Class - X
TIME: 3 Hrs.
General Instructions :
Read the following instructions very carefully and strictly follow them :
1. The question paper comprises five sections - A, B, C, D and E. There are 32 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
2. Section A - Question no. 1 to 16 are Objective Type Questions of 1 mark each.
3. Section B - Question no. 17 to 22 are Short Answer Type Questions, carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
4. Section C - Question no. 23 to 26 are Source Based Questions, carrying 4 marks each.
5. Section D - Question no. 27 to 31 are Long Answer Type Questions, carrying 5 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 120 words.
6. Section E - Question no. 32 is Map Based, carrying 5 marks with two parts, 32.1 from History (2 marks) and 32.2 from Geography (3 marks).
7. There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been provided in few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions has to be attempted.
8. In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.
Q.4. Complete the following table with appropriate terms in places of A and B. (1 marks)
Ans: 4. (A) Pipeline
Q.6. Name any two fibre crops. (1 marks)
Ans: Cotton and jute.
By which name the `slash and burn’ agriculture is known in Mexico and Central America?
Q.8. _______________________ is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films. (1 marks)
Ans: The Central Board of Film Certification.
Q.9. Explain the meaning of `Majoritarianism’ as practised in Sri Lanka. (1 marks)
Ans: The leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over the government by virtue of their majority and thus, the democratically elected government adopted a series of majoritarian measures to establish Sinhala supremacy. It followed majoritarianism.
How is community government elected in Belgium?
Ans: Community government in Belgium is elected by people belonging to one language community -Dutch, French or German.
1. Hindi was identified as the official language.
2. Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognized as scheduled languages.
3. English can be used along with Hindi for official purpose.Choose the right option from the following:
Assertion (A) : Democracy is a legitimate government.
Reason (R) : Regular, free and fair elections are the spirit of democracy.
Q.12. Correct the following sentence and rewrite it: Bihar has the highest per capita income in India during 2015-16. (1 marks)
Ans: Haryana has the highest per capita income in India during 2015-16.
Net Attendance Ratio measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.
Ans: Literacy Rate measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.
(i) Delivering honey at honey collection centres.
(ii) Collecting honey from honey combs
(iii) Starting beekeeping at nearby place
(iv) Selling honey in the marketOptions :
Q.14. Under employment in also known as ____________. (1 marks)
Ans: disguised unemployment.
Public sector helps in the development of a country as it invests in ___________ such as health, education, defence, etc.
Ans: Key and basic industries
As consumers in today's world, some of us have a wide choice of goods and services before us. The latest model of digital cameras, mobile phones and televisions made by the leading manufacturers of the world are within our reach. Every season, new models of automobiles can be seen on Indian roads.It is possible due to:
Q.17. How has the Napoleonic Code exported to the regions under French control? Explain with examples. (3 marks)
Ans: Napoleonic Code exported to the regions under French Control:
(i) Simplified administrative divisions.
(ii) Abolished feudal system.
(iii) Freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
(iv) In towns, guild restrictions were removed.
(v) Transport and communication system improved.
(i) Napoleonic Code, alternatively called as 'French Civil Code of 1804', defined the concept of equality before the law.
(ii) The code helped decimate the feudal system that was plaguing Europe during French revolution. It did away with all privileges based on birth and established equality before law.
(iii) This code consists of revolutionary principles which upholds the ideas of liberty, fraternity and equality. At many places the code simplified the administrative divisions, abolished feudal systems and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
(iv) The code helped in removing the guild restrictions from the towns which was in fact a great relief for the citizens.
(v) The code aimed to simplify all the laws and bring them in a system. The civil code gave post revolutionary France its first coherent set of laws concerning property, colonial affairs, the family, and individual rights.
(vi) The code improved the transport and communication systems, standardised weights and measures and introduced common national currency which was appreciated by the peasants, partisan workers and businessmen of France.
Explain any three provisions of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815.
