Q. l. Which institution was responsible for the abolition of monarchy and declaration of France as a republic?
(a) National Convention
(b) National Assembly
(c) Estates General
Ans. (a) National Convention
Q 2. Identify the reason.
The Himalayan rivers have well-developed deltas as
(a) these rivers are perennial.
(b) they have long courses from their source to the sea.
(c) they perform intensive erosional activity in their upper courses and carry huge loads of silt and sand.
(d) in the middle and the lower courses, they form meanders, oxbow lakes, etc.
Ans. (c) They perform intensive erosional activity in their upper courses and carry huge loads of silt and sand.
Q 3. Study the picture and answer the question that follows:
Which Fundamental Right does this picture portray?
(a) Cultural and Educational Rights
(b) Right to Constitutional Remedies
(c) Right to Freedom
(d) Right to Equality
Q.4. How many days of employment is assured by NREGA to rural households in a year?
(a) 100 days
(b) 150 days
(c) 200 days
(d) 250 days
Ans. (a) 100 days
Q 5. Famous cooperative AMUL is located at
(b) Tamil Nadu
Q 6. ................is the most abundant factor of production.
The Green Revolution during the late 1960s and early 1970s are associated with the loss of ............. due to increased use of chemical fertilisers.
Q.7. Robert Owen was a leading manufacturer and he sought to build a cooperative community called __________ in Indiana (USA).
Ans. New Harmony
Q 8. Correct the following statement and rewrite.
The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up in 1806.
The Rationing System of India was introduced in the 1950s.
Ans. The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up in 1906,
The Rationing System of India was introduced in the 1940s.
Q 9. Study the picture and answer the Question that follows.
Who are the persons shown in this picture?
(a) French revolutionaries
(b) French peasants
(c) A sans-culottes couple
(d) Olympe de Gouges and her husband
Ans: A sans-culottes couple
Q. 10. ___________ is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population.
Ans. Sex Ratio
Q 11. Hitler justified the killing of Jews by using certain terms. What were they?
What is a synagogue?
Ans: Hitler justified the killing of jews by terms such as 'final solution’, 'special treatment' and ‘undesirable’. A synagogue is a place of worship for people of the Jewish faith.
Q 12. In the Second World Wap Axis Powers included Germany, Italy and
Q.13. Kaveri is the largest peninsular river in India.
Q 14. Samburu National Park is located at
Q 15. Sunita was going to Majuli for a short vacation. Hearing this the teacher said that Majuli has a geographic significance. What is the significance of Majuli?
Ans: Majuli lies in the Brahmaputra river and is the largest inhabited riverine island in the world.
Q.16. What is deforestation?
Ans. Deforestation is the disappearance of forests or felling of trees for various needs and reasons.
Q 17. Find the incorrect option.
A census is
(a) an official enumeration of population done periodically
(b) first held in India in 1910.
(c) held regularly every tenth year.
(d) a comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data.
Ans. (b) First held in India in 1910.
Q 18. Arrange the following Peninsular rivers in the order of their length from longest to shortest:
(a) (iii), (i), (iv), (ii)
(b) (i), (iii), (iv), (ii)
(c) (i), (ii), (iv), (iii)
(d) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
Q.19. Who elects the President of India?
Ans. The President of India is elected by an electoral college consisting of Members of Parliament (MPs) and Members of State Legislative Assemblies (MLAs).
Q 20. Farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try out the modern farming method in India. The farmers in these regions setup tubewells for irrigation and made use to HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers and pesticides in farming. Some of them bought farm machinery, use tractors and threshers, which made ploughing and harvesting faster. They were rewarded with high yields of wheat.
This situation depicts
(a) modem ways of farming
(b) new method of farming
(c) Green Revolution
(d) high production situation
(Section - B)
Q.21. Why did B British introduce wasteland rules? How did this affect the life of pastoralists?
Ans. (a) Causes:
(i) The colonial government wanted to transform all grazing lands into cultivated farm to increase land revenue.
(ii) The government aimed to raise production of jute, cotton and wheat etc., to meet the demand in England.
