Class - X
TIME: 3 Hrs.
1. The question paper has 35 questions in all.
2. Marks are indicated against each question.
3. Questions from serial number 1 to 20 are objective type questions. Each question carries one mark. Answer them as instructed.
4. Questions from serial number 21 to 28 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
5. Questions from serial number 29 to 34 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 120 words each.
6. Question number 35 is a map question of 6 marks with two parts - 35 a. from History (2 marks) and 35b. from Geography (4 marks).
Q.1. Match the following items given in Column A with those in Column B. Choose the correctly matched pair from the options given below (1 marks)
(a) Depressed Classes Association formed
(b) Chauri chaura incident
(c) FICCI formed
(d) Demand of Purna Swaraj
Ans: (B) Chauri Chaura Incident - 1922.
Correctly matched pairs -
(a) Depressed Classes Association formed
(b) Chauri chaura incident
(c) FICCI formed
(d) Demand of Purna Swaraj
Q.2. When the Non-cooperation movement began the following year, the effort of the Congress was to integrate the Awadh Peasant Struggle into the wider struggle. The peasant movement, however, developed in forms that the Congress leadership was unhappy with. As the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted, and grain hoards were taken over. Identify the name of the person who led the Awadh peasants during the Non-cooperation movement. (1 marks)
(i) Mahatma Gandhi
(ii) Alluri Sitaram Raju
(iii) Baba Ramchandra
(iv) Abdul Ghaffar Khan
(iii) Baba Ramchandra
Ans: Baba Ramchandra
Explanation: Baba Ramchandra, a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer, helped Jawaharlal Nehru to set up Oudh (now Awadh) Kisan Sabha and led the movement during the Non-cooperation movement.
Q.3. Study the picture and answer the question that follows: (1 marks)
Explain Sorrieu’s Utopian vision behind the image of ‘The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and Social Republics’.
Ans: In Sorrieu’s utopian vision, people of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume in their journey to liberty and rebirth as nation states. Sorrieu’s time was characterised by the birth of nationalism as a very powerful driving force.
Q.4. What do you know about the Act of Union, 1707? (1 marks)
Ans: The Act of Union (1707) was signed between England and Scotland as a result of which the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ came into being. After the Act was signed, England could impose its influence on Scotland.
Q.5. Read the source given below and fill in the blank that follows: (1 marks)
The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai Mumbai and Delhi with a six-lane super highway. The North-South Corridor linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and East-West Corridor connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat) through a highway are part of this project.
These projects are being implemented by ___________ Complete the sentence.
Ans: National Highway Authority of India (NHAI)
Q.6. Study the picture and answer the question that follows: (1 marks)
What does this picture signify? Explain in your own words.
Ans: The picture signifies one of the most important realities of living in a democracy. The government has various sources of getting information about people while people in a democratic country have limited sources to get information about the working of the government.
Q.7. Suggest one way to prevent indiscriminate use of resources. (1 marks)
Ans: Resource planning accompanied with increased usage of renewable resources can save resources from diminishing.
Define sheet erosion.
Ans: When surface water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope without any obstruction in form of trees or plants, the top soil is washed away. This is called sheet erosion.
Q.8. Correct the following statement and rewrite: (1 marks)
The Communist Party of India stands for the cause of reducing the interests and welfare of the Dalits and oppressed people.
Ans: The Bahujan Samaj Party of India stands for the cause of securing the interests and welfare of the Dalits and oppressed people.
Explanation: The Communist Party of India was formed in 1925. It is a stringent observer and follower of Marxism-Leninism, secularism and democracy. It accepts parliamentary democracy as a means of promoting the interests of the working class, farmers and the poor.
The Bahujan Samaj party was formed in 1984 under the leadership of Kanshi Ram. The party draws inspiration from the ideas and teachings of Sahu Maharaj, Mahatma Phule, Periyar Ramaswami Naicker and Babasaheb Ambedkar.
Correct the following statement and rewrite: The parties that lose in the elections play the role of political party.
Ans: The parties that lose in the elections play the role of the opposition party.
Q.9. Complete the following table with correct information with regard to Laterite Soil : (1 marks)
Tamil Nadu, MP etc.
Ans: (A) Low humus, less fertile due to intense leaching.
