(Section - A)
Q.1. What was the name of Russian Parliament ?
(c) People’s Congress
Ans. (d) Duma.
Q.2. Educated parents invest heavily on their children s education as
(a) they realise the importance of education.
(b) they want their children should be established.
(c) they want the money return back in big volume.
(d) Both a and b
Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b)
Q.3. ............. farmers hire labour to work in the fields.
............. has led to the reduction of the under ground water level in Palampur.
Medium and large
Excessive use of underground water for irrigating fields through tube wells
Q.4. In which country were threshing machines destroyed in the 19th century ?
Ans. (a) England.
Q.5. When was Napoleon defeated in Waterloo?
Ans. (a) 1815
Q.6. Which is the most labour absorbing sector of the economy?
What type of resource is wasted by unemployment ?
Ans. Primary sector is the most labour absorbing sectof of the economy.
Unemployment wastes human resources.
Q.7. The (i) __________ crashed in (ii) _________. This was beginning of the (iii) __________ depression.
Ans. (ii) Wall Street Exchange, (ii) 1929, (iii) Great Economic
Q.8. Correct the following statement and rewrite.
In urban areas average calories required per person per day is 3000 calories.
TT Krishnamachari was the Education Minister in the first Union Cabinet in India.
Ans. In urban a'eas average calories required per person per day is 2100 calories.
Abul Kalam Azad was the Education Minister in the first Union Cabinet in India.
Q.9. Name the river which is found in desert region of India.
Ans. (a) Luni
Q.10. Working age (________) is economically productive and biologically reproductive.
Ans. (15-59 years)
Q.11. Analyse the meaning of the word ‘Genocidal War'.
What did the term ‘Evacuation' mean in Hitler's Germany?
Ans. The term Genocidal War refers to the mass murder of a particular group of innocent civilians in Europe by Germany during the Second World War.
In Hitler’s Germany ‘Evacuation’ meant deporting people to gas chambers for mass killing.
Q.12. Out of these states, which state has the highest poverty ratio?
Ans. (c) Bihar
Q.13. Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories.
Q.14. The official policy of racial separation and ill treatment; of Blacks followed by the Government of South Africa between 1948 and 1989 is known as
Q.15. Study the picture and answer the question that follows.
Who are the persons standing behind the curtain?
(a) Members of the cabinet of ministers
(b) Ministerial aspirants
(c) Members of the Lok sabha
(d) Members of the Rajya Sabha
Ans. (b) Ministerial aspirants
Q.16. Who were Gypsy ?
Ans. The groups that were classified as ‘gypsy’ had their own community identity. Sinti and Roma were two such communities.
Q.17. Find the incorrect option.
(a) Duma is the Russian Parliament or Legislature,
(b) Duma's members were elected and made laws.
(c) It is the most important administrative body.
(d) It is a place of worship for the Russians.
Ans. (d) It is a place of worship for the Russians.
Q.18. Arrange the following Public Distribution System (PDS) programmes in chronological order based on the year of their launch:
(i) Annapurna Scheme (APS) for indigent Senior Citizens
(ii) Public Distribution System (PDS)
(iii) Revamped Public Distribution System (RPDS)
(iv) Targeted Public Distribution System (PDS)
(a) (ii), (i), (iv), (iii)
(b) (i), (ii), (iv), (iii)
(c) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
(d) (ii), (iii), (iv), (i)
Ans. (d) (ii), (iii), (iv), (i)
Q.19. Name the two houses of Indian Parliament.
Ans. Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
Q.20. It is the language, culture and religion of minorities that needs special protection. Otherwise they may get neglected or undermined under the impact of the language, religion and culture of the majority. That is why the constitution of India specifies this right of the minority.
This is known as
(a) Right to Equality
(b) Right to Freedom
(c) Cultural and Educational Rights
(d) Right to Constitutional Remedies
Ans. (c) Cultural and Educational Rights
(Section - B)
Q.21. What led to emergence of middle class in the eighteenth century in France ?
(a) The middle class emerged due to reasons as mentioned below :
(i) They earned their wealth through an expanding overseas trade.
(ii) They manufactured goods such as woolen and silk textiles that were exported or bought by richer member of society.
