(Section - A)
Q 1. Match the following items given in Column I with those in Column II.
Ans: (A) - 3, (B) - 1, (C) -4, (D) - 2
2. Who is the founder chairperson of Central Social Welfare Board!
(a) Baldev Singh
(b) G Durgabai Deshmukh
(c) Somnath Lahiri
(d) Saroiini Naidu
Q 3. Who appoints the Prime Minister ?
(a) Vice President
(b) Speaker of the Lok Sabha
Q 4. How can desilting help in flood control ?
Ans: Desilthg helps in flood control as it increases the capacity of the river in holding water. In this way, flood water does not spread or affect the nearby areas.
Q 5. Which country has the lengthiest written Constitution of the world?
Which part of the Constitution of India is called soul of the Constitution?
Ans: India has the lengthiest written Constitution of the world.
The Preamble of the Constitution of India is called soul of the Constitution.
Q.6. Hunger is of two types (i) ___________and (ii) ___________ .
Ans. (i) seasonal, (ii) chronic
Q 7. Name the most common form of democracy in today's world.
Ans. Representative democracy is the most common form of democracy in today’s world.
Q 8. In context of France, what was ‘Tithe'?
Ans: In context of France, ‘Tithe’ was a religious tax levied by the church and clergy comprising one-tenth of the agriculture produce.
Q.9. The Nazis wanted to setup only asociety of (i) ___________and (ii) ___________ Aryans.
Ans. (i) pure, (ii) healthy Nordic
Q 10. The political symbol of France 'Spectre' means the .......
In France Bloody Sunday started a series of events that became known as the
Ans: Royal Power OR 1905 Revolution
Q 11. It can keep consumer prices low while maintaining a higher income for domestic producers. What is it?
(b) Minimum Support Prices
(d) None of the above
Q.12. By the opening of Panama canal, the India’s distance from Europe has been reduced by 7000 km.
Q 13. Which of the following statements defines turn out in context of an election ?
(a) The percentage of eligible voters who cast their vote.
(b) The percentage of voters who do not cast their vote.
(c) The date of the election.
(d) The percentage of voters who cast vote in favour of the wining candidate.
Ans: (a) The percentage of eligible voters who cast their vote.
Q 14. In elections, smaller parties and_____ are at a disadvantage as compared to bigger parties.
Ans: Independent candidates or National and state.
Q.15. Only cars are used to connect Palampur to Raiganj.
Q 16. The Pastoral nomadic communities of Jammu and Kashmir are ........
Durgabai Deshmukh was a famous Congress leader who was the founder of .......
Ans. Gujjar Bakarwals Or The Andhra Mahila Sabha
Q 17. Find the Incorrect option: Some facts about Saudi Arabid are as follows:
(a) Citizens cannot form political parties or any political organisations.
(b) Women are subjected to many public restrictions.
(c) There is freedom of religion in the country.
(d) The country is ruled by a hereditary king who selects the legislature as well as the executive.
Q.18. What do you mean by ‘Doab’ and ‘Punjab’ ?
Ans. Doab is made up of two words, ‘do’ meaning two and ‘ab’ meaning water. Similarly, ‘Punjab’ is also made up two words — ‘Punj’ meaning five and ‘ab’ meaning water. Thus, land of two rivers and five rivers respectively.
Q 19. In the question given beloiw, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option.
Assertion (A) Surplus is an amount of something left over when requirements have been met.
Reason (R) Surplus is an excess of production or supply.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false ;
(d) A is false but R is true ;
Ans: (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
Q 20. Activities have been classified into three main sectors i.e., primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary sector includes agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming, mining, and quarrying. Manufacturing and construction are included in the secondary sector. Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, services, insurance etc. are included in the tertiary sector. The activities in this sector result in the production of goods and services.
Analyse the information given above and consider one of the following as the correct
(a) Sectors of activity
(b) Economic activities
(c) Classification of professions
(d) Primary, secondary and tertiary
(Section - B)
Q 21. How is the Constitution a significant document?
Explain the procedure adopted for making the Indian Constitution.
Ans. The Constitution is a significant document in the following ways :
(i) The Constitution helps people to live together by generating trust and coordination
(ii) It specifies the powers and functions of government and procedures of decision-making.
(iii) It expresses and promotes the aspirations of people by way o' creating a welfare society.
