Section - A
Q.1. Match the following items given in Column I with those in Column II.
Ans. (A)-3, (B)-4, (C)-1, (D)-2
Q.2. Study the picture and answer the question that follows.
What is this picture depicting?
(a) A scene from the Paris Commune of 1871
(b) Unemployed peasants in St Petersburg
(c) Homeless persons during the Great Depression
(d) The poor people of London in 1861
Q.3. How many days of employment is ensured by MGNREGA ?
(a) 100 days
(b) 150 days
(c) 200 days
(d) None of the above
Q.4. When was National Rural Employment Gurantee Act (NREGA) passed ?
Ans. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) was passed in September 2005.
Q.5. Name the states which were the first to try out the modern farming methods in India.
Ans. Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try out modern farming methods in India.
Q.6. The _______ community lost their grazing lands as in 1885, Maasailand was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika.
Q.7. What is Standard Meridian ?
Name any two states through which Tropic of Cancer passes.
Ans. Standard meridian is the longitude which passes through a country/region and is used to fix the standard time for that country/region.
Two states through which Tropic of Cancer passes are Gujarat and Rajasthan.
Q.8. Monsoon winds change their direction. Justify.
Which sea is responsible for the Western cyclonic disturbances in winter?
Ans. Due to unequal heating and cooling of land and ocean surface, monsoon winds change their direction.
Q.9. __________ is related to localised thunderstorms.
Ans. Kaal Baisakhi.
Q.10. The Lok Sabha exercises the power of passing...........
Lok Sabha exercises more power on .............. matter during the joint session and final decision is taken by Lok Sabha because of its large number of members.
Ans. No Confidence Motion
Q.11. With which soil are the Northern plains of India formed?
Q.12. The main cause of collectivisation programme was not the small holdings of land.
Q.13. Which of the following statement defines Virgin Vegetation ?
(a) A plant community which has grown naturally without human aid.
(b) It has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time.
(c) It refers to rare quality of plants.
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Q.14. For Lok Sabha election, the country is divided into......... constituencies.
In India, every adult citizen has the right to vote regardless of his or her ..............
Ans. 543 On caste, religion or gender
Q.15. Mawsynram is the wettest place on the earth.
Q.16. A measure to value the total final production in a country in a given year is known as ......
When less number of employed people are supporting more number of unemployed people then there will be a condition which is known as ........
Ans. Gross Domestic Product
Q.17. Find the incorrect option:
(a) The right to reside in any part of the country comes under the Right to Equality,
(b) The right to assemble in a peaceful manner comes under the Right to Freedom.
(c) The right to propagate your own religion comes under the Right to Freedom of Religion.
(d) The right to approach the Supreme Court or a High Court for enforcement of a Fundamental Right comes under the Right to Constitutional Remedies.
Q.18. Why was Hitler interested in acquiring new territories ?
Ans. He believed that new territories had to be acquired for settlement of Germans. This would enhance the area of the mother country.
Q.19. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option.
Assertion (A) Young generation prefer the vocational training.
Reason (R) Vocational education provides skill based education which leads to ready employment.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.
Q.20. The natural increase of population is the difference between birth rates and death rates. Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. Till 1980, high birth rates and declining death rates led to a large difference between birth rates and death rates resulting in higher rates of population growth. Since 1981, birth rates have also started declining gradually, resulting in a gradual decline in the rate of population growth.
Analyse the information given above and consider one of the following as the correct option:
(a) Population growth
(b) Birth and death rates
(c) Processes of population change
(d) Population distribution
Ans. (c) Processes of population change
Section - B
Q.21. Write three important features of Aravalli hills.
Write any three important features of Indian desert.
Ans. The three important features of Aravalli hills are as follows :
(i) The Aravalli hills lie on the Western and the North-Western margin of the Peninsular plateau.
(ii) These are highly eroded and broken hills and lie in the Northward direction of the Satpura range.
(iii) These are extended from Gujarat to Delhi in South-West-North-East direction.
Three important features of Indian desert are as follows :
(i) It is an undulating sandy plain covered with sand dunes.
(ii) It receives very low rainfall, below 150 mm per year.
(iii) It has arid climate with low vegetation cover.
Q.22. Why does unemployment have a negative effect on the economic development of a country? Give reasons.
Enumerate three features of the National Health Policy, 2002.
Ans. Unemployment has a negative effect on the economic development of a country because :
(i) It is a wastage of human and natural resource as employed people could have increased the productivity of other resources too.
(ii) It increases the number of dependent population and thereby increases the economic overload.
