SST Set - 9 (Q.16 to 31)
Q.16. Write short notes on : (i) 94th Amendment Act (ii) 95th Amendment Act (iii) 100th Amendment Act.
Ans : (i) 94th Amendment Act : The 94th Constitutional Amendment Bill has proposed to set up a separate commission for the Scheduled Tribes by bifurcating the existing National Commission for the Scheduled castes. The decision has been taken after the consideration of the fact that Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes are geographically and culturally different and therefore, their problems are also different from the Scheduled Castes. A separate national commission for the scheduled tribes would protect the interests of the tribes more effectively.
The power and functions of the new commission have not yet fixed. The proposed commission for the Scheduled Tribe would comprise a chairperson and two other members and the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes shall have a chairperson and three other members.
(ii) 95th Amendme nt Act : The 95th Constitutional Amendment Bill has been passed by Parliament to enable levy of service tax by the Centre and its collection and appropriation by both Centre and the State in a manner to be decided in future by Parliament. With this the strong tendency of centralization in taxation has been further strengthened.
Service Tax is an indirect tax; introduced in 1994-95. The Centre has levied service tax exercising its residuary powers under Scheduled VII of the Constitution. It was levied at the rate of 5 percent. The centre has adopted a very aggressive attitude towards service tax and the budget 2003-04, the Centre has increased the rate of service tax from 5 percent to 8 percent despite the recommendations of Govinda Rao Committee. At the same time, the finance Ministry has expanded the scope of the tax to cover more services.
(iii) 100th Amendment Act : The parliament has passed the 100th amendment bill to include Bodo, Dogri, Maithli, and Santhali language. Now the total number of Scheduled languages in the country is 22.
There is a demand to include at least 35 more languages in the Eight Scheduled, most importantly Rajasthani, Bhojpuri, Khasi Tulu, Pharsi, Nudeli, Pahari and Brij Bhasa.
Bodo language is brought in pursuance of the Memorandum of Settlement between the Bodos, the Assam Government and the Centre. Santhali is widely spoken tribal language and very much prevalent in the
Under the constitutional provisions simple majority can amend the 8th Schedule. The provisions of language are also mentioned under Article 344(1) and 351.
Under Article 344(1), the President constitute a commission to look into the languages. Under 351, it shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India. Language is the vehicle of unity and integrity.
Q.17. Discuss the position and functions of the speaker in the State and compare his position with that of the speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Ans : The functions and position of the State Assembly Speakers and their counterpart in the Lok Sabha are identical. The Speaker regulates the proceedings of the House; presides over its meetings; maintains order in its business; has the final power to interpret Rules. Any procedural irregularity committed by aSpeaker and his conduct in regulating the procedure in the House are not subject to the jurisdiction of any court. Thus, the Speaker is the final arbiter of the proceedings in the House. The Lok Sabha Speaker’s salary and allowancesare charged on the Consolidated Fund of India. The Speaker does not vote in the first instancebut he will have a casting vote in the event of a tie and can exercise it. Only a resolution passed by a special majorityin the House can remove the Speaker from office. Speaker’s election does not need the consentor approval of the President/Governor. Thus, he is not subordinate to the chief executive. The foregoing provisions seek to make theSpeaker’s office thoroughly impartial and independent. The decision of the Speaker as to whether a billis a Money Bill is final. The position is similar at the Union and the States. Speakers have been authorised to deal with defections and their decisions on disqualification are final. The Anti-Defection Act, 1985 now provides forthe final decision to be taken by the Speaker and proceedings of the House under this Act are protected from judicial review, in the same manner as all other proceedings of a legislature.
Q.18. What are the provisions with regard to inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the legislatures of states?
Ans : Articles 251 and 254 declare the principle that when a State law is in conflict with the law made by Parliament, the latter shall prevail. In terms of Art. 251, the State Legislature canmake any law which, under the Indian Constitution, it has the power to make. But, if any provision of a law so made is repugnant to any provision of a law made by Union Parliament (which Parliament has, under the authourity of Art. 249 or 250, the power to enact), the law made by Parliament—whether passed before or after the law made by the legislature of a State—shall prevail. The law of the State shall, to the extent of repugnancy, remain inoperative, so long only as the law made by Parliament continues to remain in force and have effect. Art. 254 further explains the inconsistency between a law made by Parliament and those made by the State Legislatures.
