in these soils drawn from different rocks; and (iii) their very-fine grainy texture, porous nature and light weight (due to which they are easily tilled).
Two main problems associated with these soils are: (i) They allow water to sink into the lower strata and are therefore unsuitable for the growth of those crops which require the retention of great deal of moisture about their roots and thus they cause infertility in regions where showers are not frequent. (ii) These soils though rich in potash, phosphoric acid, lime and organic matter, are generally deficient in nitrogen and humus; this necessitates heavy fertilisation particularly with nitrogenous fertilisers.
These soils are suitable for irrigation, particularly well adapted to canal irrigation because of the abundance of sub-soil water and softness of the strata to be penetrated. Under irrigation these soils are suitable for rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, jute, maize, oilseeds, tobacco, vegetables and fruits. The regions of these soils constitute the 'wheat and rice bowls of India.
Q.30. Discuss the External trade of the Harappans.
Ans. Harappan civilization which flourished in the Indus region during the second half of the third millennium B.C. was an urban civilization. It had flourishing trading centres, from where both external and internal trade were carried out. The existence of external trade during the Harappan period is attested by many historical findings. This could be said more emphatically on the basis of the fact that Harappans produced commodities for which they did not possess necessary raw materials. Perhaps the trade was carried on through the barter and for finished goods and foodgrains. Harappans obtained these necessary raw materials.
Harappans had commercial links with the cities of Rajasthan, Afghanistan and Iran. Many Harappan seals found in Mesopotamia attests the fact that they traded with Mesopotamian cities. The Mesopotamian records from about 2350 B.C. refer to trade relations with Meluha, which was the ancient name, given to the Indus region. They had commercial links with the cities in the land of Tigris and Euphrates. Their decent urban structures clearly indicates that this external trade was highly in their favour, which came to an end with their extinction.
Thus, it could be said that Harappans carried out a highly favourable external trade, which existed from the beginning to the end.
Q.31. Write short notes on the following : (1) Vaisali (2) Khajuraho (3) Vatapi (4) Lothal (5) Vengi.
Ans : (1) Karnasuvarna : Region in East India, parts of Bihar, Bengal, Orissa, ruled by Sasanka, the Shaivite King in early 7th century A.D. Harsha captured it after 619 A.D.
(2) Vaisali : In Bihar, important town in 6th century A.D. second Buddhist council was held here, seat of Lichchhavi power. Annexed by Ajatshatru.
(3) Khajuraho : World famous for its erotic sculptures. Chandellas patronized this cultural centre and built Kandarya Mahadeva temple. It is in Madhya Pradesh.
(4) Vatapi (Badami) : Base of Chalukyan power and its capital, destroyed by Narasimha Varman in 642 A.D, when he defeated and killed Pulkesin.
(5) Lothal : Important town during Harappan civilization, port town, dockyard found here. Traces of horse bones are also found here.
(6) Vengi : In Andhra Pradesh, joined Samudra Gupta's empire as a tribute paying state, capital of eastern Chalukyas. Its fertile soil was the bone of contention between Chalukyas and the Pallavas.
Q.32. ‘The non-cooperation failed to achieve any of its objectives.’ Discuss.
Ans : The suspension of the movement came as a surprise to the people. Many, including some leaders of the Congress, did not like it but, having complete faith in Gandhi, they bowed down to his wish.
Q.33. The non-cooperation movement, for the first time, made the Indian movement a mass movement. Discuss.
Ans : The Non-cooperation brought out some positive success. The people felt a tremendous national awakening. They developed complete distrust towards the foreign government. For themselves, they gained tremendous self-confidence and self-esteem. The fear of government and imprisonment withered away from their minds.
Q.34. Trace the socialist ideas outside the Congress.
Ans : Attracted by the Soviet Union and its revolutionary commitment, a large number of Indian revolutionaries and exiles abroad made their way there.
Q.35. Describe the left wing within the Congress.
