SST Set - 8 (Q.21 to 41) Notes | Study Social Science (SST) Class 10 - Model Test Papers - Class 10

Class 10: SST Set - 8 (Q.21 to 41) Notes | Study Social Science (SST) Class 10 - Model Test Papers - Class 10

The document SST Set - 8 (Q.21 to 41) Notes | Study Social Science (SST) Class 10 - Model Test Papers - Class 10 is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Science (SST) Class 10 - Model Test Papers.
All you need of Class 10 at this link: Class 10

Q.21. Distinguish between Terai and Bhabar region.

Ans : ​ Terai
1.  Terai is a broad long zone south of Bhabar Plain.
2.  It is a marshy damp area covered with thick forests.
3.  It is 20-30 kms wide.
4.  Many streams re-emerge here from the bhabar area
5.  It is suitable for Agriculture.

1.  Bhabar is a long narrow plain along the foot hills.
2.  It is a pebble studded zone of porous beds.
3.  It is 8-16 kms wide.
4.  Streams are lost in the region due to porous rocks.
5.  It is unsuitable for Agriculture.

Q.22. What is the relation between social forestry and environment?

Ans : Social forestry is closely linked with environmental amelioration and social-economic upliftment, the latter resolution in considerable improvement of the quality of life in rural and urban centers of human habitation.

  • The relationship between ecosystem, social forestry and environment are so intimately interlinked as to preclude a simplistic understanding. Further, the major objectives of social forestry being both economic and environmental, the complexity is doubly compounded.
  • To take the environment alone, the social forestry when extensively and successfully implemented can generate several positive environmental impacts like improvement in hydrological balance and production of water from watersheds, improvement of physical properties of soil favourable to improved infiltration, retention capacity and in depth percolation, lamentation of ground water table, reduction of surface run-off water and sedimentation of reservoirs, rivers, streams, etc., recycling of carbon, creation of favourable microclimate conditions conductive to higher food production, increased rainfall through transpiration, maintaining balance in oxygen, carbon dioxide, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity and Ozone layer.
  • The different components of the social forestry programme related to environmental regeneration are (i) protection and afforestation of degraded forests in the vicinity of habitations, (ii) creation of village woodlands on community lands and government waterlands, (iii) block plantations in tank beds and foreshore lands; (iv) agro- forestry on marginal and sub-marginal farmlands; (v) tree planting along home steads, field boundaries, diffused planting within the fields, particularly in the arid and semi-arid zones; (vi) pasture and silvipasture development; (vii) tree planting in urban and industrial areas for aesthetic purposes, purification of polluted air and control of noise pollution; (viii) control of water and wind erosion by tree and shrub planting, planting of shelter belts, green belts and noise protection belts, etc., (ix) strip plantations along roadsides, canal banks and rail lines.
  • These programme if carried out effectively with active involvement of people could ensure that basic needs of the rural people could be met in respect of fuel, fodder, fibre, small timber and raw materials for cottage industry, etc., on one hand and ensure ecological security like protection against wind and water erosion polluted water and air, and availability of clean air on the other.

Q.23. What are the problem areas of social foresty?

Ans : The social forestry programme comprises many areas which open new avenues for people’s participation in forestry management. The following problems are the main areas where participation of the people many be the critical factor.
(i) Stop illicit felling (ii) Control of grazing (iii) Managing Productive forests (iv) Protection of wildlife. (vii) Rehabilitation of degraded forests (viii) Soil and water conservation. (ix) Afforestation Programmes of the government.

Q.24. Which state are the leading producers of the following crops in India?

Ans : Crop    Leading producer
    Wheat    Uttar Pradesh
    Maize    Uttar Pradesh
    Bajra    Gujarat
    Coconut    Kerala
    Coffee    Karnatka
    Rubber    Kerala

Q.25. Discuss the composition of soil?

