(Section - A)
Q.1. Match the following items given in Column I with those in Column II.
Ans. (A)-2, (B)-3, (C)-1, (D)-4
Q.2. Study the picture and answer the question that follows.
Who is the person speaking to the crowd?
(a) VI Lenin
(b) Adolf Hitler
(c) Joseph Stalin
Ans. (a) VI Lenin
Q.3. What is the meaning of bugyal ?
(a) A hut in the mountains
(b) A hut in the plains
(c) A vast meadow in the high mountains
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) A vast meadow in the high mountains.
Q.4. Why the Godavari river is known as 'Dakshin Ganga'?
Ans. The Godavari river is known as ‘Dakshin Ganga’ because of its length and large area covered by it.
Q.5. Name the religion which was followed by most of the people of Russia.
What was the new name given to St. Petersburg ?
Ans. Russian Orthodox Christianity was the religion which is followed by most of the people in Russia.
Q.6. _____ of Java were a community of skilled forest cutters and shifting cultivation.
Q.7. What is the age group of population which is regarded as the work force?
Who said that food security means the access to food through entitlements?
Ans. In India, the workforce population includes people from the age of 15 to 53 years.
Cr Amartya Sen is the speaker here.
Q.8. If you are visiting the mangrove forests of the Ganga delta, which among the fourteen bio-reserves are you in?
Ans. I am in the Sunderbans bio-reserve, which is a mangrove forest that lies in the Gang a-Brahmaputra delta.
Q.9. __________ water fall is made by river Kaveri.
Q.10. The famous book, 'Two Treatises of Government' is written by...........
The two Indians who responded to the ideas coming from revolutionary France are......... and ............
Ans. John Locke
Tipu Sultan, Raja Rammohan Roy
Q.11. Which of the following countries is ruled by a hereditary ruler?
(d) Saudi Arabia
Ans. (d) Saudi Arabia
Q.12. Luni is the small river in the Indian desert.
Q.13. Bhabar is
(a) vast meadows in the low mountains.
(b) vast meadows in the high mountains.
(c) a dry forested area below the foothills of Garhwal and Kumaun.
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) A dry forested area below the foothills of Garhwal and Kumaun
Q.14. General Pervez Musharraf overthrew a democratically elected government and declared him self the ......... of the country.
The name of the Chinese Parliament is .............
Ans. Chief Executive
National People’s Congress
Q.15. The quality of the population does not depend on literacy rate and health.
Q.16. The colonial government started commercial forestry in India in the...........
In ......... the Mataram Kingdom of Java Split.
Ans. Early 19th century
Q.17. Find the incorrect option:
(1) Unfair electoral practices are as follows:
(a) The supporters of a candidate distribute blankets in slums in return for a promise for vote.
(b) Supporters of a candidate take voters to a temple and make them take an oath that they will vote for him.
(c) A minister flags off a hew train in his constituency a week before polling day.
(d) A candidate promises that he will get a new tram tor his constituency it he is elected.
Ans. (d) A candidate promises that he will get a new train for his constituency if he is elected.
Q.18. Name the southern neighbours of India across the sea.
Ans. Sri Lanka and Maldives.
Q.19. In the question given below, there are two statement marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statement and choose the correct option.
Assertion (A) The seasonal hunger affects the landless agricultural labourers most.
Reason (R) The seasonal hunger is the consequence of seasonal nature of food production and harvesting.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.
Ans. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
Q.20. In a democratic country, two categories make up the Executive. One that is elected by the people for a specific period, is called the Political Executive. Political leaders who take the big decisions fall in this category. In the second category, people are appointed on a long-term basis. This is called the Permanent Executive or Civil Services. They remain in office even when the ruling party changes. These officers work under the Political Executive and assist them in carrying out the day-to-day administration.
Analyse the information given above and consider one of the following as the correct option:
(a) The members of the Executive
(b) Political and Permanent Executive
(c) Long term and short term Executive
(d) Power of Civil Services
Ans. (b) Political and Perrranent Executive
(Section - B)
Q.21. Mentionany threemerits of democracy.