Q.10. Democracy is based on the idea of __________________ . (1 marks)
Ans: Deliberation and negotiation
Explanation: The most important aspect of a democracy is that it keeps in mind the will of its people. Citizens should be able to participate in decision making, that affects them all through deliberation. A democratic government takes more time to follow procedures before arriving at a decision which is accepted by all. At times it has to deliberate and negotiate promotion of certain interests over the others.
A democratic government is a __________________ government.
Explanation: A democratic government is chosen by the people of a country who give them the authority to take decisions on their behalf as their representatives by giving them the maximum number of votes in elections. Since this government is chosen and not forced, it is a legitimate government - people’s own government.
Q.11. What do you mean by coming together federations? (1 marks)
Ans: Coming together federation is a nation/system where independent states come together by pooling sovereignty to form a bigger unit/ system. Their identity is retained.
Which country passed an act in 1956 recognising Sinhalese?
Ans: Sri Lanka passed an act in 1956 recognising Sinhalese.
Q.12. What is the main purpose of the government behind setting up special economic zones in India? (1 marks)
Ans: The government’s main purpose behind setting up the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) is to attract foreign companies (multinational corporations) to invest in Indian companies and startups. This shall help us to build our credibility in the global market and expand our economy multifolds.
Q.13. After primary and secondary, there is a third category of activities that falls under the tertiary sector and is different from the previous two. These are activities that help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors. Since these activities generate services rather than goods, the tertiary sector is also called the service sector. (1 marks)
Read the source above and identify which one of the following occupations cannot be classified under activities of the tertiary sector?
(i) Vegetable vendor
(ii) Basket weaver
(iii) Call centre employee
Ans: (ii) Basket weaver
Explanation: A basket weaver does not provide a service to the consumers directly, he creates a product which is sold to the consumers. He makes a product from wood which is a secondary sector activity. All the other options of professionals are not involved in manufacturing any good, rather providing a service to increase consumer’s convenience.
Q.14. Double coincidence of wants is an essential feature of ___________ (1 marks)
Ans: Barter system
Explanation: The barter system is a system where goods are directly exchanged with the buyer without any use of money; double coincidence of wants is an essential feature of this system. Double coincidence of wants can be defined as a concept where what a person desires to sell is exactly what the other wishes to buy. Introduction of money has solved the problem of double co-incidence of wants. Now, the sellers and the buyers do not have to look for each other to exchange their products.
Q.15. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? (1 marks)
(i) Per capita income
(ii) Annual income
(iii) Total income
(iv) None of them
Ans: (i) Per capita income
Explanation: In World Development Reports, the World Bank uses per capita income as the criterion in classifying countries. In 2017, countries with a per capita income of US $12,056 per annum and above were called rich countries and those with a per capita income of US $955 or less were called low-income countries.
Q.16. __________ is an example of non-renewable resources. (1 marks)
Ans: Crude oil
Explanation: Crude oil extracted from Earth is used to make multiple energy resources like petroleum products. It takes millions of years to form these reserves.
__________ is a developmental goal for an urban unemployed youth.
Ans: Employment opportunity with job security
Explanation: Any unemployed youth will only want to have a job opportunity corresponding to hisher ualifications with a good salary as his/her most sought after developmental goal.
Q.17. At present, a total of __________ countries are members of the World Trade Organisation. (1 marks)
Explanation: World Trade Organisation (WTO) is an organisation whose aim is to liberalise international trade.
Started at the initiative of developed countries, WTO establishes rules regarding international trade, and ensures that these rules are obeyed. As of now, 164 countries are members of WTO and have vowed to obey rules laid down.
Q.18. Arrange the following in the correct sequence: (1 marks)
(a) Farmers decide to grow arhar and chickpea (pulse crops)
(b) Products are sold in the market.
(c) A dal mill is set up to procure and process.
(d) Farmers take loan from local banks to buy inputs.
Options: (i) (a)—(d)—(c)—(b)
Ans: (i) (a)—(d)—(c)—(b)
Q.19. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1 marks)
Assertion (A) : When multinational corporations (MNCs) set up a production jointly with a local company, it is mutually beneficial to both companies.
Reason (R) : The benefit of such a joint production is two-fold. First, MNCs can provide money for additional investments, like buying new machines for faster production. Second, MNCs might equip with them the latest technology for production. The same is beneficial for the MNCs as well. MNCs gain control over production and are able to expand their assets and gain profits from other markets also.
(i) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(ii) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(iii) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(iv) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
Ans: (ii) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
Explanation: Joint production of companies - both national or international - helps the smaller company to expand its infrastructure, incorporate state-of-the-art technology in its production. The same helps the investing company to expand its outreach, control production and attract foreign markets.