Ans : Soil is the loose material which forms the upper layer of the mantle rock, i.e. the layer of loose fragments which covers most of the earth's land area. It has definite and constant composition. It contains both decayed plants and animal substances. The four main constituents of soils, present in varying proportion, are :
(i) Silica, present in soil in small crystalline grains form, is the chief constituent of sand. It is derived mainly from the breaking up of rocks, which is a very slow process.
(ii) Clay is a mixture of silicates and contains several minerals such as iron, potassium, calcium, sodium and aluminium. Particles of clay absorb water and swell.
(iii) Chalk (calcium carbonate) provides calcium, the most important element for the growth of plants.
(iv) Hums is not a mineral, it is an organic matter. It is formed by decomposed plant remains, animal manure and dead animals and is the most important element in the fertility of the soil. It helps retain moisture in the soil and helps the plant in absorbing materials from the soil for building its body. A soil looks dark on account of the presence of humus.

Q.26. What is top soil and sub-soil?

Ans : Soil consists of two layers, namely top soil and subsoil. Top soil (the upper layer) is of greater importance. Good top soil means good crops. It varies considerably in depth and also in character and ability to grow crops. It is only a few metres deep. Millions of bacteria, insects and worms live in it. Top soils develop very slowly. It may take years to form top soil suitable for plants, but it can be washed away in a few years if proper precautions are not taken. The resources of sub soil are replaceable but when the top soil itself is gone there is a complete loss.
The sub soil consists of the parent material from which soil is formed. It also contains plant food and moisture but it is not as productive as top soil. It has to be converted into soil and it may take years to convert sub soil into soil.  Below the sub soil generally there is solid rock.

Q.27. Discuss the formation of soil. Point out the different factors of soil formation.

Ans : The natural soil are weathering, deposition and biochemical processes.
Weathering is the  process of disintegration of rocks into soil. Mechanical weathering involves fragmentation of rocks by forst and temperature changes. Chemical weathering involves crunching of rocks by the chemical action of air, water or both.
Deposition is the process of progressive laying down of rock particles carried by rivers, ice, marine currents, wind or tides.
Biochemical processes involve the biological action of the tree roots of burrowing animals which assist the mechanical and chemical weathering of rocks. As vegetation decays, acids are produced which weaken the rock. The roots of the plants and the burrowing of certain animals decrease the resistance of the ground to other agents of weathering.
Soil formation depends upon the following factors:

  • Nature of the parent rock which provides the inorganic substances for the soil;
  • Climate, i.e. temperature and rainfall conditions: excessive rains tend to leach away the soluble minerals of the soil;
  • Natural vegetation, which provides much of the organic substances of the soil;
  • Topography or relief; soils are usually thinner and poorer on steep slopes than on gentle slopes;
  • The length of time that these factors have been at work.

Q.28. List the charateristics of soil.

Ans : Sandy soil (light soil) : It contains more than 60 % sand and less than 10% clay. Its particles are loosely bonded, because there is not enough cementing material. They are easily permeable by air and water. This allows good airing for plant roots but they dry up easily. Sandy soil is easy to cultivate and is favoured for fruits and vegetables. It improves if humus in the form of decayed leaves is added to it.
Clayey Soil : It has a high proportion of clay. It becomes sticky when mixed with water. It is not aerated and plant roots find it difficult to dig and plough when dry. It becomes waterlogged when there is too much moisture. The addition of sand and chalk or lime improves it. A soil very rich in clay is called 'heavy'.
Loam is a rich soil and consists of a mixture of sand and clay, together with silt and humus in good balance. It has the qualities of both sand and clay. Loam may be 'sandy loam' depending on whether sand or clay is present in it in higher proportion. All loamy soils are good for farming and general gardening.

Q.29. What is alluvium soil? Discuss the problems associated with the soil.