(iii) People cannot support their families or give proper nutrition, education and healthcare to the family. They cannot contribute anything to the national income of the country and per capita income becomes less. The time lost in unemployment creates an adverse effect on the personality o' a person.
Health of the population of a country is a significant factor to determine :he economy of the country. The good health of a person enables him to realise his full potential and the ability to fight illness. On the other hand, an unhealthy person becomes a liability for the economy. Our National Health Policy of 2002 has taken some important measures.
These are as follows :
(i) It improves the access to healthcare, particularly for rural people.
(ii) It focuses on family welfare.
(iii) It provides nutritional services, particularly for the underprivileged sections of the society
Q.23. Why does the rain fall decrease from the east to the west in northern India ?
Ans. The maximum rainfall of the monsoon is received in the north-eastern part of the country. Mawsynram in the southern ranges of the Khasi Hills receives the highest average rainfall in the world. Rainfall in the Ganga valley decreases from the east to the west. Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat get scanty rainfall. The reason for this is that the monsoon winds strike the eastern part of the country first and then move towards the west. While they move towards the west, their moisture content tends to reduce with subsequent rains. Hence the rainfall decreases from east to west in northern India.
Q.24. What is Apartheid? Describe the efforts made by the people of South Africa to struggle against the Apartheid System.
Ans. Apartheid was the name of a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa, which was imposed by the White Europeans on the Blacks. Efforts made by the people of South Africa to struggle against the Apartheid System were as follows :
(i) Since 1950, the Blacks and Indians fought against the Apartheid System. They launched protests, marches and strikes.
(ii) The African National Congress (ANC) led the struggle against this policy of segregation. Many workers’ unions and the Communist Party joined this movement.
(iii) Many sensitive Wnites also joined the ANC and played a leading role in this movement.
Q.25. Why did the Kerenskii Government become unpopular in Russia?
Enumerate three main effects of the First World War on the Russian economy
Ans. The Kerenskii Government became unpopular in Russia due to the following reasons :
(i) The winter of 1917 was veyr cold as there had been exceptional frost and heavy snow. Conditions in the capital Petrograd were grim. The government failed to provide food and its shortage was deeply felt in the workers quarters.
(ii) During the First World War, Russian casualties by 1917 had risen to over 7 million. As the Russian army retreated, they destroyec crops and buildings to prevent the enemy from being able to live off the land. This destruction led to over 3 million refugees in Russia. The situation discredited the government and the ruling Tsar. Soldier did not wish to fight the war.
(iii) Peasants demanded redistribution of land, workers demanded control over industries and the demand of equal status by non-Russian nationalities were not met by the Kerenskii Government.
The main effects to the First World War on the Russian economy are as follows
(i) Russia had few industries and the country was cut off from other supplies of industrial goods by German control of the Baltic sea.
(ii) Industrial equipment disintegrated more rapidly in Russia than elsewhere in Europe. By 1916, railway lines began to break down.
(iii) Able-bodied men were sent to fight the war. Thus, there were labour Shortages and small workshops producing essentials were shut down.
(iv) Large supplies of grain were sent to feed the army. By winter of 1916, riots at bread shops became a common picture.
Q.26. What are the conditions of a democratic election ?
Ans. Elections are held in non-democratic countries like Pakistan and China also. Such elections, however, cannot be called democratic. There are certain conditions which make an election democratic. These are as mentioned below :
(i) Everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value.
(ii) Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections and should offer some real choice to the voters.
(iii) Elections must be held regularly after every few years.
(iv) The candidate preferred by the people should get elected.
(v) Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner.
The above are simple and easy conditions. But there are many countries where these are not fulfilled like China.
Q.27. Analyse the circumstances which compelled the government to start targeted anti-poverty programmes? Mention the names of any two such programmes.
Ans. A large number of poor people are employed in agricultural sector. Since, they are not able to take advantage from the opportunities created for them, the growth in the agricultural sector is much below than exoectations. Apart from agriculture, there is very little scope for jobs in other sectors in rural areas. In urban aras also, people do not get adequate employment and face seasonal unempoyment due to which there is poverty in urban areas also. Such circumstances compelled the government to start targeted anti-poverty programmes.
Two such programmes are as follows :
(i) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005
(ii) National Employment Guarantee Funds
Q.28. Why are some governments not protecting or even attacking the rights of their own citizens? Explain with examples.
We know that the rich can have better lawyers in the courts; then what is the point in talking about equality before law?
Ans. Some rulers want to hold power and keep the people under their control, so that people would not oppose them. Thus, the rulers can rule the country withe any problem. There are many examples of elect governments who are not protecting the interests of their citizens.