Ans: Provisions of Treaty of Vienna (1815):
(i) Bourbon dynasty was restored to power in France.
(ii) France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
(iii) The kingdom of Netherlands was set up in the north and Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south.
(iv) Prussia was given new territories on its western frontiers.
(v) Austria was given control of northern Italy.
(vi) Russia was given a part of Poland and Prussia was given a part of Saxony.
Q.18. Discuss the various stages of the Non- cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi. (3 marks)
Ans: Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages:
1st Stage - Surrender of titles that the government awarded.
2nd Stage - Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative, councils, schools, and foreign goods.
3rd Stage - Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.
Q.19. “Manufacturing sector is considered as the backbone of economic development of the country ”. Support the statement with examples. (3 marks)
Ans: The economic strength of a country lies in the development of manufacturing industries because :
(i) Manufacturing industries help in modernising agriculture which forms the backbone of our economy.
(ii) It reduces the heavy dependence of people on the agriculture sector and creates jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
(iii) It is necessary for the removal of unemployment and poverty.
(iv) It brings down regional disparities.
(v) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and enhances prosperity.
(vi) It brings much needed foreign exchange.
Q.20. “Sharing of powers makes a country more powerful and united”. Do you agree with this statement and why? (3 marks)
Ans: Power sharing is desirable in democracy because :
(i) Prudential reasons:
(a) It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups, Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability.
(b) It is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.
(c) Imposing the will of the majority community, over others may look like an attractive option in the short run, but in the long run it undermines the unity of the nation.
(ii) Moral reasons:
(a) Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise and who have to live with its effect.
(b) People have the right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.
(c) A legitimate government is one where citizens through participation, acquire a stake in the system.
Q.21. Evaluate the role of MNCs in the economic development of a country.
Ans: Role of MNCs in the economic development: (3 marks)
(i) MNCs place order for production with small producers.
(ii) MNCs are setting up partnerships with local companies.
(iii) They are interlinking the markets all over the world.
(iv) Any other relevant point.
Q.22. “A wide ranging choice of goods are available in the Indian markets”. Support the statement with examples in context of Globalization. (3 marks)
Ans: A wide ranging choice of goods :
(i) We have a wide variety of goods and services before us in the market.
(ii) The latest models of the digital cameras, mobile phones and televisions made by leading manufacturers of the world are available in the market.
(iii) Every season, new models of automobiles can be seen on Indian roads.
(iv) Today Indians are buying cars produced by nearly all the top companies in the world.
(v) A similar explosion of brands can be seen for many other goods.
Enumerate any three features of Multinational Corporations.
Ans: Multinational Corporations (MNCs) are the companies that own or control the production of their goods in more than one country.
The main features of MNCs are :
(i) They setup their factories and offices in more than one country.
(ii) They setup their units where the cost of production is low and higher profits can be earned.
(iii) They set up their units where they can get cheap labour and other resources.
Q.23. Read the source given below and answer the following questions : (4 marks)
Similar female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the nation. In France she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people's nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic - the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
Similarly, Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
Q.24. Read the source given below and answer the following questions : (4 marks)
Maize: It is a crop which is used both as food and fodder. It is a kharif crop which requires temperature between 21°C to 27°C and grows well in old alluvial soil. In some states like Bihar, maize Is grown in rabi season also. Use of modern inputs such as HYV seeds, fertilisers and irrigation have contributed to the increasing production of maize. Major maize-producing states are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Madhya Pradesh.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
Q.25. Read the source given below and answer the following questions : (4 marks)
How many languages do we have in India? The answer depends on how one counts it. The latest information that we have is from the Census of India held in 2001. This census recorded more than 1500 distinct languages which people mentioned as their mother tongues. These languages were grouped together under some major languages. For example languages like Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Bundelkhandi, Chhattisgarhi, Rajasthani, Bhili and many others were grouped together under 'Hindi'. Even after this grouping, the Census found 114 major languages. Of these 22 languages are now included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution and are therefore, called 'Scheduled Languages'. Others are called 'non- Scheduled Languages'. In terms of languages, India is perhaps the most diverse country in the world.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
Q.26. Read the source given below and answer the following questions : (4 marks)
Besides banks, the other major source of cheap credit in rural areas are the cooperative societies (or cooperatives). Members of a cooperative pool their resources for cooperation in certain areas. There are several types of cooperatives possible such as farmers cooperatives, weavers cooperatives, industrial workers cooperatives, etc. Krishak Cooperative functions in a village not very far away from Sonpur. It has 2300 farmers as members. It accepts deposits from its members. With these deposits as collateral, the Cooperative has obtained a large loan from the bank. These funds are used to provide loans to members. Once these loans are repaid, another round of lending can take place.