Q.20. Mr Ram wants to set up a cotton textile industry. He bought land, construction materials for constructing the building and machineries; the money that he spent to buy all these things is called ___________ (1 marks)
Ans: (ii) Investment
Explanation: Money spent to buy assets such as land, labour, infrastructure and equipments is called investment. It can come from both foreign companies and bigger regional or national companies.
Q.21. “Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries found a way out by personifying a nation. In other words they represented a country as if it were a person.” Support the statement with examples. (3 marks)
Ans: Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries portrayed nations as female figures also called political allegories, inspired by French artists who personified values like liberty, justice, equality and freedom.
The French female allegory was called Marianne and represented the idea that France was the nation of its people.
Germania, the allegory of Germany, wore a crown of Oak leaves which represented bravery and heroism.
These allegories drew their characteristics from statues of liberty and freedom.
Write a short note on the condition of women during nationalist struggles.
The condition of women during nationalist struggles can be described as -Ans: (1) Women were deprived of major rights like suffrage and were treated as minor sex. They were harassed and treated with no respect.
(2) In the Liberal Revolution, women participated in huge numbers, forming political associations, arranging political meetings and demonstrations. They even founded newspapers to put their opinions forward.
(3) They were still denied of their suffrage rights and admitted as observers only in the Frankfurt Parliament.
Q.22. How were the leaders and freedom fighters able to develop a sense of collective belonging and nationalism in Indians during the freedom struggle? (3 marks)
Ans: The sense of collective belonging and feeling of nationalism was created amongst the Indians leaders and freedom fighters through the following means:
(1) The image of Bharat Mata: The image of Bharat Mata was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870 when he wrote ‘Vande Matram’ as a hymn to our motherland. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one's nationalism.
(2) Revival of Indian folklore and folk tales: Indian folk songs and folk tales sung by bards played an important role in builing the idea of nationalism. These tales and songs gave a true picture of traditional culture. In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore collected ballads, nursery rhymes and myths and led the movement for folk revival. In Madras, Natesa Sastri’s collection of folk tales and songs, led the movement for folk revival.
(3) The tricolour flag: During the Swadeshi Movement, a tricolor (red, green and yellow) flag was designed in Bengal. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces and a crescent moon representing Hindus and uslims. Carrying the flag during the protest marches became a symbol of defiance.
(4) The spinning wheel: In 1921, Mahatma Gandhi designed the tricolour (red, green and white) Swaraj Flag. It had a spinning wheel in the centre-representing the Gandhian idea of self-help.
(5) Reinterpretation of history: Another means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through the reinterpretation of history. Nationalist writers urged readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and strive to change the miserable conditions of life under the British rule. They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art, science, mathematics, architecture, religion, culture, law, crafts and trade flourished.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to withdraw the Non-cooperation movement in 1922?
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-cooperation movement in 1922 because of the following reasons:
(1) Gandhi felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be trained properly before they would be ready to take part in the mass struggle.
(2) Leaders within Congress were tired of mass struggle by now and wanted to enter in council elections to argue for reforms and to oppose British policies within the councils.
(3) At Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur, UP, a peaceful demonstration in a bazaar turned into a violent clash with the police in which 22 policemen were burnt alive by agitated people. Hearing the incident, Gandhi ji called-off the movement.
Q.23. Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follow:
Source A: Development of Resources (3 marks)
An equitable distribution of resources has become essential for a sustained quality of life and global peace. If the present trend of resource depletion by a few individuals and countries continues, the future of our planet is in danger. Therefore, resource planning is essential for the sustainable existence of all forms of life. Sustainable existence is a component of sustainable development.
Source B: Soil as a Resource
The soil is a living system. It takes millions of years to form soil up to a few cm in depth. Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil. Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers, etc. contribute to the formation of soil. Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil are equally important. Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials
Source C: Land Degradation and Conservation Methods
At present, there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in India. Approximately, 28% of it belongs to the category of forest degraded area, 56% of it is water eroded area and the rest is affected by saline and alkaline deposits. Some human activities such as deforestation, over grazing, mining and uarring too have contributed significantly in land degradation.
Source A: Development of Resources
23.1 What is sustainable development?
Ans: Sustainable development means that the development must take place without damaging the environment or obstructing the development/progress of present or future generations.
