SECTION - A
Q.1. Why did Louis XVI called for an assembly of the Estates General on 5 May 1789?
(a) To pass a new constitution.
(b) To elect a new convention.
(c) To pass proposals for new taxes.
(d) To get permission to collect taxes.
Ans. (c) To pass proposals for new taxes.
Q.2. Identify the appropriate reason for the historical blunder of Hitler.
(a) Attacking Soviet Union
(b) Attacking the Great Britain
(c) Attacking the USA
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) Attacking Soviet Union
Q.3. Countries such as Japan have become developed nations by investing on people, especially in the field of their .............
In the ........... sector there is an absence of basic facilities for women such as maternity leave, childcare and other social security systems.
Ans. Education and health
Q.4. Which of the following slogans was given by the Left Front in West Bengal Assembly Election in 1977?
(a) Land to the Tiller
(b) Garibi Hatao
(c) Save Democracy
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) Land to the Tiller.
Q.5. Dimension of food security is
(a) availability of food
(b) accessibility of food
(c) affordability of food
(d) All of these
Ans. (d) All of these
Q.6. What is fixed capital?
Ans. Tools, machines and buildings, which can be used in production over many years, are called fixed capital.
Q.7. Most of the Himalayan rivers are________.
Q.8. Correct the statement and rewrite it.
Cross Street Exchange is the world's biggest stock exchange located in the USA.
Fair price is the price at which the government offers to sell food grains at subsidised rates.
Ans. Wall Street Exchange is the world’s biggest stock exchange located in the USA.
Issue price is the price at which the government offers to sel! food grains at subsidised rates.
Q.9. FCI stands for
(a) Food Company of India
(b) Food Corporation of India
(c) Food Campuses in India
(d) Food Commission of India
Ans. (b) Food Corporation of India
Q.10. The use of groundwater for (i) ________ has led to the depletion of the (ii) _______ .
Ans. (i) tubewell irrigation, (ii) water table
Q.11. Which form of government requires the participation of all citizens?
What is direct democracy?
Ans. Democracy is the form of government which requires the participation of citizens.
Direct democracy is a from of government in which people directly participate in the affairs of the state.
Q.12. More than required people employed for a particular job is known as
(a) Disguised unemployment
(b) Seasonal unemployment
(c) Optional unemployment
(d) Alternative unemployment
Ans. (a) Disguised unemployment
Q.13. Southeast trade winds originating over the warm subtropical areas of the southern oceans account for rainfall along the Malabar coast.
Q.14. To colonial officials, all uncultivated local appeared to be .......
Q.15. Study the picture and answer the question that follows.
What does this picture symbolise?
(a) India as a land cf opportunities
(b) South Africa as a 'rainbow nation'
(c) Unity in diversity
(d) Freedom for all
Ans. (b) South Africa as a 'rainbow nation’
Q.16. State any one drawback of the Weimar Republic.
Ans. The system of proportional representation made achieving majority by any one party a near impossible task, leading to a rule by coalitions.
Q.17. Public distribution system was revamped in
Ans. (c) 1992
Q.18. Arrange the following mountain ranges in the order of their location from West to East:
(i) Aravali mountain range
(ii) Gir mountain range
(iii) Khasi Hills
(iv) Patkai Bum mountain range
(a) (iv), (ii), (i), (iii)
(b) (i), (iii), (iv), (ii)
(c) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
(d) (ii), (i), (iii), (iv)
Ans. (d) (ii), (i), (iii), (iv)
Q.19. What is NREGA?
Ans. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.
Q.20. The White Europeans imposed this system in South Africa. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the trading companies from Europe occupied it with arm force, in the way they occupied India. But unlike India, a large number of whites had settled in South Africa and became tine local rulers.
Name the system which is discussed here.
(b) Segregation of Society
Ans. (a) Apartheid
SECTION - B
Q.21. Describe the circumstances/events that led to the Tennis Court Oath.
Ans. The circumstances/events that led to the Tennis Court Oath were as given below:
(i) On 5 May 1789 Louis XVI called together an assembly of the Estates General to pass proposals for new taxes.
(ii) The voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote.
(iii) This time the members of the third estate demanded that the voting be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote. This demand was, however, rejected by the king. Therefore, the representatives of the third estate walked out of the assembly in protest. They considered themselves to be the spokesmen for all the people. They assembled in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles. They declared themselves a National Assembly. They took an oath not to disperse till they had drafted a constitution for France limiting the powers of the monarch. Their leaders were Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes. It is known as the Tennis Court Oath.