Procedure adopted for the making the Indian Constitution is as follows:
(i) Drafting committee prepared a draft of the Indian Constitution for discussion.
(ii) Several rounds of discussion took place on the Draft of the Constitution, clause by clause.
(iii) More than two thousand amendments were considered.
(iv) Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved.
Q 22. Everyone knows that the rich person can have better lawyers in the courts. What is the point in talking about equality before law?
Ans: It is true that the rich person can have better lawyer: in the courts but the law is the same for everyone Being rich or having gooo lawyers does not mean tha equality of law also changes.
Whether a person is rich or poor, the law remains tht same for all citizens. The judiciary follows the rule o law without discriminating on grounds of religion race, caste, sex or place of birth. Having gooc lawyers do not mean the violation of Right to Equalit; before taw.
Q.23. What arc the advantages of having a healthy population ?
Ans. The advantages of having a healthy population are as given below :
ii) The healthy population can work efficiently.
(ii) The healthy population fairs better in games at national and international levels.
(iii) Good health leads to growth and improved competitiveness.
(iv) Good health helps develop children’s cognitive functions, raises educational outcomes and makes it less likely they will leave school early or be absent from school.
(v) Good health helps economic and social development.
(vi) Healthy population contributes towards the fast economic growth of the country. Changes in health status, today are a reliable predictor for future economic performance.
Q 24. "The educated parents invest more heavily on education and healthcare of their children." Why is it so?
Mention any three features of National Health Policy.
Ans: Educated parents have realised the importance of education and health because an educated and healthy person is more successful than an uneducated and unhealthy person. While education enhances the total productivity of a person, health makes him more efficient.
Educated parents know that educated and healthy children will be successful and have good standard of living. So, they look after their children's needs for education and good health. Countries like Japan have become rich and developed because they have invested in human resource.
The educated and healthy population of Japan has made efficient use of land and capital by technological advancement. This clearly shows the importance of investment in education and health. Thus, educated parents invest more heavily on education and healthcare of their children.
The coal of National Health Policy (NHP) is to achieve the highest possible level of good health and well-being for all Indians through a preventive and promotive healthcare orientation in all developmental policies. It also tries to give healthcare services to all without facing any financial hardship. Provisions of the National Health Policy of India are as follows:
(i) Improvement of access to healthcare, particulary for rural people is provided.
(ii) It focuses on family welfare and funs various family health programs.
(iii) It provides nutritional services, particulary for the underprivileged sections.
Q 25. Differentiate between dependent and working population.
Explain the classification of occuoational structure.
Ans: The differences between dependent and working population are as follows:
The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure. Different occupations can be classified into following three groups :
(i) Primary occupation includes agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying etc.
(ii) Secondary occupation includes manufacturing industry building and construction works etc.
(iii) Tertiary occupation includes transport, com m unication, com m erce, adm inistration and other services.
The proportion of people working in these occupations varies in developed and developing countries. In developed countries , people mostly involved in secondary and tertiary occupations where as indeveloping countries people mostly engaged in primary occupations.
Q.26. Why democracy is considered the best form of government? Give three reasons.
Ans. (i) Democracy is based on consultation and discussion. A democratic decision always involves many persons, discussions and meetings.
(ii) Democracy provides peaceful solution to differences and conflicts. In a democracy, no one is a permanent winner or no one is a permanent loser.
(iii) In a democracy there is scope for public discussion on the mistakes that can be changed or rulers can be changed. This can be done at any stage or election.
Q 27. What are ‘Coral Polyps ? What are its kinds? State with an example.
Ans. Coral Polyps are short lived m icroscopic organisms which live in colonies. They flourish in shallow, mud free and warm waters. They secrete calcium carbonate. The coral secretion and their skeleton form coral deposits in form of reefs.
They are mainly of three kinds :
(i) Barrier reef
(ii) Fringing reef
The ‘Great Barrier Reef of Australia’ is a perfect example of the first kind of coral reef. A fringing reef either grows directly from the shore line or may grow hundreds of yards from shore. This type of reef is found in the Carribean and Red sea. Atolls are circular or horse shaped coral reefs. Most of the world’s atolls are in the Pacific Ocean and in Indian Ocean (Maldives, Lakshadweep), in India, Lakshadweep Island is composed of small corat islands. These coral islands are places of tourist interest.