Source B: Soil as a Resource
23.2 Why is soil considered an important resource?
Ans: Soil is considered an important resource because it supports life and is monumental for both plant and animal growth. It bears multiple minerals and resources.
Source C: Land Degradation and Conservation Methods
23.3 Suggest one method of conserving land from degradation?
Ans: Land degradation can be prevented by afforestation and controlled grazing. Planting of shelter beds and control on grazing of animals can protect land from erosion and degradation.
Q.24. Why is power sharing desirable? List any three reasons. (3 marks)
Ans: Power sharing is very desirable in most democracies because:
(1) Reduces conflict among social groups: Power sharing reduces the conflicts among different social groups in the country and helps them accommodate well in the same country. Take Belgium as an example. Its constitution was changed four times to enable everyone to live together within the same country.
(2) Ensure political stability: Power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order as conflicts often lead to violence and political instability.
(3) Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy: Everyone can be easily included in the process of decision making through power sharing.
Q.25. Democracy has not been successful in reducing economic inequalities. Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer. (3 marks)
Democracy has not been successful in reducing economic inequalities. The reasons are:
(1) The wealth and means are accumulated in the hands of a few people and their share in the total income of the country has been increasing. Those who are rich continue to grow richer while those who are poor, have become even poorer.
(2) The people at the bottom of society find it difficult to meet even their basic needs, such as food, clothing, housing, education and health. Not only that, their incomes have been declining. With growing inflation, it is getting difficult for them to make ends meet but the government has not been able to do much to make it easier for them. The schemes which guarantee subsidies to the poor people do not reach them as efficiently as they are claimed to be.
(3) The poor constitute a large proportion of voters and no party would like to lose their votes. Yet democratically elected government do not appear to be attentive to address the issue of poverty.
This is why democracy has not been very successful in reducing economic inequalities.
How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?
Ans: Following are the ways in which democracy produces an accountable, responsive and legitimate government:
(1) Accountable government: The most basic outcome of a democracy is that it produces a government that is accountable to the citizens and responsive to their needs and expectations. Whenever possible and necessary, citizens should participate in majority of the decisions that affects them all. Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation in negotiation. That is why some delay is bound to take place but its decisions are more acceptable and more effective than other forms of government.
(2) Responsive govern-ment: A democratic government is attentive to the needs and demands of the people and claims to be largely free of corruption. However, democracies often frustrate the needs of the people and often ignore the demands of the majority. At the same time, there is nothing to show that non-democracies are less corrupt or more sensitive to the people.
(3) Legitimate government: A democratic government is people’s own government. That is why there is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world. People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them. They believe that democracy is best suited for their country. Thus, democracy’s ability to generate its own support in itself is a positive outcome.
Q.26. Who designed the ‘Swaraj flag’ in 1921? Explain the main features of this flag. (3 marks)
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi designed the Swaraj flag in 1921 in order to invoke the feelings of nationalism and shared identity among the citizens of India. The main features of this flag are as follows
(1) It had three colours - red, green and white which invoked a feeling of nationalism in the citizens.
(2) It had a spinning wheel in the center.
(3) It represented the Gandhian idea of self- help.
(4) It had become a symbol of defiance.
Q.27. Read the Source below and answer the question that follows: (3 marks)
In the past 100 years, there has been a further shift from the secondary to tertiary sector in developed countries. The service sector has become the most important in terms of total production. Most of the working people are also employed in the service sector. This is the general pattern observed in developed countries.
Development in the service sector has been observed in the past 100 years, but remember that not all aspects of the service sector are growing equally well.
Justify the statement.
Ans: The employment generation aspect that opens up opportunities for non-skilled or less skilled people of the service sector is not growing well.
The service sector employees a large number of people in India, yet, there are limited number of services that employ highly skilled and educated workers. At the same time, there is a very large number of workers engaged in services such as small shopkeepers, repair persons, transport persons, etc.
These people hardly manage to earn a living and yet they perform these services because no alternative opportunities for work are available to them. Hence, only a part of this sector is growing in importance.
All the three sectors of economy are interdependent on each other. Explain the interdependence of sectors with reference to transportation system.
Ans: The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors all are interdependent on each other.
(1) The primary sector makes possible the extraction of natural resources such as iron ore. This iron ore is then taken to the secondary sector for manufacturing various products through the transportation system, like trucks or trains, before it is sold in wholesale and retail shops. The extraction process is supported by financing and information technology institutions.