Ans : This is the most important and widespread group of soils. It covers about 15 lakh sq. km of the land area in Great Plains from Punjab to Assam and also in the valleys of the Narmada and Tapti, Mahandi, Godavari, Krisna and Cauvery. These soils have been brought down and deposited by three great Himalayan rivers- Sutlej, Ganga and Brahmaputra- and their tributaries.
These soils consists of varying proportions of sand, silt and clay. These are predominant in coastal plains and deltas. Geologically, the alluvium is divided into Khadar and bhangar. Khadar is the newer alluvium which is sandy, light coloured and occurs near river beds where deposition takes place regularly and bhangar or older alluvium is of clayey composition, darker in colour. This is because most Deccan rivers flow through the black soil region, whence they carry away large quantities to the delta. Examples are the soils in the valleys of the Narmada, Tapti, Godavari and  Krishna.
Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile and therefore the best agricultural soils of the country. Generally, they contain adequate potash, phosphoric acid and lime. The fertility of the soils is due to : (i) mixing up of the debris derived from rocks of the Himalaya; (ii) presence of great variety of salts in these soils drawn from different rocks; and (iii) their very-fine grainy texture, porous nature and light weight (due to which they are easily tilled).
Two main problems associated with these soils are: (i) They allow water to sink into the lower strata and are therefore unsuitable for the growth of those crops which require the retention of great deal of moisture about their roots and thus they cause infertility in regions where showers are not frequent. (ii) These soils though rich in potash, phosphoric acid, lime and organic matter, are generally deficient in nitrogen and humus; this necessitates heavy fertilisation particularly with nitrogenous fertilisers.
These soils are suitable for irrigation, particularly well adapted to canal irrigation because of the abundance of sub-soil water and softness of the strata to be penetrated. Under irrigation these soils are suitable for rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, jute, maize, oilseeds, tobacco, vegetables and fruits. The regions of these soils constitute the 'wheat and rice bowls of India.

Q.30. Discuss the External trade of the Harappans.

Ans. Harappan civilization which flourished in the Indus region during the second half of the third millennium B.C. was an urban civilization. It had flourishing trading centres, from where both external and internal trade were carried out. The existence  of external trade during the Harappan period is attested by many historical findings. This could be said more emphatically on the basis of the fact that Harappans produced commodities for which they did not possess necessary raw materials. Perhaps the trade was carried on through the barter and for finished goods and foodgrains. Harappans obtained these necessary raw materials.
Harappans had commercial links with the cities of Rajasthan, Afghanistan and Iran. Many Harappan seals found in Mesopotamia attests the fact that they traded with Mesopotamian cities. The Mesopotamian records from about 2350 B.C. refer to trade relations with Meluha, which was the ancient name, given to the Indus region. They had commercial links with the cities in the land of Tigris and Euphrates. Their decent urban structures clearly indicates that this external trade was highly in their favour, which came to an end with their extinction.
Thus, it could be said that Harappans carried out a highly favourable external trade, which existed from the beginning to the end.

Q.31. Write short notes on the following : (1) Vaisali (2) Khajuraho (3) Vatapi (4) Lothal (5) Vengi.

Ans : (1) Karnasuvarna : Region in East India, parts of Bihar, Bengal, Orissa, ruled by Sasanka, the Shaivite King in early 7th century A.D. Harsha captured it after 619 A.D.
(2) Vaisali : In Bihar, important town in 6th century A.D. second Buddhist council was held here, seat of Lichchhavi power. Annexed by Ajatshatru.
(3) Khajuraho : World famous for its erotic sculptures. Chandellas patronized this cultural centre and built Kandarya Mahadeva temple. It is in Madhya Pradesh.
(4) Vatapi (Badami) : Base of Chalukyan power and its capital, destroyed by Narasimha Varman in 642 A.D, when he defeated and killed Pulkesin.
(5) Lothal : Important town during Harappan civilization, port town, dockyard found here. Traces of horse bones are also found here.
(6) Vengi : In Andhra Pradesh, joined Samudra Gupta's empire as a tribute paying state, capital of eastern Chalukyas. Its fertile soil was the bone of contention between Chalukyas and the Pallavas.

Q.32. ‘The non-cooperation failed to achieve any of its objectives.’ Discuss.

Ans : The suspension of the movement came as a surprise to the people. Many, including some leaders of the Congress, did not like it but, having complete faith in Gandhi, they bowed down to his wish.

  • The movement, therefore, came to an end in February 1922. The Government arrested Gandhi, charged him of spreading disaffection against the Government and imprisoned him for six years.
  • By that time, the Khilafat issue also lost its relevance. The Turkish people, under the leadership of Mustafa Kamal Pasha, rose in revolt against the Sultan and captured power. Khilafat was abolished and Turkey was declared a secular republic.
  •  The non-cooperation movement, thus, failed to achieve any of its object. The wrongs done to Khilafat or Punjab were not remedied  while ‘Swaraj’ remained as far off as ever. Even the Civil Disobedience Enquiry committee set up by the Congress came to the conclusion that the non-cooperation had achieved nothing.
  • The promise of Swaraj by Gandhi within a year was very much unrealistic. The introduction of the Khilafat question, which was definitely a religious issue, into the national movement, was its most serious weakness.
  • Outwardly, it seemed in favour of bringing about unity between the Hindus and the Muslim but it certainly introduced religious fanaticism into the Indian politics.