Ans : The Communists, however, failed to take advantage of their popularity. The one cause of it was the new ultra-leftist policy laid down for India by the Comintern. The Communist Party was now directed to severe all its relations with all elements of bourgeoisie and launch an attack on the Indian National Congress and its leaders like Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. This policy was pursued by the Communists between the period 1928-34. It brought discredit in the Indian society and isolated it from other political parties in India.
Q.36. ‘The Communist Party did not get any positive success’. Discuss.
Ans : The 1930’s witnessed a rapid growth of socialist idea within the Congress. Rather, during this period, the Congress underwent a structural change. It gradually turned from a bourgeois landlord party into a bloc embracing various trends and groups including the peasants and the workers.
Q.37. ‘The Swarajists desired to take the Non-co-operation from streets to the Legislative Councils’. Discuss.
Ans : The ultimate aim of the Swarajists did not differ from the Gandhites, namely, to win—Swaraj. But, they had lost faith in the way to achieve it i.e. Civil disobedience. They desired entry into the legislative Councils with a view to prove their strength among the masses before the Government and to wreck the citadel of bureaucracy from within.
Q.38. The Swarajists gradually gave up their original object of taking Non-cooperation to the Councils—why?
Ans : Gradually, the Swarajists realized the futility of the policy of ‘undiluted opposition’ to the Government. The Gandhites had never favoured their entry into the Councils, the Nationalist Party which was led by Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya and Lala Lajpat Rai came to the conclusion that indiscriminate opposition to the Government was harming the interests of the Hindus, and the Government in Several provinces functioned in spite of the opposition of the Swarajists.
Q.39. Discuss the inherent contradiction in the policy of the Swarajists’.
Ans : The policy of entry into the Councils but not to cooperate with the scheme of reforms introduced by the act of 1919 was self-contradictory.
Q.40. What was the causes of the formation of Home Rule Leagues?
Ans : In 1914, the World War I started in Europe. The Moderates supported the government of India in its war efforts in the mistaken belief that, probably they would get something substantial after the war. The Extremists, however, gradually realized that they could get something only by intensifying the national movement.
Q.41. Analyze the process of communication and discuss the various strategies for making communication more effective.
Ans : The process of communication begins with the planning of the communication. Communication begins when the sender of the message thinks about an idea to be transmitted to the receiver. He then puts these ideas into an organized and coherent pattern. After organizing the ideas, he encodes the information in such a manner that it remains quite easily intelligible to the receiver. For this, he must take into the abilities of the receiver of the message. The data can be encoded in simple language for an ordinary person, it may also be encoded in a technical language of the receiver is a technical personnel.
After the message is organised and encoded, the next step is the transmission of the message. The message is transmitted through a medium. The medium may be a memorandum, a computer, a telephone, a pamphlet, a speech, a television, etc. Usually the medium is selected in such a manner that it has an easy access to the receiver for example, if it a socially relevant programme such a programme of family planning and it has to reach the vast masses of population residing in Indian villages, then television or radio would be the most appropriate medium. On the other hand, if it is a confidential message to be transmitted among the managers of an organization, a confidential meeting of the manager would be the most appropriate way of transmitting the message.
In the transmission, one of the foremost challenges is overcoming noises. A noise is anything that hinders effective communication. It may arise due to faulty encoding which has utilized ambiguous symbols. Noise in transmission may also arise due to interrupted flow of the message. An effective transmission consists in overcoming such noises.
Then the next stage in the process of communication is the reception of the message by the receiver. The receiver has to decode the message in a way that he receives what the sender has intended. In this process of decoding, the person has to change the codes into thoughts. A communication is not complete unless it is completely understood. A faulty decoding may result due to wrong meaning attached to words and symbols. After the reception of the message, the effectiveness of the message can be increased if the receiver gives a proper feedback to the sender of the message. An effective feedback will make the sender to make adequate changes so that there is an effective communication.