Q. 19. What programmes are implemented for dairy development in India? Explain.
Ans.: Dairy Development Milk is obtained in India from cows, buffalo, goat and camels (in Rajasthan).
India is the largest producer of milk in the world. Milk production and percapita availability of milk in 1950-51 was 17 million tonnes and 124gm/day which become 91 million tonnes and 232gm/day respectively in 2004-05
Operation flood.‘Operation Flood’ is an integrated programme for dairy development based on the Anand model cooperatives. It is being implemented in a threetier cooperative sturcture. Producer’s Dairy Cooperative Societies at village level; milk unions of these societies at district level; and federation at state level.
First phase of the programme Operation Flood I was launched in July 1970, aided by World Food Programme providing skimmed milk powder and butter oils to rural population. It concluded on 31 March 1981. The immediate objective of Operation Flood I was a to facilitate milk supply on four metropolitan cities of Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta and Madras.
Operation Flood II was started in 21 states and 4 Union territories. The period was from April 1981 to March 1985. Institute of Rural Management, Anand (Gujarat) was established to train manpower for various dairy projects.
Operation Flood III is currently under operation.
Important achievement of “ Operat i on Flood” programme is emergence of a national milk grid which helps offset regional and seasonal balances in milk collection and distribution. echnology mission on dairy development The mission has started work for consolidating gains of operation flood and to achieve a speedier replication of Anand model for 60% area of the country.
The mission is also instrumental in coordinating efforts with various research institutions.
Q.20. Distinguish between Bangar and Khadar region.
Ans : Bangar
1. The older alluvium of the plain is called Bangar. 2. This area stands above the level of the flood plain. 3. It is composed to calcareous kankars and clay. 4. The flood water does not reach here. 5. In some areas, local name Dh aia is given to this.
Khadar 1. The younger all uvi um of the pl ain a cal led Khadar. 2. Flood water spreads a new layer over it every year. 3. It is composed of fertile alluvium. 4. These are actually flood plains of the rivers. 5. In some areas local new name Bet is given to this.
Q.21. Write a short notes on : (1) Black Soils (2) Red Soils (3) Laterite Soils (4) Forest and Mountain Soils (5) Arid and Desert Soil (6) Saline and Alkaline Soil (7) Peaty and Marshy Soil
Ans : (1) Black Soils As the name indicates, these soils are black in colour and since they are ideal for growing cotton, they are also called cotton soils in addition to their local nomenclature of regur soils. These soils, covering an area of 5.46 lakh sq. km, are most typical of the Deccan trap (Basalt) region spread over north-west Deccan plateau and are made up of lava flows. They occupy the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa and southern Madhya pradesh and extend eastwards in the south along the Godavari and Krishna valleys. In addition to the parent rock material, climatic conditions are also important in the formation of these soils. Hence they extend much beyond the lava plateau itself. In the southern to the parent rock material, climatic conditions are also important in the formation of these soils.
Hence they extend much beyond the lava plateau itself.
In the southern and eastern parts of the country where rainfall is heavy, black soils often occur in close proximity to red soils, the former occupying valleys and low-lying areas and the latter higher slopes and hill tops.
The black colour of regur is variously attributed to the presence of titaniferous magnetite, compounds of iron and aluminium, accumulated humus and colloidal hydrated double iron and aluminium silicate.
These soils are generally rich in iron, lime, potash, aluminium, calcium and magnesium carbonates but are deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter. They are clayey, fine-textured and become sticky when wet and hence almost unworkable in rainy season as the plough gets stuck in the mud. They develop deep wide cracks on drying which helps in the process of self aeration and absorption of nitrogenfrom the atmosphere. These soils are highly retentive of moisture.