Q.22. In which region are the tropical thorny forests and scrub forests found in India? Mention any two characteristics of such type of vegetation.
What do you understand by medicinal plants? Write about three medicinal plants.
Ans. Thorny forests and scrub forests are found in the North-Western part of India including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana,
Characteristics of thorny and scrub forests are as follows:
(i) Trees are scattered and have long roots penetrating deep into the soil to get moisture. Stems are succulent to conserve water.
(ii) A few animals can survive in these type of forests as they adapt themselves to the environment, e.g. rat, mice, rabbit, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horse and camel.
Medicinal plants are used for making medicines from ancient times. India is known for its herbs and spices. Some 2000 plants have been described and atleast 500 are in regular use. The commonly used plants are as follows:
(i) Neem It has high anti-biotic and anti-bacterial property, is used in soap, creams, etc.
(ii) Tulsi It is largely used to cure cough and cold, many cough syrup used it as main ingredient.
(iii) Sarpagandha It is only found in India and is used to treat blood pressure.
Q.23. Why do all the countries in the world not have the same poverty lines? State some suitable reasons.
(i) What are the different methods to estimate poverty line?
(ii) Who conducts the sample surveys to estimate poverty line?
Ans. All the countries in the world do not have the same poverty line due to the following reasons:
(i) Different countries have different poverty lines because the cost of living varies from country to country.
(ii) In some countries, the income required to live a decent life (above poverty line) is fower/higher than the income required to live a decent life in another country.
(iii) The price of commodities and the cost incurred for accessing health and education facilities are different in different countries.
(a) The two common methods to measure poverty line are:
(i) Consumption Method Determining the poverty line in India is based on the desired calorie requirement. The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas.
(ii) income Method For the year 2012, the poverty line for a person was fixed at 816 per month for the rural areas and 1000 for the urban areas.
(b) National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) conducts sample surveys to estimate poverty lines.
Q.24. Describe the groups of islands of India.
Ans. (a) India has two Groups of islands i.e., Lakshadweep islands arid Andaman and Nicobar islands
(b) (1) The Lakshadweep Islands group lies close to the Malabar coast of Kerala. This group of islands is composed of small coral islands.
(2) Earlier they were known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive. In 1973, these were named as Lakshadweep.
(3) It covers small area of 32 sq. km. Kavaratti Island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep.
(4) This island group has great diversity of flora and fauna.
(5) The Pitli island, which is uninhabited, has a bird sanctuary.
(c) Andaman and Nicobar Islands:
(1) The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the elongated chain of islands. These are located in the Bay of Bengal extending from north to south.
(2) They are bigger in size and are more numerous and scattered.
(3) The entire group of islands is divided into two broad categories - The Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south.
(4) It is believed that these islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains.
(5) These island groups are of great strategic importance for the country,
(6) There is great diversity of flora and fauna in this group of islands too.
Q.25. “The guillotine was used to follow a policy of Reign to Terror." Comment.
Why did subsistence crisis arise in France during the old regimes?
Ans. The guillotine was a device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person was be-headed. It was used by Robespierre, who followed a policy of ‘Reign to Terror’ (1793-94) i.e. of severe control and punishment in France. Those who did not agree with his methods were arrested, imprisoned and then tried by a revolutionary tribunal, h the court found them guilty, they were guillotined. It was named after Dr. Guillotin who invented it. Finally, Robespierre himself was guillotined in July 1794 after convicted by a court.
During the old regime in France, subsistence crisis arose, it can be defined as an extreme situation where the basic means of livelihood are endangered. The causes led to the subsistence crisis are as follows:
(i) The population of France had increased from about 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789. The growing pooulation led to arapic increase in the demand for foodgrains. But, the production of grains could not keep pace with tne demand,
(ii) Most worke's got fixed wages which did not keep pace with the rising prices of objects of daily use, So, the gap between the poor and the rich increased.
(iii) Things became worse whenever drought or hail reduced the harvest, causing food shortage,
Q.26. What do you understand by people as a resource?
Which capital is the best capital-land, labour, physical capital or human capital?
Ans. People as resource is a way of referring to a country’s working people in terms of their existing production skills and abilities. Human resource is considered.superiorto any other resource due to the following reasons:
(i) Only human resource can think, analyse and take decisions. It is living, active and sensitive factor of production.
(ii) Human resource adds to productive power of a country. Population of a country helps to increase its country's Gross National Product by producing goods and services.
(iii) When existing human resource is developed by becoming more educated and healthy, we call it human capital fo'mation which adds to the productive power cf a country.