(b) These groups i.e., the third estate included professional such as lawyers who were educated. So they believed that no group in society should be privileged by birth. They believed in society based on freedom and equal laws, the ideas put forward by John Locke, Rousseau and Montesquieu. These ideas were discussed in public and this led to protest against the system of privileges.
Q.22. Read the sources given below and answer the questions! that follows
Source A : The Constituent Assembly
The Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian Constitution had 299 members. The Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949 But it came into effect on 26 January 1950. To mark this day we celebrate January 26 as Republic Day every year.
Source B: One Man One Vote
In politics we will have equality and in social and economic life we will have inequality. In politics we will be recognising the principle of one man one vote and one vote one value. In our social and economic life, we shall, by reason of our social and economic structure, continue to deny the principle of one man one value.
Source C : Political Democracy in Peril
How long shall we continue to live this life of contradictions?: How long shall we continue to deny equality in our social and economic life? If we continue to deny it for long, we will do so only by putting our political democracy in peril.
(a) What is the significance of 26th January 1950 in Indian democracy?
(Source A: The Constituent Assembly)
(b) What does it mean by 'one man one vote' and 'one vote: one value'?
(Source B: One Man One Vote)
(c) What is the most dangerous thing for political democracy?
(Source C: Political democracy in Peril)
Ans. (a) The significance of 26 January 1950 in Indian democracy is that on this day the Constitution of India came into effect. Therefore, Republic Day is celebrated every year on this day to mark the event,
(b) In our country, all the citizens aged 18 years and above can vote, regardless of their caste, religion and gender. Every vote has the same value. Thus, it is said that ‘cne man one vote’ and ‘one vote one value’,
(c) Our Constitution gives us Right to Equality as A Fundamental Right. But in reality we continue to deny equality in our social and economic life. This is the most dangerous thing for political democracy.
Q.23. Why are rivers considered as the lifelines of human civilisation? Explain by giving any three reasons.
Ans. Rivers are considered lifelines of human civilisation due to following reasons :
(i) Most of the ancient civilisations and cities have developed near the river banks as water was available for agriculture, domestic purposes and other needs.
(ii) Rivers are used as a means of transport. People take their merchandise to far away places and travel to different places through rivers,
(iii) Rivers provide hydel power that is essential to run many industries.
Q.24. Describe different types of lakes in India.
Ans. The lakes differ from each other in the size and other characteristics as given below :
(i) Permanent lakes.
(ii) Some contain water only during the rainy season, like the lakes in the basins of inland drainage of semi-arid regions e.g., Sambhar Lake.
(iii) Some of the lakes are the result of the action of glaciers and ice sheets.
(iv) Some lakes have been formed by wind, river action, and human activities.
(v) The damming of the rivers for the generation of hydel power has also led to the formation of lakes such as Guru Gobind Sagar (Bhakra Nangal Project).
(vi) Most of the fresh water lakes are in the Himalayan region. They are of glacial origin. They are formed when glaciers dug out a basin, which was later filled with snowmelt. The Wular lake, Dal lake, Bhimtal, Nainital, Loktak and Barapani are some important freshwater lakes. Wular lake is the result of the tectonic activity. It is the largest fresh water lake in India.
Q.25. Describe any three jurisdiction powers of the Supreme Court in India.
Ans. Three jurisdiction powers of the Supreme Court in India are as follows :
(i) Advisory Jurisdiction The Supreme Court can advise the President on any question of law of any matter of public importance.
(ii) Appellate Jurisdiction The power of Supreme Court is to hear, decide appeals against the judgement of lower courts,
(iii) Original Jurisdiction The original jurisdiction extends to all cases between the Government of India and the states of India or between Government of India and states on one side, and one or more states on another side.
Q.26. Differentiate market activities from non-market activities. Under which activity would you classify government service?
Explain the role of 'Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education.
Ans. Any activity which adds value to National Income is called ‘economic activity’. Economic activities can be classified into two types- market activities and non-market activities.
Difference between Market and Non-market activities are as follows:
Government service can be classified under market activities.
‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ is an Indian Government programme which makes education free and compulsory to children -of 6-14 years as a Fundamental Right, by the 86th Amendment of Indian Constitution. The role of ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, in achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education can be seen through the following points :
(i) Primary education expanded to over five lakh villages.