Why it is said that democracy is possible only if elections are free and fair?
Ans. The three merits of democracy are as follows :
(i) Democracy looks after the welfare of all people. The society as a whple benefits under the democratic system. It looks after the interests of the masses.
(ii) Democracy is based on equality, where all citizens are treated without any discrimination of caste, colour, creed, sex or religion.
(iii) Democracy forms democratic government. It is a strong and responsible government and guarantees liberty of thought and expression, freedom to form associations and even to criticise the government. This is essential for the self expression and development of people.
Holding free and fair elections is the soul of a democratic setup. In democracy, people have the choice to remove the existing rulers, if they wish so. Those currently in power have a fair chance of losing if there is free and fair election. Democracy is based on a fundamental principle of political equality. Each adult citizen have one vote and each vote have one value. In China, only those who are members of the Chinese Communist Party or eight smaller parties allied to it are allowed to contest elections. So there is no real choice between political alternatives. Ah the elections are free and fair, there is no democracy in China. Therefore, democracy is possible only if elections are free and fair.
Q.22. When was the Enabling Act passed in Germany? How did this act establish dictatorship of Hitler in Germany?
Write about the geopolitical concept of Hitler.
On 3rd March, 1933, the famous Enabling Act was passed in Germany, This Act established dictatorship of Hitler in Germany in the following ways:
(i) This Act gave Hitler ail powers to sideline the Parliament and rule by decree.
(ii) All political parties and trade unions, except the Nazi Party and its affiliates were banned in Germany.
(iii) The new state machinery under Hitler established complete control over the economy, media, army and judiciary of Germany.
(iv) Special surveillance and security forces were created to control the society. These included the Gestapo (secret state police), the SS (The protection Squads), Criminal police and the Security Service (SD).
Hitler's ideology is related to the geopolitical concept of ‘Lebensraum’ or living space. This can be elaborated in the following ways :
• He believed that new territories had to be acquired for settlement which would enhance the area of the motherland.
• He thought that new lands would also enhance the material resources and power of the German nation.
• He intended to extend German boundaries by moving Eastwards, to concentrated ail Germans geographically in one place. Poland became the laboratory for this experimentation.
Q.23. Describe the features of the outer Himalayas or the Shiwaliks.
Ans. The features of the outer Himalayas or the Shiwaliks are as given below :
(i) They extend over a width of 10-50 km.
(ii) Their altitude vary between 900 and 1,100 metres.
(iii) These ranges are composed of unconsolidated sediments brought down by rivers from the main Himalayan ranges located farther north.
(iv) These valleys are covered with thick gravel and alluvium.
(v) The longitudinal valley lying between lesser Himalayas and the Shiwaliks are known as Duns. Dehra Dim, Kotli Dim and Patli Dun are some of the well-known Duns.
Q.24. What is Universal Adult Franchise? State its two characteristics.
Mention some wide-ranging powers of the Election Commission.
Ans. In our country, all the citizens aged 18 years and above have the right to vote irrespective of any discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, colour or gender. It is known as Universal Adult Franchise. Two characteristics of Universal Adult Franchise are as follows :
(i) Under this system everyone is treated equally and to give equal opportunity to elect their representatives in the law-making process of the country.
(ii) This also reflects the democratic form of government elected through general elections.
The wide-ranging powers of the Section Commission of India are as follows :
(i) It takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control or elections from the announcement of elections to tine declaration of results.
(ii) It implements the code of conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it.
(iii) it can order the government to follow some.guidelines to prevent use and misuse of governmental power to enhance its chances, to win or to transfer some government officials.
(iv) At the time of election duty, government officers must work under the control of the Election Commission not under the government.
Q.25. What is the importance of the election campaign?
Write the three main functions of the Election Commission of India.