Land, labour, physical capital and human capital are very important for the growth and development of the society and the economy. In the absence of any of these resources, we cannot hope to have much progress, thus they all are important.
However, human capital is the most important capital, because ail other types of capita! can be utilised only by hurrans. if humans do not develop and process other caoital or resources and make them usable, they would remain unutilised, because on their own, they are useless and of no use to anybody. If we deve op human capital, all others will automatically develop and lead to progress.
Q.27. Do you think that the present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate?
Ans. The present methodology of poverty estimation is not appropriate due to the reasons as mentioned below:
(i) It takes into consideration only the minimum level of food requirement and other things.
(ii) It is about minimum subsistence level of living rather than a “reasonable level of living.”
(iii) Social scientists are of the view that poverty should be looked upon through indicators such as illiteracy level, lack of general resistance due to malnutrition, lack of access to healthcare, lack of job opportunities, lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation.
(iv) Social exclusion and vulnerability should also be considered in assessing poverty.
Q.28. What steps can be taken to start the non-farm production activities in the villages?
Ans. To encourage non-farm activities in villages the following steps can be taken:
(i) Banks should provide loans at low interest rates so that the poor villagers can start some business to earn their living.
(ii) Government should be more active and start effective employment generating schemes. Government should provide training to the villagers in different small crafts.
(iii) Government should provide facilities for transportation and selling of locally manufactured goods of the villagers in the cities. Industries can be setup in rural areas.
SECTION - C
Q.29. Write a note on slavery in the French colonies.
Describe the role of women during French Revolution.
Ans. (i) Need for slaves: The French colonies in the Caribbean - Martinique, Guadeloupe and San Domingo - grew tobbacco, indigo, sugar and coffee. These plantation crops need a large number of labourers. The Europeans, however, were reluctant to go and work in these distant and unfamiliar lands. So the shortage of labour was met by a triangluar slave trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas.
(ii) How the slaves were brought into colonies?: The French merchants bought slaves from local chieftains on the African coast. They were branded and shackled and sent to the Caribbean where these slaves were sold to the plantation owners.
(iii) Advantage of slaves: The slave labour made it possible to meet the growing demand in European markets for tobacco, sugar, coffee and indigo. Port cities like Bordeaux and Nantes became prosperous due to the flourishing slave trade.
(iv) Abolition of slavery: (a) National Assem bly held debates on slavery but could not abolish it fearing opposition from businessmen whose incomes depended on the slave trade.
(b) In 1794, National Convention freed all slaves in the French overseas possessions.
(c) Napoleon reintroduced slavery.
(d) Finally in 1848 slavery was abolished in French colonies.
(a) Condition at the start of the revolution: (i) The women of third estate- had to work for a living.
(ii) They did not have access to education.
(iii) Wages were low. So overall condition was not good.
(i) Same political rights as of men.
(ii) Right to vote and to be elected.
(c) Revolutionary government took the steps as mentioned below:
(i) State schools were established.
(ii) Schooling was made compulsory for all girls.
(iii) They could not be forced to marry against their will.
(iv) Marriage was made into a contract entered into freely and registered under civil law.
(v) Divorce was made legal, and could be applied for both by women and men.
(vi) The right to vote was granted in 1946 after a long struggle of about two hundred years.
Q.30. How can you say that Palainpur is a well-developed village? Explain in detail.
“Green Revolution is associated with loss of soil fertility." Justify.
Ans. Palampur is well-connected with neighbouring villages and towns. Raiganj a big village, is 3 km from Palampur. An all weather road connects the village to Raiganj and further to nearest town of Shahpur. Different modes of transportation can be seen on the village roads starting from bullockcarts, tangas, bogeys loaded with jaggery, wheat and other commodities to vehicles like motorcycles, jeeps, tractors and trucks. It is possible that the opportunities or non-farm activities in the village will increase in the future. The village has around 450 families.
The 80 upper caste families have their houses made of bricks and cement plastering. Most of the houses have electric connection. Electricity powers all the tubewells in the fields and is used in various types cf small businesses. Palampur has two primary schools and one high school. There is a primary health centre run by government and one priva:e dispensary where the sicks are treated.
The description above shows that Palampur has fairly well-developed system of road, transport, electricity, irrigation, schools and health centres. Sc, we can say that Palampur is a well-developed village.
The Green Revolution in the late 1960s introduced the Indian farmer to cultivate wheat and rice by using High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of seeds. But, this revolution is associated with the loss of soil fertility. The reasons behind this condition is discussed below:
(i) High Yeilding Varieties of Seeds (HYVs) needs plenty of water, chemical fertilisers and pesticides to produce best results.