Krishak Cooperative provides loans for the purchase of agricultural implements, loans for cultivation and agricultural trade, fishery loans, loans for construction of houses and for a variety of other expenses.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
Q.27. Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain. (5 marks)
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off Civil Disobedience Movement because :
(i) Worried by the development of Civil Disobedience Movement, the colonial government began arresting the Congress leaders one by one.
(ii) This led to violent clashes in many places.
(iii) When Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested in April 1930, angry crowd demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing.
Many were killed.
(iv) A month later, when Mahatma Gandhi was arrested; industrial workers in Solapur attacked police force, municipal buildings, law courts, railway stations and all other structures that symbolised British rule.
(v) A frightened government responded with the policy of brutal repression.
(vi) The peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten and about 1 lakh people were arrested.
Under these circumstances Mahatma Gandhi called off the Civil Disobedience Movement.
How did the peasants of Awadh use different methods to achieve their goal? Explain with examples.
Ans: (i) Peasants of Awadh were led by Baba Ramchandra, a Sanyasi. The movement was against talukdars and landlords.
(ii) The landlords and talukdars demanded exorbitantly high rents and other cesses. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords farms without any payment.
(iii) As tenants, the farmers had no security of tenure. The peasant movement demanded a reduction of revenue, the abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
(iv) In many places, nai dhobi bandhs were organised by panchayats to deprive landlords of the services of barbers and washermen.
(v) Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and few others. Within a month, over 300 branches were set up in the villages. The peasants developed in forms that the Congress leadership was unhappy with.
In 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked. Bazaars were looted. Grain hoards were taken over.
Q.28. Explain any five differences between Public and Private sector. (5 marks)
Ans: Comparison between Private sector and Public sector:
(i) Most of the assets of public sector are owned by the government while private sector is owned by individuals or group of individuals.
(ii) Government provides all services in public sector, while in private sector it depends on private owner.
(iii) Government raises money for various activities through taxes while private sector collects money for the services they provide.
(iv) Activities in the private sector are guided by the motive to earn profits, while public sector is not just to earn profits.
(v) Railways, Post office are examples of public sector while Tata Steel and Reliance are examples of private sector.
The following are the major differences between public sector and private sector:
(i) Public Sector is a part of the country's economy where the control and maintenance are in the hands of government. If we talk about Private Sector, it is owned and managed by the private individuals and corporations.
(ii) The aim of the public sector is to serve people, but private sector enterprises are established with the profit motive.
(iii) In the public sector, the government has full control over the organisations. Conversely, Private Sector companies enjoy less government interference.
(iv) The employees of the public sector have the security of the job, along with that they are given the benefits of allowances, perquisites, and retirement like gratuity, pension, superannuation fund, etc., which are absent in the case of the private sector.
(v) In the private sector, working environment is quite competitive which is missing in the public sector because they are not established to meet commercial objectives.
(vi) In general, Public Sector, uses the basis of Seniority for promoting employees, however, merit cum seniority is also taken as a base for promoting employees unlike the Private Sector, where performance is everything, and so merit is considered as a parameter to promote them.