Q 28. What are the demerits of electoral competition
Ans: The demerits of electoral competition are as follows:
(i) It creates a sense of disunity and factionalism in every locality. Different political parties and leaders often level allegations against each other.
(ii) Parties and candidates often use ‘dirty tricks’ to win elections. The pressure to win electoral battles does not allow sensible long-term policies to be formulated.
(iii) Some good people who may wish to serve the country Ido not enter this arena. They do not like the idea of being dragged into unhealthy competition.
(Section - C)
Q 29. Highlight the impact of Bloody Sunday which took place in Russian society.
Ans: Bloody Sunday started a series of events that came to be known as the 1905 Revolution. The impacts of the events of ‘Bloody Sunday' on Russian society were as follows :
(I) Strikes took place all over the country and universities closed down.
(ii) Students staged walkouts, complaining about the lack of civil liberties.
(iii) Lawyers, doctors, engineers and other middle class workers established the Union of Unions and demanded a Constituent Assembly.
(iv) A large number of Trade Unions and Factory Committees of factory workers came into existence. But after 1905, they worked unofficially, as they were declared illegal.
(v) The Tsar bowed to pressure of various groups and allowed the creation of an elected Consultative Parliament or Duma, However, he dismissed the first and re-elected the second one. Later, he changed the voting laws and packed the third Duma with conservative politicians while liberals and revolutionaries were kept out.
Q 30. Read the extract and answer the questions that follow :
Earlier, in an election, the voters used to indicate who they wanted to vote for by putting a stamp on the ballot paper. A ballot paper is a sheet of paper on which the names of the contesting candidates along with party name and symbols are listed. Presently Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) are used to record votes. The machine (shows the names of the candidates and the party symbols. Independent candidates too have their own symbols, allotted by election officials. All the voter has to do is to press the button against the name of the candidate he or she wants to give his or her vote.
Once the polling is over, all the EVMs are sealed and taken to a secure place. A few days later, on a fixed date, all the EVMs from a constituency are opened And the votes secured by each candidate are counted. The agents of all the candidates are (present there to ensure that the counting is done properly. The candidate who secures the highest number of votes from a constituency is declared elected.
(a) How was voting in an election carried out earlier?
(b) How is voting in an election carried out now?
(c) How is the counting of votes and declaration of the results of an election done presently ?
(a) Voting in an election was carried out earlier by the voter indicating who they wanted to vote for by putting a stamp on the ballot paper, which is a sheet of paper on which the names of the contesting candidates along with party name and symbols are listed.
(b) Voting in an election is carried out now by using Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) to record vote. These machines show the names of the candidates and the party symbols or, for independent candidates, symbols allotted by the Election Commission . The voter has to only press the button against the name of the candidate desired to record his or her vote.
(c) At present, when the polling is over, all th e EVMs are sealed and taken to a secure place. A few days later, on a fixed date, all the EVMs from a constituency are opened in the presence of agents of all the candidates and the votes secured by each candidate are counted. The candidate who secures the highest number of votes from a constituency is declared elected.
Q.31. What are the conditions for a truely democratic election ?
Ans. Elections are held in non-democratic countries like Pakistan and China also. Such elections, however, cannot be called democratic. There are certain conditions which make an election democratic. These are as mentioned below :
(i) Everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value.
(ii) Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections and should offer some real choice to the voters.
(iii) Elections must be held regularly after every few years.
(iv) The candidate preferred by the people should get elected.
(v) Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner.
The above are simple and easy conditions. But there are many countries where these are not fulfilled like China.
Describe the election, pow ers and position of the Presiden t o f India.
(i) All the elected Members of Parliament (MPs) and Members of State Legislative Assemblies (MLAs) elect the President.
(ii) A candidate standing for President’s post has to get a majority of votes to win the election.
(iii) This ensures that the President can be seen to represent the entire nation.
(b) Powers: The President has many powers. There is nothing th at he cannot do.
(i) All governmental activities take place in the name of the President.
(ii) All laws and major policy decisions of the government are issued in his/her name.
(Hi) All major appointments are made in the name of the President. These include the appointment of the Chief Justice of India, the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts of the States, the Governors of the States, the Election Commissioners, ambassadors to other countries, etc.
(iv) All international treaties and agreements are made in the name of the President.
(v) The President is the supreme commander of the defence forces of India.