(2) It is through the secondary sector that the natural iron is changed into other forms through the process of manufacturing. Manufacturing again needs the support of the service or tertiary sector in the form of engineers, electricians, etc. Iron is changed into iron sheets or steel and then into vehicles for transportation.
(3) Once manufactured, the vehicles are sold through various trading agencies. These vehicles are used for providing services in tertiary sector and also support the primary and the secondary sectors to carry out their processes.
Q.28. Explain some of the possible steps that the government can take to make globalisation fairer. (3 marks)
Ans: The government can make globalisation fairer through the following meausres:
(1) The government policies must protect the interests of not only the rich and the powerful, but of all the people in the country. The government can ensure that labour laws are properly implemented and workers get their rights.
(2) The government can support small producers to improve their performance till the time they become strong enough to complete.
(3) If necessary, the government can use trade and investment barriers to provide a level playing field to the foreign and national companies.
(4) It can negotiate at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) for more fairer rules.
(5) It can also align with other developing countries with similar interests to fight against the domination of developed countries in the WTO.
Q.29. Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to join the Khilafat movement? Describe its association with the Non-cooperation movement and its importance. (5 marks)
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi wanted to make his ‘Satyagraha’ movement more inclusive. He realised that this could be possible only if Hindus and Muslims came together and joined it. He found the Khilafat issue strong enough to bring about this unity. The First World War had given a death blow to the Ottoman Empire of Turkey. The British had promised a generous treatment to the Khalifa, but they did not keep up the promise. The Khalifa was considered the spiritual head of the Muslims and a protector of their holy places. By 1920, the British had totally dismembered the Turkish Empire.
To defend the Khalifa’s powers, a Khilafat committee was organised in Bombay under the Ali brothers, Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, in March 1919. Gandhi was invited by the Ali brothers to join this committee. At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, Gandhi convinced other leaders to support the Khilafat movement and start the Non cooperation movement for Swaraj along with the Khilafat movement. Along with the Ali brothers, he toured India and gathered support for the movement. All Congress Committees adopted the Khilafat resolutions in 1921, and supported its four-point programme.
The importance of the Khilafat movement is that it brought the Hindus and the Muslims under one cause. The Muslims also became a part of the national movement. This made it more inclusive.
What do you mean by nation states? How did they emerge?
Ans: Nation states were independent states formed with a democratic constitution, united citizens and emotions of brotherhood, belongingness and patriotism.
The basis of nation states was on parliamentary principles - a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association. Nation states were born in place of multinational dynastic empires of Europe. Citizens and rulers of Nation states developed a sense of common identity, shared history and descent. This shared identity was forged through struggles, actions of leaders and common people.
Nation states emerged as a consequence of nationalism which brought sweeping changes in the political and mental world of Europe.
Q.30. Read the extract and answer the questions that follow: (5 marks)
You have studied the physical diversities and plurality of cultures in India. These are also reflected in agricultural practices and cropping patterns in the country. Various types of food and fibre crops, vegetables and fruits, spices and condiments, etc. constitute some of the important crops grown in the country. India has three cropping seasons — rabi, kharif and zaid.
30.1 What are zaid Crops?
Ans: Zaid crops are grown in the short season during summer months. Some examples are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetable and fodder crops.
30.2 Distinguish between kharif and rabi crops with examples.
Rabi crops are grown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June.
Kharif crops are sown with the onset of monsoon and harvested in September- October.
Rabi crops need precipitation which is available due to western temperature cyclones
Kharif crops need high temperature and high rainfall.
Some Rabi crops
Kharif crops are Cotton, Jute, Urad etc.
Q.31. Why does the textile industry occupy a unique position in the Indian economy? (5 marks)
Ans: The textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy because:
(1) The textile industry contributes significantly to industrial production, i.e. about 14%. Wide market and availability of transport, banking and electricity facilities in almost all parts of the country has led to the spread of textile mills in different areas of the country.
(2) It is the only industry in India which is self - reliant and complete in the value chain, i.e. from raw material to the highest value added products.
(3) The textile industry is a labour intensive industry, so a large number of people are employed at different stages of its working such as ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, printing, tailoring and sewing.
(4) The textile industry not only employs a lot of people, it also provides a huge amount of foreign exchange earnings to the country.
Thus the position of the textile industry in India is very significant and unique.
Analyse the role of manufacturing industries in the economic development of a country.