Q.33. The non-cooperation movement, for the first time, made the Indian movement a mass movement. Discuss.
Ans :
The Non-cooperation brought out some positive success. The people felt a tremendous national awakening. They developed complete distrust towards the foreign government. For themselves, they gained tremendous self-confidence and self-esteem. The fear of government and imprisonment withered away from their minds.

  • It, for the first time, made the Indian movement a mass movement. The national sentiments reached the remotest corner of the land by this movement.
  • It also turned the Congress in a genuine revolutionary organization. It no more remained a deliberative assembly but an organization for action.
  • And, these were the two solid contributions of Mahatma Gandhi to India’s struggle for freedom.
  • Besides, the most outstanding feature of the Non-cooperation Movement was the willingness and ability of the people in general to endure, to a remarkable degree, hardships and punishments by the Government. The movement, thus, inspired in the people for further sacrifices for the cause of national Independence.

Q.34. Trace the socialist ideas outside the Congress.

Ans :  Attracted by the Soviet Union and its revolutionary commitment, a large number of Indian revolutionaries and exiles abroad made their way there.

  • The most well-known and the tallest of them was M.N. Roy, who along with Lenin, helped evolve the Communist International’s policy towards the colonies. Seven such Indians, headed by Roy, met at Tashkent in October 1920 and set up a Communist Party of India.
  • Independently of this effort, a number of left-wing and communist groups and organizations had begun to come into existence in India after 1920. Most of these groups came together at Kanpur in December 1925 and founded an all-India organization under the name of the Communist Party of India. (CPI).
  • The main form of political work by the early Communists was to organize peasants’ and workers’ parties and work through them.
  • In 1924, Muzaffar Ahmed and S.A. Dange were tried in the Kanpur conspiracy case for spreading communist ideas.
  • On March, 1929 the top thirty-one leaders of the Communist Party was arrested and the case is popularly known as Meerut conspiracy case.
  • Of course, on the one hand, the arrest of all important communists leaders broke the back-bone of the party at least temporarily, but, on the other hand, the prolonged trial brought immense popularity to it and drew sympathy for its leaders even from the nationalist leaders like Gandhi and Nehru.
  • The economic depression had worsened the conditions of the peasants and the workers in India. The peasants demanded long reforms, abolition of Zamindari, reduction of land revenue and rent and relief from indebtedness. The workers demanded better conditions of work and recognition of their trade union rights. There was a rapid growth of trade unions in the cities, and Kisan Sabhas in rural areas of U.P., Bihar and some other states.

Q.35. Describe the left wing within the Congress.

Ans :  The Communists, however, failed to take advantage of their popularity. The one cause of it was the new ultra-leftist policy laid down for India by the Comintern. The Communist Party was now directed to severe all its relations with all elements of bourgeoisie and launch an attack on the Indian National Congress and its leaders like Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. This policy was pursued by the Communists between the period 1928-34. It brought discredit in the Indian society and isolated it from other political parties in India.

  • The party was further weakened by its internal dissensions. There were many, including M.N. Roy, who opposed the ultra-leftist programme of the radicals under the influence of in Comintern and, therefore, broke up from the Party. The Party lost its image further when it tried to sabotage the Civil Disobedience Movement led by Gandhi.
  •  The only success of the Party during this period was the capture of the leadership of the All India Trade Union Congress. It, of course, resulted in the formation of separate organisation called the National Trade Union Federation with a larger following, yet, the communists kept control of the parent-body.
  •  The party, however, brought the wrath of the government on it when it gave a call for a strike by the textile workers on April 23, 1934. The strike succeeded but the government took its revenge. The Party along with some dozen Trade Unions under its control was declared illegal. The Party had no other alternative except to go underground.
  •  The Communists then adopted the policy of infiltration in the Indian National Congress, Congress Socialist Party, the Forward Bloc and different students’ organisations.
  •  The Second World War created another problem for the Communist Party. When Germany invaded Russia and Russia joined the camp of the Allies, it asked the Communists to support the Indian government. They agreed for it in December, 1941. The Party was, therefore, declared legal by the government.
  •  The government, in turn, got its loyalty so much so that when the Congress started the ‘Quit India Movement’ in 1942, the communists acted as spies and stooges of the government. That again brought down the image of the Party among the Indians.
  •  The Party, therefore, failed to win a single seat at the general elections to the Central Legislature Assembly in 1945.
  •  That was the reason which compelled the Party to seek the goodwill of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru and the Congress Party after Independence. The Party thus did not get any positive success in the politics of India on its own. Yet, it is the only party which popularised genuine socialism and communism in India prior to Indian Independence.