Due to their high degree of moisture retentiveness, fineness and chemical composition, these soils are endowed with inexhaustible fertility. As the content of water-soluble salts is high, they are unsuitable for heavy irrigation. Due to their moisture retentive qualities black soils are ideally suited to dry farming. These soils are suitable for cotton, cereals, like linseeds, castor and safflower, many kinds of vegetables and citrus fruits. (2) Red Soils These soils occupy about 5-18 lakh sq. km over the peninsula reaching upto Rajmahal Hills in the east, Jhansi in the north and Kutch in the West. In fact the north-western half of peninsula is covered by the black soils and the remanining south-eastern half is covered by red soils. They practically encircle the entire black soil region on all sides and cover the eastern part of peninsula comprising Chhotanagpur plateau, Orissa, east Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, the Nilgiris, Tamilnadu plateau and Karnataka.
These soils have a reddish colour due to iron compounds and are characterised by light texture, porous and fiable structure, absence of kankar and free carbonates, and presence of soluble salts in small quantity. They are deficient in phosphoric acid, organic matter, lime and nitrogen. They differ greatly in consistency, colour, depth and fertility. In uplands, they are thin, light coloured, poor and gravelly (coarse) which are suitable for bajra, Groundnut and potatoes, But on the lower plains and valleys they are rich, deep coloured, fertile loamy which are suitable for rice, ragi, tobacco and vegetables. (3) Laterite Soils These soils, occupying an area of 1.26 lakh sq. km, are a result of intense leaching owing to heavy rainfall (more than 200 cm) whereby lime and silica are leached away and a soil rich in oxides of iron (gives red colour to soil) and aluminium compounds is left behind. These soils are mostly found capping the flat uplands, and are spread in western coastal region receiving very heavy rainfall. They also occur in patches along the edge of the plateau in east covering small parts of Tamilnadu and Eastern Ghats regions of Orissa and a small part of Chhotanagpur in the north and Meghalaya in the north-east.
These soils are generally poor in nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potash, lime and organic matter and support only pastures and scrub forests. While they are poor in fertility, they respond well to manuring and are suitable for rice, ragi, tapioca and cashewnuts. (4) Forest and Mountain Soils These soils occupy about 2.85 lakh sq.km in the hilly regions of the country. These soils are highly variable depending upon the differences in the climate and geology. They are described as soils in the making.
Humus predominates in all forest soils and it is more raw at higher level leading to acidic conditions. These soils are found in the Himalayas and the other ranges
in the north and high hill summits in the Sahyadris, Eastern Ghats and the Peninsula.
The forest soils are poor in potash, phosphorus and lime and require manuring for cultivation. In areas of good rainfall, these are rich in humus and suitable for cultivation of plantation crops of tea, coffee, spices and tropical fruits, as in Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Kerala and Manipur. Temperate fruits, maize, wheat and barley are grown in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh where soils are mostly podzols which are acidic in reaction. (5) Arid and Desert Soil These soils occur under arid and semi-arid conditions in the northwestern parts of the country and occupy about 1.42 lakh sq. km area in Rajasthan, south Haryana, north Punjab and Rann of Kutch. The Thar Desert alone occupies an area of 1.06 lakh sq. km. The soil mainly consists of sands including wind-borne loess as well. These soils contain high percentage of soluble salts and a low to very low organic matter; they are also friable and low in moisture content. They are quite rich in phosphate but poor in nitrogen. Crops grown in these soils include coarse millets, jowar and bajra. The Ganganagar district of Rajasthan, where canal irrigation has been introduced recently, has become a leading producer of cereals and cotton. (6) Saline and Alkaline Soil These soils occupy about 170 lakh sq. km of arid and semi-arid areas of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and whole of Maharashtra. These soils have saline and alkaline effervescence mainly of sodium, calcium and magnesium which have rendered the soils infertile and hence uncultivable. The injurious salts are confined to the top layers of the soil as a result of the capillary transference of solutions from lower layers in places under canal irrigation and in areas of high subsoil water table as in the coastal areas of Maharashtra and Tamilnadu.
These soils, variously called reh, kallar, rakar, usar, karl and chopain, are infertile. Texturally they are sandy to loamy sand. Saline soils contain free sodium and other salts whereas alkaline soils contain large quantities of sodium chloride. These soils can be reclaimed by methods based on irrigation, application of lime or gypsum where necessary and cultivation of salt resistant crops like rice and sugarcane. Crops grown on these soils include rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane and tobacco. (7) Peaty and Marshy Soil These soils cover an area of about 150 sq. km in the Kottayam and Allepey districts of Kerala. Peaty soils have formed under humid condition as a result of an accumulation of large amounts of organic matter. They contain considerable amount of soluble salts but are deficient in phosphate and potash. They are suitable for paddy cultivation.