(iii) For the colonial government, the uncultivated land was not productive and was seen as wasteland.
(i) Lands were given to select individuals who were granted concessions and encouraged to settle these lands.
(ii) Decline in the pastures proved harmful for the pastoralists.
Q 22. What role did women of France of third estate play in French Revolution?
How did France become a constitutional monarchy?
Ans. Women of the third estate of France played a crucial role in the French Revolution in the following ways :
(i) During revolutionary years, women started their own political clubs and newspapers to express their opinion about the policies of the government.
(ii) Women set-up sixty women clubs in different cities in France. The most famous among them were The Society of Revolutionary’ and ‘Republican Women’. These were set up to pressurise the government.
(iii) They also demanded to enjoy the same political rights as men i.e. right to vote, to be elected to the assembly and to hold political office. This resulted in voting rights for women.
The National Assembly of France completed the draft of the Constitution in 1791. Its main aim was to curtail the powers of the monarch. The powers instead of being concentrated in the hands of the monarch were now separated and divided between the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary. The Constitution also declared that it was the duty of the state to protect each citizen’s natural rights. In this way, France became a constitutional monarchy.
Q 23. What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?
Explain with examples.
How is human resourced different from other resources like land and physical capital?
Ans: The differences between economic activities and non-economic activities are given below
Human resource is different from other resources due to the following reasons :
(i) Human resource is different from land and physical capital because only humans can use other resources.
(ii) Only human resource is the living, active and sensitive factor of production.
(iii) Only human resource can think, analyse and take decisions.
(iv) Human resource is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy.
(v) Human resource adds to the productive power of the country.
Q.24. What are the factors affecting the climate of India ?
Ans. (i) Latitude: The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country. So India has tropical as well as sub-tropical climates.
(ii) Altitude : The Himalayas prevents the cold winds from the Central Asia, so India has comparatively milder winter.
(iii) The vast coastal area affects the climate of coastal area.
(iv) The climate is governed by atmospheric conditions i.e., pressure and surface winds, upper air circulation, western cyclone disturbances and south-west monsoons.
Q 25. Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follow:
Source A: Apartheid System
The Apartheid System was particularly oppressive for the blacks. They were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit. Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools and public toilets were all separate for the whites and the blacks.
Source B: Struggle Against Apartheid
Since 1950, the blacks, coloured and Indians fought against the Apartheid System. They launched protest marches and; strikes. The African National Congress (ANC) was the umbrella organisation that led the struggle against the policies of segregation. This included many Worker's Unions and the Communist Party. Many sensitive whites also joined the ANC to oppose Apartheid and played a leading role in this struggle.
Source C: Towards a New Horizon
Several countries denounced Apartheid as unjust and racist. But, the white racist government continued to rule by detaining, torturing and killing thousands of black and coloured people. As protests and struggles against Apartheid had increased, the government realised that they could no longer keep the blacks under their rule through repression. The white regime changed its policies. Discriminatory laws were repealed. Ban on political parties and restrictions on the media were lifted. Nelson Mandala was freed and new national flag of South Africa was unfurled on 26th April 1994.
(a) How blacks were restricted in South Africa? (Source A : Apartheid. System)
(b) How did the Blacks fight against the Apartheid System? (Source B : Struggle Against Apartheid)
(c) How did South Africa get its independence? ( Source C : Towards a New Horizon)
(a) Blacks of South Africa were controlled by the Apartheid System. They were restricted to live in white areas and prohibited from the places and services enjoyed by tiewhtes.
(b) The African National Congress (ANC) became the umbrella organisation for the agitating blacks. Blacks opposed the policies of segregation and they were unitedly opposing this segregation policy. Even, many sensitive whites also joined the ANC to Oppose this racial segregation.
(c) Several countries declared Apartheid as unjust and 'acist policy and supported the struggle of people in South Africa. As struggles and protests increased, the government realised that they could no longer restrict blacks under their rule. Thus, they changed their policy. Nelson Mandala became a free person and South Africa becam a new Republic on 26th Apr 1,1994.
Q 26. “Poverty is a curse upon humanity.” Comment.