Q.36. ‘The Communist Party did not get any positive success’. Discuss.

Ans : The 1930’s witnessed a rapid growth of socialist idea within the Congress. Rather, during this period, the Congress underwent a structural change. It gradually turned from a bourgeois landlord party into a bloc embracing various trends and groups including the peasants and the workers.

  •  As a result, two main wings emerged within the Congress: the left-wing of younger members of the Congress supporting Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose; and the right-wing supporting Gandhiji.
  •  In 1934, the Congress Socialist Party was formed with Acharya Narendra Dev, Jayaprakash Narayan and Ashok Mehta as its leaders. The Congress socialists were like European social democrats. They agreed that the primary task was the reaction of the organization of mass struggle by creating a firm social foundation for the congress among the workers and the peasants.
  •  The left tendency found further reflection in the election of Jawaharlal Nehru as President for 1936 and 1937 and of Subhas Chandra Bose for 1938-39. In his presidential address to the Lucknow Congress in 1936, Nehru urged the congress to accept socialism as its goal and to bring itself closer to the peasantry and the working class.
  •  He felt that socialism alone could end the vested interests in land and industry as well as the feudal and autocratic Indian State system.
  • In 1929, he was critical of the communists and the tactics of the Comintern; but during 1933 and 1936, his concern for socialism appeared in a very clear and sharp form.
  •  He argued that India’s anti-imperialist struggle should be integrated with Asia’s struggle against colonialism and with the world struggle against capitalism. Gradually, events overtook the socialist thrust in the Congress.

Q.37. ‘The Swarajists desired to take the Non-co-operation from streets to the Legislative Councils’. Discuss.

Ans :  The ultimate aim of the Swarajists did not differ from the Gandhites, namely, to win—Swaraj. But, they had lost faith in the way to achieve it i.e. Civil disobedience. They desired entry into the legislative Councils with a view to prove their strength among the masses before the Government and to wreck the citadel of bureaucracy from within.

  •  Their purpose was not to cooperate with the Government after their entry into the councils but to put obstruction in the functioning of the reforms of 1919 with a view to prove their hollowness.
  •  They contemplated the rejection of all vital legislative programmes of the Government as well as the budgets in order to bring the Government machinery to a standstill.
  •  They were committed not to participate in any function of the government or work on any government body. Thus, the Swarajists desired to take the non-cooperation from streets to the Legislative Councils.
  •  However, they had some constructive programme as well. In the Legislatures, they intended to pass resolutions containing constructive proposals for further constitutional advancement and laws necessary for the growth of healthy national life. They also stood for giving whole-hearted support to the constructive programme of Mahatma Gandhi.

Q.38. The Swarajists gradually gave up their original object of taking Non-cooperation to the Councils—why?

Ans :  Gradually, the Swarajists realized the futility of the policy of ‘undiluted opposition’ to the Government. The Gandhites had never favoured their entry into the Councils, the Nationalist Party which was led by Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya and Lala Lajpat Rai came to the conclusion that indiscriminate opposition to the Government was harming the interests of the Hindus, and the Government in Several provinces functioned in spite of the opposition of the Swarajists.