Even sometimes they attack the rights of their own citizens: Some examples from the world scenario are as follows :
(i) Ethnic massacre of Albanians in Kosovo,
(ii) Policy of apartheid in South Africa.
(iii) Rule of Augusto Pinochet in Chile.
(iv) Rule of Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe.
It is true that the rich can have better lawyers in the courts, but the law is the same for everyone. Being rich or having good lawyers does not mean that equality! of law also changes. Our Constitution says that the government shall not deny to any person in India equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws.
Whether a person is rich or poor, the law remains the same for all citizens. The judiciary follows the rule of law for all without discriminating on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Section - C
Q.29. Explain Coriolis Force and Western disturbances. How do they affect the climate of India?
What do you mean by the mechanism of the monsoon?
Ans. Coriolis Force
It is an apparent force caused by the Earth's rotation. It is responsible for deflecting winds towards the right in the Northern Hemisphere and towards the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
Effect of Coriolis Force on the Climate of India
(i) Under the effect of coriolis force, the trade winds moving from sub-tropical high-pressure belts equatorial low-pressure belts become North-East trade winds in the Northern Hemisphere and South-East trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere.
(ii) These winds generally carry very little moisture as they originate and blow over land. Thus, tb bring little or no rain.
The Western disturbances are weather phenomena of the winter months brought in by Westerly flow from the Mediterranean region. They cause rainfall in North and North-Western part of India.
Effect of Western Disturbances on the Climate of India
(i) By Gausing cyclonic rainfall in the month of winter, which is otherwise dry, Western disturbance influences the weather of the North and North-Western India.
(ii) Tropica cyclones occur durng the monsoon, as well as in October-November. These are part of the Easterly -low. These disturbances affect the coastal regions of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
(iii) Although, the amount of rain-all is meagre, it s highly beneficial to the Rabi crops, especially for the wheat.
(iv) They cause snowfall in the mountains.
The climate of India is strongly influenced by monsoon winds. 'Monsoon’ refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year. Tc understand the mechanism of the monsoon, some factors are important. These are as follows :
(i) The differential heating and cooling of land and water creates tow pressure on the land mass of lndia but the seas around experience comparatively high pressure.
(ii) The Inter Tropica Convergence Zone (ITCZ).in summer season shifts its position over the Gangetic plain. This is equatorial trough normally positioned about 5°N of the equator.
(iii) The presence of the high pressure area, Eas: of Madagascar, approximately at 20°S over the Indian ocean, affects the Indian monsoon.
(iv) During summer, the Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated. This results in strong vertical air curents and the formation of low pressure over the plateau.
(v) The difference in pressure over Tahiti (Pacific ocean, 18°S/149°W) and Darwin in Northern Australia (Indian ocean, 12°30’S/131°W) is computed to predict the intensity of the monsoon.
(vi) If the pressure differences were negative, it would mean below average and late monsoon.
Q.30. Read the extract and answer the questions that follow:
The Ganga is joined by many tributaries from the Himalayas, la few of them being major rivers such as Yamuna, Ghaghara, Gandak and Kosi. The river Yamuna rises from the Yamunotri Glacier in the Himalayas. It flows parallel to the Gadga and meets the Ganga at Allahabad as a right bank tributary. Ghaghara, Gandak and Kbsi rivers rise in the Nepal Himalaya. They flood parts of the northern plains every year, causing widespread damage to life and property but enriching the soil for the extensive agricultural lands.
The main tributaries of river Ganga which come from the peninsular uplands are Chambal, Betwa and Son. These rise from semi-arid areas, have shorter courses and do not carry much water in them. Enlarged with the waters from its right and left bank tributaries, the Ganga flows eastwards till Farakka in West Bengal. This is the northernmost point of the Ganga delta. The river bifurcates here; the Bhagirathi-Hooghly (a distributary) flows southwards through the deltaic plains to the Bay of Bengal. The main stream flows southwards into Bangladesh and is joined by the Brahmaputra) Further downstream, it is known as the Meghna. This mighty river, with water from the rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra, flows into the Bay of Bengal. The delta formed by these rivers is known as the Sunderban delta.
(a) Which major tributaries of the river Ganga rise in the Himalayas?
(b) What is a disadvantage and an advantage of flooding of the northern plains every year?
(c) What are the two parts of the Ganga delta? Describe them.
Ans. (a) The major tributaries of the river Ganga which rise in the Himalayas are Yamuna, Ghaghara, Ganda and Kosi.
(b) A disadvantage of flooding of the northern plains every year is the widespread damage to life and property. An advantage of flooding of the northern plains every year is enrichment of the soil for the extensive agriculiiral lands in the region.