Ans: Poor people have to go through various human sufferings . No body would like to live in poverty. So, due to the following reasons, we can say that poverty is a curse upon humanity :
(i) Poverty leads to hunger and lack of shelter. Poor people live in unhygienic conditions and prone to diseases. They hardly have medical facilitie s and die of diseases in absence of timely and proper treatment.
(ii) Poor people are in a situation in which they are ill-treated at almost all places . Each time they are left with scars on their spirit of self-respect.
(iii) Poor parents are not able to send their children to school. This leaves them unaware of the opportunities in life.
Q.27. What is the role of education in human capital formation ?
Ans. (i) Educated people earn more than the uneducated.
(ii) Literate population is an asset.
(iii) It leads to higher productivity.
(iv) It opens new horizon for the person.
(v) It provides new aspirations and develops values of life.
(vi) Education contributes towards the growth of society.
(vii) It enhances the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of governance.
(viii) The advantages of a more educated population are enjoyed by those also who themselves are not directly educated.
Q 28. Which states are more food insecure in India?
Why is buffer stock created by the goverment?
Ans. The food insecure people are more disproportionately large in some regions of the country. The reasons behind this are-there are some economically backward states with high incidence of poverty, tribal or remote areas, regions more prone to natural disasters, etc. States like Uttar Pradesh (Eastern and South-Eastern parts), Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal , Chhattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra account for the largest number of food insecure people in the country. Both central and state governments have taken many programmes to solve this problem.
The Government creates buffer stock due to the following reasons:
(i) It is created, so that it can be distributed in food deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price much lower than the market price.
(ii) A buffer stock also helps to resolve the problem of food shortage during adverse weather conditions, a disaster or a calamity.
(iii) Maintaining buffer stock is a step taken by the government in order to ensure food security.
(Section - C)
Q.29. Describe the events from the Tennis Court Oath on 20 June 1789 to the abolition of feudal system of obligations and taxes on 4 August 1789.
Ans. The events took place as mentioned below :
(i) National Assembly remained busy in drafting the Constitution.
(ii) There was a severe winter and a bad harvest.
(iii) Prices rose. Bakers exploited the situation leading to increase in the sufferings of the people.
(iv) King ordered his troops to control the situation.
(iv) People were agitated and they attacked and destroyed the Bastille - The fortress prison.
(vi) Nobles fled from their homes for safety.
(vii) As a result of this situation Louis XVI recognised National Assembly and accepted powers as per Constitution.
Describe the various restrictions imposed on the pastoral groups in Africa from the late 19th century.
Ans. The following restrictions were imposed on the pastoral groups:
(i) To live within the confines of special reserves.
(ii) Not allowed to move out with their stock without special permits.
(iii) Severe punishments in case of disobedience.
(iv) Not allowed to enter the markets in white areas.
(v) Prohibited from participating in any form of trade.
(vi) White settlers and European colonists saw pastoralists as dangerous and savage — people with whom all contact had to be minimised. Cutting off all finks was, however, never really possible, because white colonists had to depend on black labour to bore mines, and build roads and towns.
Q 30. "India is said to enjoy a strategic position with reference to the International Trade Route." Explain the statement highlighting India's strategic advantage.
"The Indian landmass shows a great physical contrast.” Justify the statement.
Ans. India is said to be enjoying a strategic position with reference, to the International Trade Route, because India occupies a very important and unique position on the globe. It enjoys a unique proximity with Europe, Africa and Australia. The Indian landmass has a central location between East and West Asia. India is Southward extension of Asia. Thus, it forms the South-Central Peninsula of world’s largest continent.
The Deccan Peninsula, India’s Southward extension, has span to Indian Ocean and divides it into two seas i.e. the Arabian Sea on thelWest and the Bay of Bengal on its East.
The Deccan Peninsula helps India to establish easy contact with West Asia, East Africa and Europe from Western coast and also establishes contacts with South-East Asia, East Asia and Australia from Eastern coast. India has the longest coastline in Indian Ocean. These geographical features provide India a significant edge in International trade. Keeping in view about the advantageous and unique position of India on the Earth, we can say that India does have an advantage in a strategic field.