Before election it is very necessary to have a free and open discussion about the candidate, the candidate’s political party and its policies. Thus, election campaign is very important for election because:
• It is a time period when free and open discussion takes place between different political parties,
• It is the time when candidates directly contact their voters and political leaders address election meetings.
• This is also the period when people come to know about policies and programmes of various political parties which helps them to take better decisions.
The three main functions of the Election Commission of India are as follows :
(i) Election Commission takes decision on every aspect of conduct and control of elections.
(ii) It implements the code of conduct and can punish any candidate or party that violates it.
(iii) It controls the government officers who are posted on the election duty.
Q.26. Explain the Right against Exploitation.
Ans. Under this right, three evils as mentioned below have been declared illegal:
(i) It prohibits ‘traffic in human beings’ i.e,, selling and buying of human beings, usually women, for immoral purposes.
(ii) It prohibits forced labour or begar in any form. No worker can be forced to work free of charge or at a nominal remuneration.
(iii) It prohibits child labour. No one can employ a child below the age of fourteen to work in any factory or mine or in any other hazardous work, such as railways and ports. Under this right laws have been passed to prohibit children from working in industries such as beedi making, firecrackers and matches, printing and dyeing.
Q.27. What do you mean by famine? How it occurs and what are its effect?
How is Minimum Support Price (MSP) helpful for farmers and also for ensuring food security in India? Explain.
Ans. A famine is characterised by wide spread deaths due to starvation and epidemics caused by forced use of contaminated water or decaying food and ioss of body resistance due to weakening from starvation. This occurs due to severe shortage of food resuiting from crop failure or other calamity, which increases :he price cf food dramatically. Poor people cannot afford to buy food at these high prices. They suffer from food shor:ace which ultimately leads to starvation.
The inflation in food prices also affects the middle income earners. The production of food grain also decreases that results in further ncrease in food prices. This results in starvation and famine like Bengal famine of 1943.
Minimum Support Price is helpful for farmers and for ensuring food security in the following ways:
(i) it provides an economic assurance to the farmers that motivates them to grow targeted crops. They cannot be exploited by middlemen for lower prices.
(ii) Production of targeted crops increases. For example, India once an importer of wheat is now one of the largest producers of it and has huge surplus stocks catering to both domestic and international demands.
(iii) Increased production also helped in achieving food security and catering to the requirements of National Food Security Act.
Q.28. What is issue price ? How it helps the poor people in getting food secu rity?
Ans. Issue price is the price at which food materials!are sold by the government to the poor sections of the society. The issue price of food materials are lower than the market price." The food grains are procured by the government from the buffer stock. Issue price helps the poor people in getting essential food items at lower prices. This increases availability land affordability and thereby ensures food security even the people living below the poverty line.
(Section - C)
Q.29. Explain the main provisions of the Right to Equality.
Or How does our Constitution specify the cultural and educational rights of the minorities?
Ans. The main provisions of the Right to Equality are as follows :
(i) Equality Before Law Article 14 of the Constitution guarantees that all citizens shall be equally proteced by the laws of the country. It means that the state cannot discriminate any of the Indian citizen on the basis of his/her caste, creed, colour, sex, gender, religion or place of birth.
(ii) Social Equality and Equal Access to Public Areas Article 15 states that every person shall have equal access to public places like public parks, museums, wells, bathing ghats, temples, etc.
(iii) Equality in Matters of Public Employment Article 16 states that all citizens can apply for government jobs. But this right shall not be conferred to overseas citizens of India.
(iv) Abolition of Untouchability Article 17 of the Constitution abolishes the practice of untouchability and anyone doing so is punishable by iaw.
(v) Abolition of Titles Article 18 of the Constitution prohibits the state from conferring any title.
Democracy gives power to majority. Language, culture and religion of minorities need special protection here. Otherwise they feel neglected and undermined under the influence of religion and culture of majority section in the society. Thus, Constitution makers specified the cultural and educational rights of the minorities in our society. These are as follows:
(i) Any secticn of citizens with a distinct language or culture has a right to conserve it.
(ii) Admission to any educational institution maintained by government or receiving government aid cannot be denied to any citizen on the ground of religion or language.
(iii) At minorities have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their own choice.
Q.30. Read the extract and answer the questions that follow:
The Peninsular Plateau is a tableland composed of oid crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks. It was formed due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwana land, thus making it a part of the oldest landmass. The plateau has broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills. This plateau corisists of two broad divisions, namely, the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.
The part of the Peninsular Plateau lying to the North of the river Narmada covering a major area of the Malwa plateau is kjiown as the Central Highlands. The Central Highlands are bounded on the South by the Vjindhya mountain range and by the Aravali mountain range on the North-West. The further westward extension gradually merges with the sandy and rocky desert of Rajasthan. The flow of the rivers draining tnis region, namely Chambal, Sind, Betwa and Ken, is from South-West to North-East, thus indicating the slope. The Central Highlands are wider in the West but narrower in the east.
The eastward extensions of! this plateau are locally known as Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand. The Chotanagpur plateau marks the further eastward extension, drained by the river Damodar.
(a) Where are Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand located?
(b) Describe the formation and structure of the Peninsular Plateau.
(c) What physical features delineate the boundaries of the Central Highlands?
Ans. (a) Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand are located as eastward extensons of the Central Highlands.
(b) The Peninsular Plateau was formed due to the breaking and difting of the Gondwana land, thus making it a part of the oldest landmass. It is composed of old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks, it has broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills.
(c) The physical features which delineate the boundaries of the Central Highlands are as follows:
(i) Their southern boundary is delineated by the Vindhya mountain range.
(ii) Their North-Western boundary is delineated by the Aravali mountain range.
(iii) Their further westward extension gradually merges with the sandy and rocky desert of Rajasthan.
(iv) Their eastward extensions are locally known as Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand.
Q.31. Write arguments against democracy.
Write argument in favour of democracy.
Ans. (i) Leaders keep changing in a democracy. This leads to instability.
(ii) There is no scope for morality due to political competition and power-play.
(iii) So many people have to be consulted in a democracy that it leads to delay.
(iv) Elected leaders do not know the best interest of the people. It leads to bad decisions.
(v) Democracy leads to corruption for it is based on electoral competition.
(vi) Ordinary people don’t know what is good for them; they should not decide anything.
(i) Democracy is based on consultation and discussion. A democratic decision always involves many persons, discussions and meetings. This reduces the chances of rash or irresponsible decisions. Hence, democracy leads to better decisions than any non-democratic government.
(ii) Democracy provides peaceful solution to differences and conflicts. In democracy, no one is a permanent winner, or a permanent loser. Different groups can live with one another peacefully. In a diverse country like India, democracy keeps our country together and is able to deal with differences and conflicts satisfactorily.
(iii) In a democracy, the mistakes cannot be hidden for long. There is a space for public discussion on the mistakes. Either the rulers have to change their decisions or the rulers can be changed. Thus, mistakes can be corrected at any stage. Such corrections cannot be made in a non-democratic government.
(iv) Democracy enhances the dignity of the citizens. Both rich and poor enjoy similar political rights. There are no discriminatory policies on the basis of caste, creed, sex or class.
(v) Democracy provides a more accountable government. It responds to the needs of the people. The political party in power has to abide by the wishes of the people and thus it is more accountable form of government.
Q.32. Read the extract'and answer the questions that follows;
Nazi ideology was synonymous with Hitler's worldview. According to this there was no equality between people, but only a racial hierarchy. In this view blond, blue-eyed, Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while jews were located at the lowest rung. They came to be regarded as an anti-race, the arch-enemies of the Aryans. All other coloured people were placed in between depending upon their external features. Hitler's racism borrowed from thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer.
Darwin was a natural scientist who tried to explain the creation of plants and animals through the concept of evolution and natural selection. Herbert Spencer later added the idea of survival of the fittest. According to this idea, only those species survived on earth that could adapt themselves to changing climatic conditions. We should bear in mind that Darwin never advocated human intervention in what he thought was a purely natural process of selection. However, his ideas were used by racist thinkers and politicians to justify imperial rule over conquered peoples.
(a) What is the main point in Nazi ideology?
(b) What is the source of Hitler's inspiration for racism? :
(c) What is the similarity between the view of Hitler and natural scientists?
(a) Hitler’s worldview is known as Nazi ideology. According to it, there was no equality between people, but only a racial hierarchy in which Nordic German Aryans were at the top and Jews were located at the lowest place
(b) Natural scientists Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer’s view inspired Hitler to develop his racism. Darwin explained the creation of plants and animals through the concept of evolution and natural selection. Herbert spence gave the idea of the survival of the fittest, i.e. only those species survived on Earth that could adopt themselves to changing climatic conditions.
(c) Darwin never suggested that the purely natural process of selection was applicable to human beings. His ideas were used by Hitler to justify his imperial racist rule over conquered people. As such there is no similarity between the two.
Q.33. What are the major physiographic divisions of India? Explain.
Ans. Major physiographic divisions of India can be described as follows :
(i) The Himalayan Mountains The Himalayan mountains extend from the Indus to the Brahmaputra rivers. They have three parallel ranges : Himadri, Himachal and Shiwaliks. A number of valleys lie between rivers these ranges.
(ii) The Northern Plains These plains are formed by huge silt and alluvium deposited by the Himalayan rivers like the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra and their tributaries. It is agriculturally a very productive part of India.
(iii) The Peninsular Plateau This is the oldest division made of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks. It consists of the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.
(iv) The Indian Desert The Indian desert lies towards the Western margins of the Aravalli hills. This region receivesivery low rainfall and Luni is the only big river in this region.
(v) The Codstal Plains The Western coast lies between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is a narrow plain, it consists of three sections : Konkan, Kannad plain and Malabar coast. The Eastern coastal plains along the Bay of Bengal are wide and level. This consistsi of Northern Circar and Coromandel coast.
(vi) The Islands The island groups are the Lakshadweep Islands ip the Arabian Sea and Andaman and Nicobar islands ip the Bay of Bengal. These islands are very important for their rich flora and fauna variety. These islands lie close to equator and experience equatorial climate and have thick forest cover.
Q.34. Write a note on the universalisation of elementary education in India.
Which are the problems still being faced in India relating to poverty ? Why poverty reduction will make better progress in the next ten to fifteen years ?
Ans. (i) As a result of government policy, the primary school education expanded to over 5,00,000 villages but this huge expansion of schools lacked quality of schooling. There were high dropout rates.
(ii) In order to provide elementary education to all children in the age group of six to fourteen years by 2010, the government started “Sarva Siksha Abhiyan”.
‘Sarva Siksha Abhiyan’ is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all children in the age group of six to fourteen years by 2010. It is a time-bound initiative of the Central Government, in partnership with the states, the local Government and the community for achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education.
(iii) Besides “Sarva Siksha Abhiyan”, tho government took following steps :
(a) Introduction of bridge courses and back-to-school camps to increase the enrolment in elementary education.
(b) Mid-day meal scheme has been implemented to encourage attendance and retention of children and improve their nutritional status.
(a) Wide disparities in poverty are visible between rural and urban areas and among different states.
(b) Certain social and economic groups are more vulnerable to poverty.
(ii) Poverty reduction w ill make b etter progress in the next ten to fifteen years due to the following reasons :
(a) Higher economic growth.
(b) Increasing stress on universal free elementary education.
(c) Declining population growth.
(d) Increasing empowerment of the women and the economically weaker sections of society.
(Section - D)
Q.35. (a) Two items (i) and (ii) are shown in the given outline map of France. Identify these items with the help of following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map.
(i) The present capital of France
(ii) The port of France enriched due to slave trade
Ans. The answer map is given below :