(c) The two parts of the Ganga delta are the Bhagirathi-Hoognly and the main stream. The Bhagirathi-Hooghly flows southwards through the deltaic plains to the Bay of Bengal. The main stream flows southwards into Bangladesh and is joined by the Brahmaputra. Further downstream, it is known as the Meghna, which flows into the Bay of Bengal, forming the Sunderban delta.
Q.31. What is people’s participation ? What are the main features of people’s participation in India ?
Ans. (a) People’s participation is usually measured by voter turnout that indicates the per cent of voters who actually cast their votes. In India, the turnout has either remained stable or actually gone up.
(b) (i) In India, the poor, illiterate and underprivileged people vote in larger proportion as compared to the rich and privileged sections.
(ii) Common people in India feel that through elections they can bring pressure on political parties to adopt policies and programmes in their interest. They also feel that their vote matters in the way things are rum in the country.
(iii) The interest of voters in election related activities has been increasing over the years. During the 2004 elections, more than one-third voters took part in a campaign-related activities. More than half of the people identified themselves as being close to one or the other political party. One out of every seven voters is a member of a political party.
What makes elections in India democratic ?
Ans. The following features of elections in India make elections in India democratic :
(i) Independent Election Commission : Our Election Commission works independently and is powerful. It enjoys the same kind of independence the judiciary enjoys. The Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the President of India. He is, however, not answerable to the President or the government.
(ii) Popular participation : In India, the participation of voters has either remained stable or actually increased particularly, the participation of the poor, illiterate and underprivileged people. In addition to this more and more people are taking part in election related activities.
(iii) Acceptance of election result : Whether one candidate or party loses or wins an election, they do not go against it. On the other hand, everyone accepts the results “as people’s verdict".
Q.32. Examine the statement, "social exclusion in India is useful to understand the poverty situation.”
Ans. Social exclusion is one of the major indicators for poverty analysis in India. Social exclusion is a process through which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities enjoyed by other better off. it is both cause and consequence of povrty in India.
Due to social exclusion, certain sections of society like women, ages people, children and SCs/STs could net avail the equal opportunities. This led them to vicious cycle o' poverty. Similarly, poor people are excluded socially due to income inequalities.
Due to poverty, poor people have to live in the surrounding different from that of better off people. Therefore, both social and economic inequalities led to incidence of poverty.
The social exclusion on the basis of caste is greater than that o-' income inequality.
Therefore, understanding of social exclusion helps us in better targeting of anti-poverty programme. “ Thus, it can be concluded that social exclusion in India is useful to understand the poverty situation.
Q.33. What impact did the First and Second World Wars have on the forests across the world?
Ans. The First World War and the Second World War had a major impact oh. the forests across the world. This impact is stated in the points below :
(i) In India, the Forest Department cuts trees freely to meet British war demands.
(ii) In Java, the Dutch followed ‘a scorched earth’ policy, just before the Japanese occupied the region. They destroyed sawmills and burnt off huge piles of giant teak logs so that they would not fall into Japanese hands,
(iii) The Japanese exploited the forests recklessly for their own war industries and forced forest dwellers to cut down forests.
(iv) Many villagers took this opportunity for the expansion of cultivation land by cutting down the forests.
(v) in India, people needed more agricultural land for cultivation for its increasing population. Forest Department desired to control the land and excluded people from it. These different interests led to a conflict between them.
Q.34. Describe the difference between men and women regarding their activities in the family.
Ans. Difference of division of labour or activities between men and women in the family are as follows :
Describe poverty trends in India since 1973.
Ans. (i) There is substantial decline in poverty ratios in India from about 55 per cent in 1973 to 36 per cent in 1993.
(ii) The proportion o f people below poverty line further came down to about 26 per cent in 2000.
(iii) If the present trend continues, people below poverty line may come down to less than 20 per cent in the next few years.
(iv) Although the percentage of people living under poverty line declined in the earlier two decades (1973 93), the number of poor remained stable around 320 million for a fairly long period.
(v) The latest estimates indicate a significant reduction in the number of poor to about 260 million.
Also see the table given below :
Section - D
Q.19. (a) On the outline map of world locate and label any two countries that were axis powers in Second World War.
Ans. The two countries that were axis power in the Second World War were as follows Germany. Italy or Japan
(b) Some features are marked on the given political map of India. Identify these features with help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map. (any four)
(i) A coastal strip
(ii) A river flowing through a Rift Valley
(iii) Locate and label the Standard Meridian of India on the same map.
(iv) A meuntain range lying mostly in Rajasthan
(v) Saltwater lake in Rajasthan
(vi) Willd Life Sanctuary
Ans. The map labelled with the given features is shown below