The land of India displays a great physical variation. This can be explained in the following ways:
(i) India’s landmass has great contrasts, as the Peninsular plateau in tie South is a very old landmass (65 million years), whereas the Himalayas in the North are fairly new (about 25 million years).
(ii) Tectonically, the Himalayas ;and the Northern plains are unstable zones, whereas the Peninsular plateau is very stable.
(iii) Over millions of years, weathering forces have made the contrast sharper. While the Himalayas are composed of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks and the Northern plains are made of deposited alluvium, the Peninsular piateau is made up of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
(iv) The Himalayas have high peaks, deep valleys and fast flowing rivers, whereas the Deccan region has gently rising ranges and wide valleys.
Thus, the Indian landmass shows a great physical contrast.
Q31. Define burst of monsoon. Give an account of the climatic conditions of the cold weather season in India.
Why is the distribution of rainfall in India not uniform?
Ans: The sucjden and continuous rain associated with violent thunder and lightning is called burst of monsoon. It occurs around the time of arrival of monsoon.
The cltmiatic conditions of the cold weather season are as follows :
(i) Cold weather season prevails from November to February and the temperature decreases from South to North!
(ii) Days are warm and nights are cold.
(iii) The North-East trace winds prevail over the country. These winds cause some amount of rainfall on the Tamil Nadu coast.
(iv) The weather is marked by clear sky, low temperatures and low humidity and feeble, variable winds.
(v) Low pressure systems originates over the Mediterranean sea and move into India, alongwith the Westerly low. They cause the much needed winter rains over :he plains and snowfall in the mountains.
The distribution of rainfall in India is not uniform. The main reasons are as follows :
(i) Relief - Relief factors, i.e. high mountains and hills act as a barrier to rain bearing winds. When such winds collide with the high mountains, they cause rainfall on the windward wide. The leeward side on the other hand remains drier. For example, due to Western Ghats, the Western Coastal Plains get heavy rainfal.
(ii) Distance from the Sea - As the distance from the sea increases, the moisture content of the wind decreases. So, the interior of landmass are much drier than those in coastal region.
(iii) Direction of Wind - The regions lying in the direction of flow of w-nd are rainier than those not lying on its direction. For example, Tamil Nadu coast which lies parallel to the Bay of Bengal branch does not get rainfall from South-West monsoon.
Q.33. In which field, do you think India can build the maximum employment opportunity ?
Ans. In 1999-2000, the percentage of persons engaged in various sectors was as follows : (i) Primary sector : 60%.
(ii) Secondary sector : 17%.
(iii) Tertiary sector : 23%.
(a) There is no further scope for employment in the primary sector as there is already disguised unemployment.
(b) Thus, India should look to build the maximum employment opportunities in the manufacturing and services sectors. It is the small scale manufacturing units and the service industry like travel, tourism, health, education and communication etc, that need to be encouraged and facilitated to generate employment.
(c) The IT sector has been sunshine sector for quite some time now. It is hoped that the Indian IT work force will touch 30 million by 2020 becoming the highest sector employer. (d) The health sector is expected to create oyer 40 million new jobs by 2020.
Why are rivers important for the country’s economy ?
Ans. The rivers are important for the country’s economy as mentioned below:
(i) Rivers have been of fundamental importance throughout the human history.
(ii) Water from the rivers is a basic natural resource, essential for various human activities.
(iii) Therefore, the river banks have attracted settlers from ancient times.
(iv) These settlements have now become big cities e.g., Delhi, Banaras and Kashi.
(v) Using rivers for irrigation, navigation, hydro-power generation is of special significance— particularly to a country like India, where agriculture is the major source of livelihood of the majority of its population.
(vi) The estuaries where the sweet water mixes with the salt water of the ocean, are one of the most biologically productive areas of the world. Rivers also serve as arteries of commerce.
(Section - D)
Q.35. On the given political outline map of the world three places (a), (b) and (c) have been shown. Identify these places with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map :
(а) A state where revolution took place in 1789.
(b) A state which defeated Napoleon.
(c) An allied power.