Marshy soils are found in coastal areas of Orissa, West Bengal and Tamilnadu, in central and northern Bihar and in Almora district of Uttar Pradesh. The soils are formed as a result of water logging and anaerobic conditions of soils and the presence of iron and a high quantity of vegetable matter. These soils are not suitable for cultivation but certain buttressed root plants grow in these soils.
Q.22. What are the factors responsible for deficiency of Indian soil? How the fertility of the soil can be restored?
Ans : The factors responsible for deficiency of Indian soils are : (i) loss of soil nutrients, largely brought about through the removal of harvested crops; (ii) leaching, which occurs under heavy monsoonal rains, causes loss of nutrients; sandy soils are more subject to leaching than the heavier ones and bare soils are more than those covered by plants; and (iii) soil erosion which removes surface soil causes loss of soil nutrients.
In order to increase the yield per hectare of land the most important factor next to irrigation is the optimum manuring of crops. Indian soils are mainly deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. These can be supplied to the soils by application of organic manures and fertilisers. Organic manures used include cowdung, compost, farmyard manure, bone meal, animal refuse etc. Fertilisers generally used included phosphate fertilisers (in the form of phosphoric acid), nitrogenous fertilisers (in the form of nitre, salt petre and ammonium sulphate) and potassic fertilisers (in the form of potassium sulphate,, potassium nitrate, wood ashes, etc.). The other methods used for restoring fertility include rotation of crops, i.e. cultivation of different crops at regular succession on the same piece of land, fallowing of land, i.e. leaving the land without any crop at all for a season; and mixed farming, i.e. practice of cultivating two or more crops in the same field.
Q.23 Describe different types of soil erosion.
Ans : Usually there are two types : water crosion and wind erosion. water Erosion : The important types of this erosion are sheet, rill and gully. In sheet erosion thin layer of soil is removed by the water during heavy rains from the hill slopes. Bare fallow land or cultivated land whose plant cover has been thinned. If the erosion continues unchecked, numerous finger-shaped grooves may develop all over the area as a result of the silt-landen run-off. This is called rill erosion. The rills may deepen and enlarge into gullies, if the erosion continues further. U-shaped gullies are formed where the sub-soil is resistant, while V-shaped gullies are formed where the underlying soil is softer and easily eroded than the upper one.
Sheet erosion is common in Himalayan foothills, over north-eastern parts of Peninsula, in Assam, Shayadris and the Eastern Ghats. Rill erosion is found in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and in semiarid parts of Peninsula in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. Gully erosion has re-
sulted into the chhos of northern Haryana and Punjab and badlands of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
The rivers in floods and the tidal waters of the sea also cause soil erosion or considerable damage to the soil along the coast. Steep slopes, heavy rainfall and bare land surface quicken the rate of erosion.
Wind Erosion : Wind erosion is mainly confined to arid and semi-arid areas devoid of vegetation. Wind, particularly during sandstorms, lifts and carries away fertile soil. Rajasthan and the adjoining areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat show this type of soil erosion.
Q.24. What was the contents of Ashoka's dhamma? Give reasons for Asoka's keenness to propagate dhamma.
Ans. After the Kalinga war, the great Mauryan monarch, Ashoka, started propagating a policy of Dhamma, to give stability and prosperity to his empire. Asoka's policy of Dhamma was certainly different from Buddhism and it was not intended to convert general populace into Buddhism. Basically, Asoka's policy of Dhamma was based on the tolerance and it was intended to maintain social stability. As an intelligent monarch, he visualised the fact that people cannot be kept under control forever by the strength of arms.
Rather they could be brought under one rule by uniting them at cultural, lingual and other level.
Asoka's Dhamma cannot be regarded as a sectarian faith. Rather it was a propaganda by the monarch with the broader objective of preserving the social order.
It asked the people to obey their parents, to pay respect to Brahmans, Buddhist and other monks and to show mercy to their servants, slaves and animals.
Asoka insisted that by following these rules of social behaviours, one would attain heaven. He did not tell that they would attain `nirvana', which was the ultimate objective of Buddhism. Thus, the wording of his policy itself reflects that it was not the Buddhism which Asoka was propagating. Basically the elements of Asoka's policy can be found in both the Buddhist and Brahamanical faith. To spread his policy of Dhamma and to teach people to follow its instructions, Ashoka started appointing a new set of high officials known as `Dhammama-harnatras'.
Thus, a close analysis of Asoka's Dhamma clearly reflects a non-orthodox, non-sectarian teaching. After the Kalinga war, the territorial extent of Mauryan Empire was at its peak and no further territorial enlargement was needed and it was not practical also. What was practical and what was urgently needed for the prosperity of the empire was peace, and social stability.
But Asoka’s empire consisted of many divergent groups. Lasting peace could be achieved only by integrating them into one culture, one script, one language and one religion which was very difficult to achieve. That's why Asoka laid so much emphasis on tolerance. Basically, he wanted to generate among the people a sentiment of live and let live. Rise of this sentiment among the people was highly in favour of stability and prosperity of the empire.
Thus, it could be concluded that Asoka's policy of Dhamma was politically motivated and it was intended to give the empire a lasting stability and prosperity.
Q.25. Write short notes on the following : 1. Ahmadnagar 2 Badaun 3 Bhatnair 4. Bidar 5.
Chunar 6. Daman 7. Gangaikonda cholapu-ram, 8.
Ans. (1) Ahmadnagar : Capital of Nizam Shahi dynasty formed in 1530 A.D. Chand Bibi, the princess, gave heroic fight to Akbar in his bid to capture Ahmadnagar.
(2) Badaun : The area in Ganga Yamuna d oab, stronghold of the Rajputs and Mewatis, were defeated and superseded by Balban to clear their plundering raids. It became a part of Delhi Sultan.
(3) Bhatnair : A place in Punjab. It played an important part in Balban's defensive preparation to save from Mongol onslaught on India.
(4) Bidar : Capital of Bahmani Kingdom from 1422 to 1625. During 16th c. Barid Shahi dynasty came to throne. Famous for its Madarsah buil t by Mahmood Gawan.
(5) Chunar : In U.P. famous for its strong fort built by the Sharqui rulers of Jaunpur. Shershah used it for the safety of his family. It was the key to East India. In ancient times Asokan pillar were carved out of the sand stone found here. It also provided materials for Gupta sculpture at Sarnath.
(6) Daman : In 1551, Portuguese secured Daman from its rulers. It has an important centre for western trade. Portuguese and Gujarat fought for it. Finally Portuguese succeeded in getting its control. This facilitated Portuguese advances in Gujarat.
(7) Gangaikonda Cholapuram : Ca pital city built by Chola ruler Rajendra I in 1022 AD after his victory campaigns in North India upto the banks of Ganges.
He built the Brihadeswara temple here.
(8) Hansi : In Haryana, was the area of activity of the Sufi Saint, Farid-ud Din Gaj-i- Shakar.
Q.26. What were the main thrusts and ahievements of Home Rule League?
Ans : The main thrust of the activity was directed towards building up an agitation around the demand for Home Rule.
This was to be achieved by promoting political education and discussion.
They advised members to promote political discussions, establish libraries containing material on national politics, organize classes for students on politics, print and circulate pamphlets, collect funds, organize social work, take part in local government activities, arrange political meetings and lectures, present arguments to friends in favour of Home Rule and urge them to join the movement.
At least some of these activities were carried on by many of the branches, specially the task of promotion of political discussion and debate.
Q.27. What was Gandhi’s basic ideas and course of action?
Ans : Gandhi returned to India in Jan., 1915 after three successful Satyagraha experiments in South Africa. His basic ideas and course of action can be summed up as follow: Gandhi synthesisted the thought of Moderatesand Extremists. He condemned violence and underground terrorist activities. He based his action on truth and non-violence. He advocated open resistance to injustice. Developed the novel concept of Satyagraha. Gandhi’s call for action was two fold:(a ) To attack the basis of foreign rule. (b ) To strengthen Indian society by removal of all evils—social, religious and economic—of Indian society. Gandhi made Congress a democratic andmass organisation. After 1919 the Indian National Congressemerged as the front organisation of Indian people’s struggle against colonial rule. Forthcoming years saw: Gandhi emerged as the undisputed leader ofCongress party. Under Gandhian influence Non-violence andSatyagraha became creed of the Congress. Gandhi decided the tactics and strategies ofCongress campaigns. He switched on and off:-(a ) The Non-cooperation Movement (1920-22). (b ) Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34). (c) Individual Civil Disobedience Movement (1940-41). (d ) Inspired Quit India Resolution (1942).