(ii) Continuous use of groundwater for tubewel! irrigation has reduced the waterlevel below the ground.
(iii) Pesticides and insecticides pollute surface water as well as air.
(iv) Chemical fertilisers can kill oacteria and other organisms in the soil. This means sometime after their use, the soil will become less fertile than ever before. The over use of land and chemical has created problems of severe pollution.
Q.31. Mention any five factors responsible for the failure of provisional government which was formed after Russian Revolution.
Ans. In March 1917, Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed provisional government to run the country. Lenin and Bolshevik party thought that this was not the time for Socialist Revolution and the provisional government needed to be supported.
The five factors which were responsible for the failure'of provisional government are given below:
(i) Bolshevik influence grew and the provisional government saw its power reduced. So, it decided to take stern measures against the spreading discontent.
(ii) Peasants and their socialist leader wanted a redistribution of land which couid not be fulfilled by the government.
(iii) This government could not succeed to control over industry by the workers. But, it resisted attempts by workers to run factories.
(iv) This government began arresting the leaders and the popular demonstrations staged by the Bolsheviks were repressed.
(v) The failure of the equal distrbution of the land resources was a great cause of resentment among the peasants.
Q.32. Explain how the scope of rights has been expanded in recent times.
What are the basic features of rule of law and respect for rights?
Ans. The scope of rights has been expanded in the following ways:
(i) The court judgments have expanded the scope e.g., the Supreme Court has expanded the right to life to include the right to food also.
(ii) The Parliament has enacted a law giving the Right to Information.
(iii) International covenants have recognised some rights such as Right to Work and Healthy Working Conditions.
(iv) Constitution of South Africa has granted some new rights e.g., Right to Privacy, Right to an Environment that is not harmful to health of the people.
The basic features of rule of law and respect for rights are as mentioned below:
(i) People should be allowed to have normal political activity.
(ii) The state should respect some basic rights of the citizen.
(iii) People should be equal in the eyes of law. There should be no discrimination.
(iv) The state should grant certain rights such as freedom of expression, to form associations to all citizens. These rights should be protected by an independent judiciary.
(v) In addition to this, the goverment should grant some guarantees to the minorities. Thus, a democratic government should rule within limits set by the constitutional law and citizens’ rights.
Q.33. Distinguish between Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.
Ans. The'Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats mark the Western and the Eastern edges of the Deccan plateau, respectively.
The differences between Western and Eastern Ghats are stated below:
|The Western Ghats||The Eastern Ghats|
|The Western Ghats form the Western arm of the Peninsular plateau.||The Eastern Ghats lie parallel to the Eastern coast and form the Eastern side of the Peninsular plateau.|
|These Ghats are regular and comparatively higher in elevation than the Eastern Ghats. Their average elevation is 900-1600 metres. Advancing towards the South, their elevation goes on increasing. No major river has cut across them.|
The Eastern Ghats are comparatively denuded, resulting in low elevation. Their average elevation is 600 metres. They are broken at places by the flowing of numerous rivers towards the East.
|The Western Ghats face the Arabian Sea and cause heavy rainfall in the West Coastal Plain.||The Eastern Ghats face the Bay of Bengal and do not cause much rainfall.|
|These ghats are in the form of continuous ranges and they lie parallel to the Western coast along the Arabian sea.||These Ghats are in rather discontinuous form and they lie parallel to the Eastern coast along the Bay of Bengal.|
|The onset of monsoon is experienced by the Western Ghats.||The Eastern Ghats experience the retreating monsoon in the month of October-November.|
Q.34. "Scientific Forestry practised by Dutch brought many miseries for the villagers in Java." Analyse the important features of Scientific Forestry regarding the statement.
Ans. The Dutch enacted forest laws in Java in the 19th century, restricting villagers access to forests. The features of Scientific Forestry practised by the Dutch were as follows:
(i) Wood could only be cut for specified purposes like making boats or constructing houses under close supervision.
(ii) Villagers were punished for grazing cattle in the forest.
(iii) Transporting wood without a permit or travelling on forest roads with horsecarts or cattle was also not allowed.
(iv) Initially, rents were imposed on land being cultivated in the forest. Then some villages were exempted from rent if they worked collectively to provide free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. This was known as the ‘Blandongdiensten’ system,
(v) Later, instead of rent exemption, forest villagers were given small wages, but their right to cultivate forest land was restricted.
SECTION - C
Q.35. On the given political outline map of the world three places (a), (b) and (c) have been shown. Identify these places with the help of the following in formation and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map: