SECTION - A
Q.1. What is Java famous for ?
(a) Rice producing
(b) Wheat producing
(c) Railway manufacturing
(d) Ship building
Ans: (a) Rice producing.
Q.2. Why the makers of our Constitution thought of a special system of reserved constituencies for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes?
(a) They are the most weaker section in our society.
(b) Influential and resourceful person may prevent the weaker section to cast their votes.
(c) If weaker section cannot vote, assemblies and parliament would be deprived of the voice of a significant section of our population.
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d) All of the above
Q.3. Study the picture and answer the question that follows
The images on the wall are pf which of the following categories of persons?
(a) Well known politicians
(b) Former Presidents of India
(c) Former Prime Ministers of India
(d) Famous film stars
Ans: (c) Former Prime Ministers of India
Q.4. In democracy who has the final decision-making power ?
(a) Representatives elected by the people
(c) Army General
Ans: (a) Representatives elected by the people.
Q.5. 'Mango Showers' are common in
(c) Tamil Nadu
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans: (d) Both (a) and (b)
Q.6. “Judiciary acts as guardian! of Fundamental Rights." How?
Ans: Judiciary is the guardian of Fundamental Rights because the citizens have the right to approach the courts to seek remedy in case of any isolation of their Fundamental Rights.
Q.7. ________Lake is located in Jammu and Kashmir.
Q.8. Correct the following statements
King Louis XVI was publicly executed on 10th May, 1793.
Now in Lok Sabha, seats reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are 50 and 36.
Ans: King Louis XVI was publicly executed on 21 st January, 1793.
Now in Lok Sabha, seats reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are 84 and 47.
Q.9. Over half of the world's pastoral communities live in
Approximately what proportion of India's landmass was under cultivation in the year 1600?
Ans: (b) Africa Or (b) One-sixth
Q.10. ___________ was the President o f the Constituent Assembly o f India.
Ans: Rajendra Prasad
Q.11. The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) work like any court. How? Or
What is a Summon?
Ans: The NHRC can summon witness, question any government official, idemand any official paper and send its own team for the spot inquiry etc, which are also the works of any court.
Summon is an order issued by a court asking a'person to appear before it.
Q.12. What is the main economic activity in village Palampur?
Ans: (a) Agriculture
Q.13. The Tsar abdicated on 2nd March 1917.
Q.14. ‘Land to the tiller' was the slogan used in Assembly Election of 1977 in West Bengal by______ .
Ans: Left Front.
Q.15. Study the picture and answer the question that follows.
What is being carried in the baskets shown in this picture?
(a) Food items for distribution to the poor
(b) Textbooks for schools
(c) Currency notes
(d) Gifts and toys for children
Ans: (c) Currency notes
Q.16. NREGA provides 100 days assured employment every year to rural house holds in 200 districts.
Q.17. Find the Incorrect option
A reserved constituency is that which is reserved for
(a) Scheduled Castes
(b) Scheduled Tribes
(c) Minority Community
(d) Disabled persons
Ans: (d) Disabled persons
Q.18. Arrange the following anti-poverty programmes in chronological order based on the year of their launch:
(i) Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MG-NREGA)
(ii) National Food for Work Programme (NFWP)
(iii) Prime Minister Rozgar Yozana (PMRY)
(iv) Swarnajayanti Gram SwarozgarYojana (SGSY)
(a) (iv), (iii), (i), (ii)
(b) (ii), (iv), (i), (iii)
(c) (ii), (i), (iii), (iv)
(d) (ii), (i), (iv), (iii)
Ans: (a) (iv) - (iii) - (i) - (ii)
Q.19. State one drawback in the electoral system of Fiji.
Ans: Fiji electoral system is such that the vote of indigenous Fiji has more value than that of an Indian Fiji.
Q.20. The area drained by a single river system is called a drainage basin. Any elevated area, such as a mountain or an upland separates two drainage basins. Such an upland is known as
(b) Water divide
(c) Cut offs
(d) None of these
Ans: (b) Water divide
SECTION - B
Q.21. Why is the pattern of cyclical movement between summer and winter pastures essential for pastoral communities of the Himalayas ?
Ans: The cyclical movement between summer and winter pasture is essential due to the reasons as mentioned below :
(i) It is essential for them to adjust to the seasonal changes.
(ii) It is necessary to make effective use of available pastures in different places.
(iii) The continuous movement also allowed the pastures to recover.
(iv) It also prevented the overuse of pastures.
Q.22. How can poverty be reduced in future in India? Suggest any three points.
Ans: By the measures given below, poverty can be reduced in future in India:
(i) By attaining sustainable higher economic growth rate, poverty can be reduced. If growth rate is high, then more jobs will be created and there will be rise in income in rural and urban areas.
(ii) By creating more employment opportunities especially in rurjal areas where disguised and seasonal unemployment is more so that people living beiow poverty line can get employment and earn income which will reduce poverty.
(iii) By focussing on empowerment of the women and economically weaker sections of the society poverty can be reduced. This will improve the condition of women and the weaker sections.
Q.23. "Even the President of India cannot stop any individual from approaching the Supreme Court to secure his Fundamental.” Rights. Justify.
Or What is the main objectives of National Human Rights Commission?
Ans: The Indian Constitution gives some Fundamental Rights to its citizens. The Constitution says that the government shall not deny to any person in India equality before the law. Thus, if it is violated, individual can approach to the Supreme Court. Even the President of india cannot stop any individual from approaching the Supreme Court, as the rights are enshrined in our Constitution.
This means that our Constitution provides and protects these rights which cannot be taken away or violated by any person or government action or Iaw, which also includes the President of India.
The Right to Constitutional Remedies is a Fundamental Right, according to which we have the right to approach the Supreme Court in case of violation of rights by any person or government or law. Thus, no body can stop any individual from going to court to secure his Fundamental Rights.
The National Human Rights Commission was established in 1993. The commission is independent of the government. It is appointed by the President and incudes retired judges, officers and eminent citizens. The main objectives of the commission include :
(i) It focuses on helping the victims to secure their human rights which include all the rights granted to the citizens by the Constitution.
(ii) The commission also considers the human rights mentioned in the UN sponsored international treaties that India has signed.
(iii) The commission makes independent and credible inquiry into any case of violation of human rights. The commission presents its findings and recommendations to the government.
Q.24. Describe features of Indian desert.
Ans: (a) The Indian desert lies towards the western margins of the Aravali Hills.
(b) It is an undulating sandy plain covered with sand dunes.
(c) This region receives very low rainfall, below 150 mm per year.
(d) It has arid climate with low vegetation cover.
(e) Streams appear during the rainy season. Soon after they disappear into the sand as
they do not have enough water to reach the sea.
(f) Luni is the only large river in this region.
Q.25. What were the policies of the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks?
Who were the ‘Kulaks' in Russia?
Ans: The Russian Socialist Derrocratic Labour Party was divided into two prominent political groups in 1904, Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
The Bolsheviks policies were related to extreme measures. They were eager to establish a socialist state as quickly as possible. They were ready to achieve this even by force and violence, if needed. They did not recognise any other class than that of the workers and were hostile to any co-operation with middle class political parties. The Bolsheviks were a disciplined party. They wanted to make the party an instrument for bringing about revolution.
The Mensheviks represented a minority group, Their policies and methods were less radical. They were willing to await the eventual coming of socialism. They believed in gradual change and establishment of a parliamentary form of government like that of Britain and France.
Kulak is the name for well-to-do peasants in Russia. In 1927-28, Stalin took the decision to develop modern farms and run them along industrial lines, he believed that rich peasants and traders in the country side were holding stocks of grain in the hope of higher prices. For this reason, it was necessary to eliminate Kuiaks. Under Stalin’s collectivisation programme, land of Kulak was taken away and converted into large modern farms. As they resisted collectivisation, many of the Kulakas were deported and exiled.
Q.26. How did the various laws [passed by the British make the pastoralists cope with these changes in the colonial period?
Who were the Kalangs? Mention four of their characteristics.
Ans: The pastoralists coped with the changes in the colonial period in the following ways :
(i) Some of the pastoralists reduced the number of cattle in their herds, while others discovered new pastures when movement to old grazing grounds became difficult.
(ii) After 1947, the camel and sheep herding Raikas could no longer move into Sindh as the new political boundaries between India and Pakistan stopped their movement. In recent years, they have been migrating to Haryana where sheep can graze on agricultural fields after harvests are cut.
(iii) Over the years, some richer pastoralists began buying land and settling down, giving up their nomadic life.
The Kalangs were a tribal community of Java.
Their characteristics were
(i) They were shifting cultivators and skilled in cutting forests.
(ii) They were also skilled in building palaces.
(iii) They were so valuable that, when the Mataram kingdom in Java split in 1755, the 6000 Kalang families were equally divided between the two kingdoms.
(iv) When the Dutch gained control over the forests in Java, the Kalangs worked under them.
Q.27. Why are the wages for farm labourers in Palampur less than minimum wages ?
Ans: There is heavy competition for work among the farm labourers in Palampur, so people agree to work for lower wages or less than the minimum wages. The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is Rs 115 (April 2011) per day but due to heavy competition for work among the farm labourers in Palampur they agree to work for lower wages. For example, in Palampur the farm labourer gets only Rs 80. The farm labourers are helpless and are not able to demand high wages.
Q.28. Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follows
Source A : Organisation of Production
Every production is organised by combining land, labour, physical capital and human capital, which are known as factors of production. As wd read through the story of Palampur, we will learn more about the first three factors of production. For convenience, we will refer to the physical capital as the capital in this chapter.
Source B : Land is Fixed
75 per cent of the people who are working are dependent on farming for their livelihood. They could be farmers or farm labourers. The well-being of these people is closely related to production on the farms. But remember that there is a basic constraint in raising farm production. Land area under cultivation is practically fixed. Since 1960 in Palampur, there has been no expansion in land area.
Source C : The Capital Needed in Farming
Most small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital. They borrow from large farmers or the village moneylenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation. The rate of interest on such loans is very high. They are put to great distress to repay the loan.
(a) In what way production is a combination of various factors? (SourceA : Organisation of Production)
(b) To what extent do you think that there is constraint in jraising farm production? (Source B : Land is Fixed)
(c) To what extent small farmers are exploited due to their lack of capital? (Source- C: "The Capital Needed in Faming)
Ans: (a) Production is possible only where various resources such as land, labour, physical capital and human capital are combined. These resources are called factors of production, hence production is a combination of various factors.
(b) There is constraint in raising farm production to a certain extent because the land area is fixed, it cannot be increased. However farm production can be increased by using modern technology on same piece of land.
(c) Small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital from large farmers, moneylenders and traders. They charge very high rate of interest. Due to this small farmers have difficulty in repaying loans.
SECTION - C
Q.29. “USA initially resisted involvement in the Second World War but was unable to stayout of the war for long.” Support the statement.
Explain why Nazi propaganda was effective in creating hatred for Jews.
Ans: (i) The USA had entered the First World War in 1917 but had faced economic problems thereafter. Therefore, it did not want to join the Second World War but it could not remain out of the war for long.
(ii) Japan was expanding its power in the east. It had occupied French-Indo-China and was planning attacks on US naval bases in the Pacific.
(iii) Ultimately, Japan extended its support to Hitler and bombed the US base at Pearl Harbor on 7th Dec. 1941. Under these circumstances, the US had no other option except to enter the war against Hitler and its allies.
Nazi propaganda was effective in creating hatred for Jews due to the following reasons :
(i) The Nazi regime used deceptive and chilling terms to describe their actions e.g. final solution for mass killings of the Jews.
(ii) Propaganda films were made to create hatred for Jews. The most infamous film was The Eternal Jew.
(iii) Orthodox Jews were stereotyped and marked. They were shown with flowing beards wearing Kaftans, where as in reality it was difficult to distinguish German Jews by their outward appearance because they were a highly assimilated community.
(iv) They were referred to as vermin, rats and pests. Their movements were compared to those of rodents. Nazism worked on the minds of the people, tapped their emotions, and turned their hatred and anger at those marked as ‘undesirable5 which included Jews besides other communities. Jews were stereotyped as killers of Christ and usurers.
Q.30. "Location and relief are important factors in determining the climate of India."
Explain the statement with examples.
Ans: The location o’ India ana the various relief features have deep effect in determining ciimate of India.
• India is located between 8° N to 37° N latitudes.
• Tropic of Cancer divides the country in two equal halves—North sub-tropical zone and South tropical zone.
• India is surrounded by three water bodies in the South and girdled by a high continuous mountain chain in the North. This compact physical setting gives unique and common ciimatic framework.
• The Indian ocean, the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian sea have moderating effects on India's ciimatic condition.
• High mountains in the North act as barriers for cold and hot winds. It provides the whole North India a tropical climate.
• These mountains may also cause precipitation as these are high enough and lie in the path of rain-bearing winds. For example, the leeward side of the Western Ghats remains relatively dry in monsoon season.
• The Himalayas also force the South-West monsoons to shed all their moisture in the sub-continent.
Thus, it can be concluded that location and relief are important factors in determining the climate of India.
Q.31. What is the aim of production? Explain the four factors of production of goods and services.
Explain the role of transport for rural development.
Ans: The aim of production is to produce goods and services to satisfy the needs of people as per their demand.
Four factors for production of goods and services are as follows ;
(i) Land Land and other natural resources such as water, forests, minerals etc.
(ii) Labour or Workers The workers provide necessary labour for production. They may be highly educated or illiterate persons (i.e. skilled and unskilled) who jmay do manual work.
(iii) Physical Capital It consists of various inputs Which are required at different stages of production.
It is of two types :
(a) Fixed Capital Like tools, machines, buildings, generators, computers etc are used in production over many years.
(b) Working Capital It consists of raw materials I (like yarn for weavers), money in hand. Money is always required during production to make payments] and buy other necessary items. Unlike fixed capital and working capital are used up in production.
(iv) Human Capital We need knowledge and enterprise in order to put together land, labour and physical capital to produce an output. So, a population that is educated, trained and healthy becomes human capital.
Transport is very essential for the development of irura! areas. It can be explained in the following ways:
(i) Transport helps people to move from one place to another.
(ii) It can be used to transfer goods or raw materials from one place to another place.
(iii) It can also be used as a source of income for many people. For example: rickshawalas, tongawalas, jeep drivers get money for their service of transportation.
(iv) It helps to improve attendance levels in schools by providing accessioility to schools both for students and teachers.
(v) Improved access to ma'kets and towns helps develop business as well. Better transportation helps] the farmers to take ther farm produce easily to the market.
(vi) It helps rural peep e to avail medical facilities from the remote hospitals or medical centres.
Q.32. Surekha is an officer in-charge of ensuring free and fair elections in an assembly constituency in a state. Describe what should she focus on for each of the following stages of election :
(a) Election campaign
(b) Polling day
(c) Counting day.
What is a constitution ? Why do we need a constitution ?
Ans: (a) Election campaign:
(i) She should ensure that the Model Code of Conduct is followed by all.
(ii) No one is trying to bribe or threaten voters or appealing to them in the name of caste or religion.
(iii) No one is using government resources for election campaign and spend more than ? 70/54 lakh in a constituency for a Lok Sabha election or Rs 28 lakh in a constituency in an Assembly election. This however varies from state to state.
(b) Polling day:
(i) She should ensure that the polling is peaceful and fair.
(ii) There is no booth capturing.
(iii ) There is no misuse of government facilities and officials by the ruling party.
(iv) There is no excessive use of money by rich candidates, intimidation of voters and rigging and buying of votes etc.
(c) Coimting day :
(i) She should ensure that the counting is done properly in the presence of candidates or their representatives and agents, under proper security arrangements.
(ii) She will also ensure that no other person, media and press reporters are allowed inside the counting hall.
(iii) After the counting is over, the results should be declared.
(a) The constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all people living together in a country. Constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living in a territory (called citizens) and also the relationship between the people and government.
(b) We need a constitution for the following reasons :
(i) It generates a degree of trust and coordination for people to live together.
(ii) It specifies how the government will be constituted, and also defines the powers o each organ of government.
(iii) It lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us about the rights of thecitizens.
(iv) It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.
33. Describe the location of India on the world panorama.
Ans: The location of India on the world panorama can be described in the following points:
(i) India is the seventh largest country in the world after Russia,; Canada, China, USA, Brazil and Australia.
(ii) It lies entirely in the Northern hemisphere.
(iii) The mainland extends between 8°4' N and 37°6' N latitudes ajnd between 68°7' E and 97°25' E longitudes.
(iv) The island groups of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep islands, together make up the Indian Union.
(v) The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30' N) passes through the approximate center dividing the country into almost two equal parts. India’s total area accounts for about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical area of the world. The land of India has an area of 3.28 mil ion sq km.
Q.34. Explain the contribution of Lenin to the Russian Revolution.
Ans: Lenin, the leader of the Bolshevik Party, took important measures to make Russian Revolution successful. His contribution in Russian Revolution is immense, it can be explained in the following ways:
(i) Lenin organised the Bolshevik Party and in April 1917, renamed it as the Communist Party. The party was based on the ideology of Karl Marx.
(ii) In his ‘April Theses’ he demanded the war to be brought to a close, land be transferred to the peasants and banks be nationalised.
(iii) He proclaimed the right to self-determination of all people in the Russian empire. On 7th November, 1817, the Provisional Government fell, Lenin became the head of the world’s first communist country.
(iv) He implemented his policies and tried to make Russia a truely socialist state till his death in 1924.
SECTION - D
Q.35. Three items (a), (b) and (c) are shown on the given political outline map of the world. Identify them and write their correct name on the line marked on the map with the help of information given :
(а) Member of Axis Power.
(b) Member of Allied power.
(c) A member of Allied Power in W.W. II.
Ans. (a) Germany (b) France (c) USA.