(ii) It is a time bound initiative of the Central Government in partnership with the states for achieving the goal.
(iii) By introducing bridge courses and back-to-sctiool campus, compulsory Mid-day Meal Scheme the government tried to increase the enrolment and attendance and improving the nutritional status of the children.
Q.27. What is the role of education in human capital formation ?
Ans. (i) Educated people earn more than the uneducated.
(ii) Literate population is an asset.
(iii) It leads to higher productivity.
(iv) It opens new horizon for the person.
(v) It provides new aspirations and develops values of life.
(vi) Education contributes towards the growth of society.
(vii) It enhances the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of governance.
(viii) The advantages of a more educated population spreads to those also who themselves are not directly educated.
Q.28. What do you understand by food security? What are the three dimensions of food security?
How food supply gets affected during a natural calamity?
Ans. Food is as essential for living as air is for breathing. Food security is;very necessary for us. It means having access to a sufficient quantity of affordable and nutritious food. Government's vigilance and action are needed when food security is threatened.
The three dimensions of food security are as follows:
(i) Availability it means food production within the country, food imports and the previous years stock in government granaries.
(ii) Accessibility It means food is within reach of every person.
(iii) Affordability it implies that an individual has enough money to bUy sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet his dietary needs.
Production of foodgrains decreases due to a natural calamity such as famines. This decreases food supply and increases food prices. Sometimes, the foodgrains are not able to reach the poorest people, i.e. accessibility is affected. The shortage of food results in a price increase. If it affects large areas, it can result in deaths due to starvation or even a famine. An example is the Bengal famine of 1943, in which more than 3 million people died. Therefore, natural calamities like famines, drought floods affect large number of people at one time.
(Section - C)
Q.29. Describe the policy in Nazi Germany towards women.
How did the common people react to Nazism ?
Ans. (i) The women who produced desirable childern were given favoured treatment in the hospitals.
(ii) They were entitled to concessions in shops and on threatre tickets and railway fares.
(iii) To encourage women to produce many children, Honour Crosses were awarded. A bronze cross was given for four childern, silver for six and gold for eight or more.
(iv) At the same time all ‘Aryan’ women who did not follow the prescribed code of conduct were publicly condemned, and severely punished. Those who maintained contact with Jews, Poles and Russians were paraded through the town with shaved heads, blackened faces and placards hanging around their necks announncing T have sullied the honour of the nation’. Many received jail sentences and lost civic honour as well as their husbands and families for this ‘criminal offence’.
There were different reactions to Nazism as given below :
(i) Many believed in Nazism. They saw the world through Nazi eyes, and spoke their mind in Nazi language. They felt hatred when they saw some one like a Jew. They genuinely believed Nazism would bring prosperity and improve general well-being.
(ii) Many organised active resistance to Nazism, braving police repression and death.
(iii) The large majority of Germans, however, were passive onlookers and apathetic witnesses. They were too scared to act, to differ, to protest. They preferred to look away. For example, Pastor Niemoeller, a resistance fighter, observed an absence of protest, an uncanny silence, amongst ordinary Germans in the face of brutal and organised crimes committed against people in the Nazi empire.
Q.30. How were the ideas of Darwin and Herbert Spencer adopted by Hitler or Nazis? Explain.
Ans. Hitler’s racism was borrowed and influenced from thinkers like Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Herbert Spencer (1820-1903). In 1859, Darwin published the book ‘Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection’ in which he proposed a theory of evolution by the process of natural selection. But he never advocated human intervention in what he thought was a purely natural process of selection. His ideas were used by racist politicians to justify imperial rule over conquered people.
Herbert Spencer was deeply influenced by Charles Darwin and gave :he idea of ‘Survival of the Fittest’ in his book, ‘Principles of Biology'. According to Spencer, only those species could survive on the Earth that could adapt themselves to changing climatic conditions. Adopting Spencer’s idea, the Nazi government suggested that the strongest race, i.e. Nordic German Aryans would survive and the weak ones would perish. In this way the ideas of Darwin and Herbert Spencer were adopted by the Hitler or Nazis.
Q.31. How the Dutch changed the natural landscape and village life of Java by the introduction of Scientific Forestry?
How did the Maasai community lose their grazing lands with the advent of colonial rule? Explain.
Ans. Dutch Scientific. Forestry changed the landscape of Java and its people in following ways:
(i) In the 19th century, the ‘Dutch enacted forest laws in Java, restricting villagers’ access to forests.
(ii) The wood could be cut only for specified purposes like making river boats or constructing houses from specific forests under close supervision.
(iii) Villagers were pun-shed for grazing cattle in new forests, for transporting wood without a permit or travelling on forest roads with horse carts or cattle.
(iv) The Dutch initially imposed rent on lands being cultivated in the forest and later on exempted those villages when the villagers provided free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber.
(v) Even later on, instead of rent exemption, the forest villagers to cultivate forest land, were given small wages.
European countries scrambled for possession of territories in Africa and sliced up the region into different colonies. In 1885, Maasai land was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika.
Subsequently, grazing lands were taken over for White settlement and the Maasais were pushed into a small area in South Kenya and North Tanganyika. The Maasais lost about 60% of their pre-colonial lands. Encouragement was given by the British Colonial Government in East Africa to peasant communities to expand cultivation.
As a result, pasture lands were converted into cultivated fields. Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves. They could neither hunt animals nor graze herds in these areas. Very often these reserves were in areas that had traditionally been regular grazing grounds for Maasai herds.
Q.32. Write any five features of the Preamble of the Constitution of India.
Describe the manner in which the Constituent Assembly worked.
Ans. The main features of the Preamble of the Constitution of India are as mentioned below :
(i) We, the People of India : The Constitution has been drawn up and enacted by the people through their representatives, and not handed down to them by a king or any outside powers.
(ii) Sovereign : People have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the Government of India.
(iii) Socialist : Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society. Government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities.
(iv) Secular : Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. But there is no official religion. Government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect.
(v) Democratic : A form of government where people enjoy equal political rights, elect their rulers and hold them accountable. The government is run according to some basic rules.
The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner as given below :
(i) Firstly, some basic principles were decided and agreed upon.
(ii) Then a Drafting Committee under the chairmanship of Dr B.R. Ambedker prepared a Draft Constitution for discussion.
(iii) Discussions were held on the Draft Constitution, clause by clause.
(iv) Amendments were proposed. More than two thousand amendments were considered.
(v) The members deliberated for 114 days during the period from December 1946 to November 1949.
(vi) Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded. It is known as ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’. These debates have been printed in 12 bulky volumes.
Q.33. Enumerate some measures that are taken to regulate election campaigns.
Ans. In a democracy, it is best to leave political parties and candidates free to conduct election campaign. But it is also necessary to regulate campaign to ensure that every political party and candidate gets a fair and equal chance to compete.
In our election law, certain regulations are implemented on campaign. According to these regulations, no party or candidate can:
(i) bribe or threaten voters in direct or indirect basis.
(ii) use any place of worship, or appeal to the voters in the name of religion or caste.
(iii) use government resources, government vehicles, aircrafts for elections.
(iv) spend more than Rs. 25 lakh in a constituency for a Lok Sabha election and Rs. 10 lakh in a constituency for an Assembly election.
(v) once elections are announced, no minister can lay foundation stones of any project or take any policy decision.
Q.34. What is necessity to conserve both flora and fauna for our survival?
Ans. India has a huge diversity in flora and fauna. It has about 47,000 plant species and approximately 90,000 species of animals. All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent and inter-related to each other and forming an ecosystem. We should conserve both because:
(i) Among flora, trees provide us wood to serve our various requirements, besides providing shelter from the hot summer.
(ii) Plants provide us food including cereals, vegetables and fruits
(iii) Many plaints, specially herbs are used for makings medicine.
(iv) Among fauna, milch animals provide us milk, Poultry animals provide us egg, meat, Fish and many sea animals provide us food articles.
(v) Insects help in pollination of crops and biologically control other harmful insects.
All these maintain a balanced ecosystem and thus should be conserved.
(Section - D)
Q.35. On the map of France three items (a), (b) and (c) are shown. Identify these places with the help of following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map :
(а) A port of France related to slave trade.
(b) Epic Centre of main movement.
(c) Capital of France.
Ans. (a) Bordeaux