Q.29. Elucidate some of the recent efforts taken in our country to reform political parties and its leaders. (5 marks)
Ans: (i) The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLA's and MP's from changing parties. This was done because many elected representatives were indulging in defection in order to become ministers or for cash rewards. Now, if any MLA or MP changes parties, he or she will lose the seat in the legislature.
(ii) The Supreme Court passed an order to reduce the influence of money and criminals. Now, it is mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an affidavit giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him. The new system has made a lot of information available to the public. But there is no system of check if the information given by the candidates is true.
(iii) The Election Commission passed an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns.
(iv) The parties have started doing so but sometimes it is a mere formality. It is not clear if this step has led to greater internal dem ocracy in political parties.
Q.30. “Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation”. Examine the statement. (5 marks)
Ans: Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation:
(i) Democracy gives importance to deliberation and public opinion.
(ii) The democratic government will take more time to follow procedures before arriving at a decision.
(iii) Its decisions may be both more acceptable to the people and more effective.
(iv) Democracy ensures that decision making will be based on norms and procedures.
(v) Transparency as people have the right and the means to examine the process of decision making.
(vi) It follows procedures and is accountable to the people.
(vii) The democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens to hold the government accountable.
(viii) Democratic government follows mechanisms for citizens to take part in decision making whenever they think fit.
Describe any five outcomes of Democracy.
Ans: Five outcomes of Democracy:
(i) Accountable, responsive and legitimate government.
(ii) Economic growth and development.
(iii) Reduction of inequality and poverty.
(iv) Accommodation of social diversity.
(v) Dignity and freedom of the citizens.
(vi) Any other relevant point to be explained.
Five outcomes of democracy :
(i) In a democratic nation, the government is accountable to the citizens. It is responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens. Moreover, the government is efficient and effective. The democratic governments work on the principle of deliberation and negotiation, so delays take place.
(ii) In a democracy, decisions are based on norms and procedures. Decision making is transparent, i.e., every citizen has the right to examine the entire process of decision making.
(iii) In a democracy, the right to question the process of decision making is absent.
(iv) It is provided that a democratic government is accountable, but there isn't any mechanism to hold the government accountable and the decision making is not based on norms and procedures.
(v) Democracy is solely based on political equality. Every citizen has an equal weight in electing representatives. However, the same is not true in the economic field. In democratic countries, the poor usually become poorer and often find it hard to cater to the basic essentials of life like food, clothing, higher education, and health. Democracies have massively failed in this regard.
Q.31. Highlight any five features of Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur gas pipeline. (5 marks)
Ans: (i) This pipeline is about 1700 kms long.
(ii) Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur cross country gas pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassein with the fertilizer, power and industrial complexes in western and northern India.
(iii) This artery has provided an impetus to India's gas production.
(iv) The power and fertilizer industries are the key users of natural gas.
(v) Use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for vehicles to replace liquid fuels is gaining wide popularity in the country.
Explain with examples the conditions responsible for uneven distribution pattern of the railway network in India.
Ans: The distribution pattern of the railway network:
(i) The Northern Plains with their vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provide the most favourable condition for their growth.
(ii) In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracks are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels.
(iii) The Himalayan mountainous regions too are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities.
(iv) It was difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plains of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand.
(v) The contiguous stretch of Sahyadri could be crossed only through gaps or passes (Ghats).
(vi) The development of the Konkan railway along the west coast has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods.
Map Based Questions
32. (i) Two places (A) and (B) are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.
(A) The place which is known for Peasant Satyagraha. (1 Mark)
(B) The place where the Congress Session was held in 1927. (1 Mark)
(ii) On the same outline map of India, locate and label any three of the following with appropriate symbols:
(a) Haldia : Major Seaport
(b) Rajiv Gandhi : International Airport
(c) Gandhinagar : Software Technology Park
(d) Coimbatore : Cotton Textile Industry
(e) Tehri : Dam (3 Mark)
Ans: (i) & (ii)