(c) Position : However, all these powers are exercised on the advice of the Council of Ministers. The President can ask the Council of Ministers to reconsider its advice. But if the same advice is given again, he/she is bound to act according to it. It may be mentioned here that the President uses his/her discretion to appoint the Prime Minister, in case no party or coalition gets majority in Lok Sabha.
Q 32. "Political institutions are needed to run a democratic form of government." Analyse the statement.
Lok Sabha is more powerful than Rajya Sabha. Justify the statement.
Ans. It is true that political institutions are needed to run a democratic form of government. A democracy works well when the political institutions like the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, the Civil Servants, the Supreme Court, etc., perform functions assigned to them.
The need for these political institutions is stated in the points below :
(i) To Take Decisions Countries need political institutions to take decisions regarding the welfare of the people. Institutions formulate various policies and welfare schemes.
(ii) To Implement the Decisions The decisions which have been taken are to be implemented. So, countries need political institutions to implement the decisions.
(iii) To Solve the Disputes Political institutions are needed to solve the disputes between various institutions.
(iv) To Take Right Decisions Political institutions are also needed to help the government to take the right decisions. They determine what is wrong, what is right and prevent the chances of taking a bad decision.
The Parliament plays a central role in modern democracies. In our country, the Parliament has two chambers as Houses—the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. Lok Sabha is elected by the people and exercises the real power on behalf of the people. Rajya Sabha is usually elected indirectly and performs some special functions.
Lok Sabha exercises more power than Rajya Sabha in the following ways:
(i) Any ordinary law needs to be passed by both the houses but in case of conflict, view of Lok Sabha prevails because it has large number of members.
(ii) Once the Lok Sabha passes the budget or any other money related law, Rajya Sabha cannot reject it. The Rajya Sabha can delay it for a maximum of 14 days or suggest changes in it which may or may not be accepted by the Lok Sabha.
(iii) Most importantly, the Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers. If the majority of the Lok Sabha members say that they have no confidence in the Council of Ministers, then all the ministers including the Prime Minister have to resign.
Thus, it can be concluded that Lok Sabha is more powerful than Rajya Sabha.
Q 33. ''The introduction of railways had an adverse impact on the forests." Justify by giving example?
Ans: The introduction of railways had an adverse impact on the forests This can be justified in the following ways:
(i) Sleepers were the basic inputs required for constructing a railway line. Each mile of a railway track required between 1700 to 2000 sleepers. To meet this demand, large number of trees were cut in India.
(ii) Earlier wood was needed in the railway tracks as the connecting part of the tracks was made of wood. Therefore, trees were cut on a large scale and supplied to the growing railways.
(iii) To run locomotives, wood was needed as fuel. As railway was being spread throughout India, more and more wood was required which could be used as fuel,
(iv) The government gave out contracts to individuals to supply the required quantities. These contractors began cutting trees indiscriminately. Thus, forests around the railway tracks started disappearing fast.
Q.34. What is the importance of human capital ? Explain.
Ans. The human capital is very important as mentioned below :
(i) Investment in human capital through education, training and medical care yields a return like investment in physical capital because an educated and trained person earns more than an uneducated person.
(ii) Educated persons such as doctors help the society in solving various problems such as doctors in elimination of diseases by providing health services.
(iii) Human resource can make use of land and capital.
(iv) The investment in human capital through education, training etc. can turn the population from a liability into a productive asset to use modern technology. The example is Green Revolution in which modern technologies were used to increase the food production in the country.
(v) Lastly human capital is superior to land and capital because it can make use of them. Land and capital cannot become useful on its own.
Can you imagine some village which initially had no job opportunities but later came up with many ?
Ans. In many villages in India we find school, college, government dispensary and private doctors. There are various shops in the villages. The employment opportunities have increased in many villages. The children get education in school and colleges in their own village or nearby towns. Now-a-days, the village people are using various kinds of scientific machines and other tools in cultivation. "Villagers do not go to towns for their requirements because most of the requirements are fulfilled in the village itself. Thus, in many villages, the job opportunities have increased but still with the increase in population, people migrate to town for better employment opportunities.
(Section - D)
Q 35. (a) Locate and label the following two places in the map of France.
(i) Bordeaux (ii) Marseilles
Ans. The answer map is given below :
(b) Locate and label the following on the given map,
(i) India's most sparsely populated state
(ii) Kanha National Park
(iii) Jodhpur meteorological station
(iv) The Satpura Range
(v) Konkan plains
(vi) the Tapi River