Q.28. Why Gandhian era is also called the era of mass nationalism ?
Ans : Congress message spread to rural areas. Women participated in Congress campaigns. Youth organisations joined the freedom struggle. Indian capitalist class involved in the national struggle. All India Congress Working Committee worked all the year round. Freedom Struggle became a people’s struggle.
Q.29. What are the political achievements of Gandhi?
Ans : Abolition of Indenture System. Realising that indenture system drained away India’s manpower, he led an agitation against it in 1916-1917 and had the system abolished successfully.Satyagraha in Bihar. Poor labourers working on indigo plantations were treated cruelly by their White masters. Headless of the dire consequences, a threat of which was held out to him, he conducted the struggle to a victorious end by means of peaceful Satyagraha. Rowlatt Act. The British government instead of rewarding the Indians for their meritorious services in the First World War, passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919 to perpetuate Defence of India Act. Gandhiji organised Civil Disobedience Movement and India-wide strike took place. A peaceful mob at Jallianwala Bagh (Amritsar) was massacred and martial law was declared in the Punjab. Gandhiji, being disallowed to study the situation in person in the Punjab, called off the movement, much to the disappointment of his followers.
Participation in the Khilafat Movement. Ali Brothers started the Khilafat Movement and Gandhiji attended its conference and decided to work for it with the object of securing Hindu-Muslim unity which was very essential for the attainment of Swaraj. It was in this conference at Karachi that Gandhiji for the first time talked on non-cooperating with the government.
Non-Cooperaion Movement. Gandhiji launched the Non-Co-opeation Movement in April 1920 with the object of carrying out Triple boycott and social reforms. Success was near when riots broke out in Bombay and U.P. Twenty two policemen were burnt alive at Chauri Chaura (U.P). Gandhiji was charged with instigation to violence and though sentenced to six years imprisonment he was let off in 1924 on grounds of ill-health.
Boycott of Simon Commission. The Country did not co-operate with the Simon Commission in 1927 at Gandhiji’s instance who reiterated the demand for Swaraj and threat of Civil Disobedience Movement.
Violation of Salt Laws. Gandhiji arrived at Dandi on 6th April, 1930 and defied the salt laws.
Gandhi-Irwin Pact was concluded in March, 1931 which paved the way for the participation of the Congress in the Second Round Table Conference. Participation in R.T.C. (1931). Gandhiji represented the Congress in II Round Table Conference, but his mission failed due to non-compromising attitude of the Muslim League.
Poona Pact (1932). The Communal Award (August 1932) aimed at shattering the solidarity of the Hindus. Gandhiji went on fast to have the clause undone. At last Poona Pact was concluded between the Hindu and Harijan leaders. The British Government recognised the pact and Gandhiji maintained the solidarity of the Hindu communituy by staking his life. Formation of Congress Ministries. The Congress contested elections in 1937 and formed minstries in seven provinces with the blessings of Gandhiji.
Individual Satyagraha was started by Gandhiji when the Congress Ministries resigned office in pro-
test to making India party to World War II without consulting her people.
Cripps Mission (1942). Cripps Mission failed because Sir Stafford Cripps could not satisfy Gandhiji with his proposals which were ultimately rejected by all political parties. Quit India R esolutio n. Con gres s pas sed the ‘Quit India Resolution’ in 1942 in its meeting at Bombay asking the British to leave india forthwith. The resolution was carried out at the suggestion of Gandhiji.
Gandhiji participated in the Simla Conference (1945 and 1946) not as representative of the Congress but as an adviser to its President. He strove every nerve to win round M.A. Jinnah who remained adamant and spared no pains to torpedoed his efforts aimed at Hindu-Muslim unity or achievement of Swaraj.
Q.30. Describe Gandhi's non-co-operation movement.