  •   All this led to a “gradual watering down of original policy of the Swarajists of undiluted opposition” to the government. Their leaders C.R. Das and Moti Lal Nehru also realized the futility of their  original policy and offered to cooperate with the Government on certain conditions.
  •   Moti Lal Nehru declared in the Assembly that he did not ask “for responsible government to be handed over, as it were tied up in a bundle. His party had come there to offer cooperation. If the Government would receive their cooperation, they would find that Swarajists were their own men. If not, the Swarajists would stand on their rights and continue to be non-cooperators”.
  •  These sentiments were far away from the declared object of consistent obstruction in the functioning of the Government by the Swarajists in the beginning.
  •   In 1924, the Swarajists accepted seats on the Steel Protection Committee. In 1925, Moti Lal Nehru accepted membership of the Skeen Committee which was appointed to find out the possibility of rapidly Indianizing the army. The same year, V.J. Patel allowed himself to be elected as the speaker of the Central Assembly. Thus, the Swarajists gradually gave up their original object of taking non-cooperation to the Councils.

Q.39. Discuss the inherent contradiction in the policy of the Swarajists’.

Ans : The policy of entry into the Councils but not to cooperate with the scheme of reforms introduced by the act of 1919 was self-contradictory.

  •  Their policy was unrealistic also because there was nothing in it which could stop the functioning of the Government in any way.
  •  The Swarajists were in the position of people, who wanted to keep their cake and eat it at the same time. They considered it necessary, in order to retain their popularity, to talk extremism and yet were resolved to easy parliamentarism. As a consequence, the Swarajists were driven to a course of quibbling, as to when cooperation was non-cooperation.

Q.40. What was the causes of the formation of Home Rule Leagues?

Ans :   In 1914, the World War I started in Europe. The Moderates supported the government of India in its war efforts in the mistaken belief that, probably they would get something substantial after the war. The Extremists, however, gradually realized that they could get something only by intensifying the national movement.

  •  During this period the mood of expectancy disappeared. The Indian leaders realized that the Government was not likely to give any real concessions unless political pressure was brought to bear upon it.
  •  The world war had destroyed the myth of the racial superiority of the western nations over the Asian peoples.
  •  There was an increase in the misery of the poor classes of Indians as war had led to heavy taxation and rise of prices.
  •  These developments had created the climate for the intensification of nationalist political agitation.
  •  The Congress under the leadership of the Moderates was not prepared to do anything. Therefore, efforts were made to mobilise the national movement outside the fold of the Congress. It resulted in the formation of two Home Rule Leagues in 1915-16 one under the leadership of Tilak and the other under Mrs. Annie Besant.

Q.41. Analyze the process of communication and discuss the various strategies for making communication more effective.

Ans : The process of communication begins with the planning of the communication. Communication begins when the sender of the message thinks about an idea to be transmitted to the receiver. He then puts these ideas into an organized and coherent pattern. After organizing the ideas, he encodes the information in such a manner that it remains quite easily intelligible to the receiver. For this, he must take into the abilities of the receiver of the message. The data can be encoded in simple language for an ordinary person, it may also be encoded in a technical language of the receiver is a technical personnel.
After the message is organised and encoded, the next step is the transmission of the message. The message is transmitted through a medium. The medium may be a memorandum, a computer, a telephone, a pamphlet, a speech, a television, etc. Usually the medium is selected in such a manner that it has an easy access to the receiver for example, if it a socially relevant programme such a programme of family planning and it has to reach the vast masses of population residing in  Indian villages, then television or radio would be the most appropriate medium. On the other hand, if it is a confidential message to be transmitted among the managers of an organization, a confidential meeting of the manager would be the most appropriate way of transmitting the message.
In the transmission, one of the foremost challenges is overcoming noises. A noise is anything that hinders effective communication. It may arise due to faulty encoding which has utilized ambiguous symbols. Noise in transmission may also arise due to interrupted flow of the message. An effective transmission consists in overcoming such noises.
Then the next stage in the process of communication is the reception of the message by the receiver. The receiver has to decode the message in a way that he receives what the sender has intended. In this process of decoding, the person has to change the codes into thoughts. A communication is not complete unless it is completely understood. A faulty decoding may result due to wrong meaning attached to words and symbols. After the reception of the message, the effectiveness of the message  can be increased if the receiver gives a proper feedback to the sender of the message. An effective feedback will make the sender to make adequate changes so that there is an effective communication. 

The document SST Set - 8 (Q.21 to 41) Notes | Study Social Science (SST) Class 10 - Model Test Papers - Class 10 is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Science (SST) Class 10 - Model Test Papers.
All you need of Class 10 at this link: Class 10

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