Ans: The role of manufacturing industries in the development of country:
(1) Manufacturing industries help in modernising agriculture, which forms the backbone of the Indian economy.
(2) Manufacturing industries also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
(3) Industrial development reduces unemployment and poverty.
(4) It also brings down regional and economical disparities in the country.
(5) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings home foreign exchange.
(6) The prosperity of a country depends on trans-forming raw materials into finished goods of higher values and diversifying its industries.
(7) The industrial sector contributes 27% of GDP and manufacturing contributes about 17% of GDP.
Q.32. What is federalism? Underline how federalism is practised in India. (5 marks)
Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of a country. Federalism is practised in India in the following ways:
(1) Division of powers: Three-fold distribution of legislative powers between central and state governments in the form of Union List, State List and Concurrent List where authority of making laws over mentioned subjects has been divided between the two is a way in which co-operative federalism works in our country.
(2) Language policy: Constitution does not declare any one language as the national language. Besides Hindi, 21 other languages are declared or recognised as Scheduled languages of the country. Thus, interests of both Hindi-speaking and non-Hindi- speaking regions are preserved.
(3) Power sharing is basic to the structure of the constitution: The sharing and distribution of powers between the union government and the state governments is basic to the structure of constitution. It is not easy to make changes to this power sharing arrangement. Any change to it requires 2/3rd majority of both the houses of parliament and ratification of at least half of the total states.
Q.33. State the various functions of political parties in India. (5 marks)
Ans: A political party which mainly has three components:
(i) namely the leaders
(ii) the active members and
(iii) the followers has multiple functions to follow in a democracy like India.
Since we’re a multi-party system, there exist various national and state parties who contest elections in every 5 years.
(1) Parties contest elections, form & run the government: One of their main function is to contest elections in order to win over the people, gain authority and run a responsible, legitimate and popular government that takes care of the interests of all communities, classes and genders before taking any actions or big decision in any field. Top party leaders choose representatives who contest elections win the majority of seats and form and run the government.
(2) Parties put forward policies and programmes: Political parties put forward various policies and programmes for the voters/people to choose from. People have a large number of different opinions and views on what policies are suitable for the society. Parties group together similar opinions to get a direction in which policies can be formed by the government.
(3) Parties make laws: Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country.
(4) Parties shape public opinion: They raise and highlight issues. Parties have lakhs of members and activists spread all over the country. Thus they help increase political participation of the people in a country’s politics.
(5) Parties provide people access: Access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by governments. They find it easier to convey their requirements to a local leader than a government officer. That is why people feel close to parties even when they don’t trust them fully.
(6) Parties play the role of the opposition: Those parties that lose the elections play the role of the opposition to the party in power by voicing different views and criticizing the government for its wrong policies. These parties also extend their active support to the government during the national emergency in the country.
Q.34. Differentiate between the primary sector and the secondary sector by stating four points of distinction. (5 marks)
The primary sector includes all agricultural and allied activities, eg. forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, etc.
This sector is also called the industrial sector. It mainly includes manufacturing, construction, etc.
Process of producing goods
It produces goods by exploiting natural resources such as land, water, forests, mines, etc. for example, getting fuel wood or timber requires cutting of forests at a massive scale. Similarly, groundwater is used for irrigation.
This includes activities in which natural products are changed into other forms manually or through ways of manufacturing that we associate with industrial activities. For eg. manufacturing of cotton cloth from cotton yarn, sugarcane from sugar, etc.
Farmers buy many goods such as tractors, fertilizers, etc from secondary sectors. Thus this shows dependence of the primary sector on the secondary sector.
Similarly, manufacturing sectors need raw material such as cotton yarn to produce cotton, sugarcane to produce sugar. This shows dependence of secondary sector on primary sector.
Agriculture is a part of the primary sector, it is the largest sector in terms of workforce involved. It employs and plays an important role in Indian economy.
Manufacturing is the most important component of the secondary sector.
Q.35. (a) Two places A and B have been marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify them with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them. (2 marks)
(A) The place where the peasant struggle against the Indigo plantation system was led by Mahatma Gandhi.
(B) The place where a session of the Indian National congress was held in September 1920.
(b) On the same outline map of India, locate and label any four of the following with suitable symbols: (4 marks)
Cotton Textile industry
Chhatrapati Shiva ji International Airport
Software Technology Park
Iron and steel plant
Ans: (a) (A) Champaaran
(b) Located and labelled on the map.