Ans : The Khilafat Committee launched a noncooperation movement on August 31, 1920. Gandhi was the first to join it. He returned the Kaiser-i-Hind Medal awarded to him by the government for his services during the War.
The Congress met in a special session in September 1920 at Calcutta and agreed to start the noncooperation movement till the Punjab and Khilafat wrongs were undone and Swaraj was established. The decision was further endorsed at its Nagpur session held in December 1920. Again it was Gandhi who got endorsed the resolution on non-cooperation by the Congress. Thus, in fact, it was Gandhi who spearheaded the non-cooperation movement. The leaders of the Khilafat movement also endorsed the non-cooperation movement led by Gandhi.
Thus, the demands of the Khilafat Committee and the Congress were merged into one and the noncooperation movement was led by Gandhi to get those demands fulfilled. Gandhi put up the following demands before the government on behalf of the Congress:-The Government should express its regret on the happenings in Punjab, particularly in Amritsar. The British Government should adopt a lenient attitude towards Turkey.
Some new scheme of reforms should be placed by the government before the Indian people which should take India nearer to its goal of ‘Swaraj’. In case these demands were not fulfilled, he threatened the Government to start the non-cooperation movement. The government paid no attention towards these demands. Mahatma Gandhi, therefore, started the movement in right earnest in 1921 though the Khilafat Committee had already started it in Au-gust 1920 with his active cooperation. As decided by the Congress in its resolution at Calcutta in September 1920 and again endorsed in its Nagpur session in December 1920, the people were advised to:-Surrender all titles and honorary offices and resign from nominated seats in local bodies; Refuse to attend Government or semi-government function; Withdraw gradually their children from schools and colleges, aided, of controlled by the Government; Boycott of British courts by lawyers and litigants; Refusal on the part of the military, clerical and labouring classes to offer themselves as recruits in Mesopotamia; Boycott the elections to be held for the Councils as suggested by the reforms of 1919; and Boycott foreign goods.
Apart from these measures of non-cooperation with the Government, it was suggested that the people should establish schools, colleges and private arbitration courts all over India, should popularize Swadeshi and revive hand-spinning and handweaving, develop harmony between the Hindus and the Muslims and attempt for the removal of untouchability and emancipation of women. Thus, the non-cooperation had some positive constructive programme as well. The non-cooperation movement was based on perfect non-violence. Gandhi regarded it not merely a political programme but a religious movement designed to purge Indian political life of corruption, deceit, terrorism, and the incubus of white supremacy.
Q.31. Psychological properties of a small group determine its cohesion as well its equality of decision making process. Illustrate your answer.
Ans : The psychological properties of a group can be discussed in terms of the perception or cognition of group members or in terms of their motivation or satis- faction, or in terms of group goals, group organization, group interaction and interdependence of group members.
If in the group, one individual receives some impression or perception of other individual that he will act, react, or behave in particular ways then the group cohesion would be strengthened. It will also lead to a better coordination and higher acceptance of views leading to better quality decisions. Moreover, a collective perception of their unity further helps in solving problems or tackling issues.
Similarly, if the members of a group have similar motivations and goals in joining a group they may show better cohesion and better problem solving abilities.
Similar motivations, same goals induces in them a sense of belongingness and a unity of purpose. This enables them to respond more enthusiastically, in a coordinated manner to solve the problems the group faces. The decision making over these problems not only gains in speed it also gains in quality.
Similarly, the nature of the role and status relationships in a group also determine the group cohesion and the group’s decision making behaviour. If these role-status relationships are clearly defined and delineated decisions easily be planned and executed. It brings order and regularity in the organizations. It also promotes stability and effectiveness of the group. There is clearly defined role, clearly prescribe, behaviours and junctions of the various members, the decision making could be done in a speedy and effective manner. On the other hand if there is a value role or interest conflict in a group the group, cohesiveness would be rather low and the decision making would be a tardy and ineffective. Moreover, conflicting roles and interests may lead to multiple and conflicting views in making interests may lead to multiple the process of decision making. Too many frictions in the decision making also adversely affects the quality of the decision. On the other hand common belief and values lead to combined and integrated judgement, promotes, cooperation, reduces conflict fosters participation and thereby improves the quality of decisions.