Section - A
Q.1. Who was Captain Swing ?
(a) A mystic name.
(b) Captain in the army.
(c) Any honorary captain.
(d) None of the above.
Ans. (a) A mystic name.
Q.2. Socialist and trade unionists formed a Labour Party in Britain because
(a) they wanted better living
(b) they wanted better working conditions
(c) they setup funds to help its member in times of distress
(d) All of the above
Q.3. People under the International Poverty Line are living on less than......... per day
One of the major causes of poverty in India is lack of ...........
Ans. US $1 Or land resources
Q.4. In which of the following cities was the Imperial Forest Institute set up ?
Q.5. Zimbabwe attained independence from White Minority Rule in
Q.6. How can we invest in human capital?
What does HYV stand for ?
Ans. We can invest in human capital through education, training and medical car.
Q.7. The easternmost longitude of India is__________.
Ans. 97° 25' E
Q.8. Correct the following statement and rewrite.
The first and third estates were forced to give up their power after the French Revolution.
The members of the Jacobin Club belonged mainly to the rich section of the society.
Ans. The first and second estates were forced to give up their power after the French Revolution.
The members of the Jacobin Club belonged mainly to the less prosperous section of the society.
Q.9. How many biosphere reserves have been set up by the Government of India to protect flora and fauna?
Q.10. The hot weather season remains from (i)_______ to (ii)__________ .
Ans. (i) March, (ii) May
Q.11. Who are known as Jadidists ?
What is Kolkhoz ?
Ans. The term ‘Jadidists' denotes the Muslim Reformers within the Russian iempire.
in Russia, the Bolshevik Party forced ail peasants to cultivate in collective farms in early 20th century. These collective farms are known as ‘Kolkhoz'.
Q.12. The lowest poverty rate in India is found in
(c) West Bengal
(d) Tamil Nadu
Q.13. Under waste land rules the uncultivated land was taken from the pastoralists and given to individuals for cultivations.
Q.14. A communication issued by an appropriate authority stating the policy or decision of the government is known as ...........
Ans. Office Memorandum
Q.15. Study the picture and answer the question that follows.
Who is inside the jail?
(a) Pervez Musharraf
(c) Robert Mugabe
(b) Saddam Hussain
(d) Ferdinand Marcos
Q.16. What is subsistence crisis ?
Ans. Subsistence crisis is an extreme situation where the basic means of livelihood are endangered.
Q.17. Find the incorrect option.
(a) the head of the state is an elected person
(b) the head of the state is a hereditary monarch
(c) it has a single sovereign state
(d) republican ideas were specially spreading in Asia.
Q.18. Arrange the following events in the correct chronological order due to which General Musharraf established his rule in Pakistan
(i) Musharraf issued a 'Legal Framework Order' by which the President can dismiss the national or provincial assemblies.
(ii) Musharraf overthrew a democratically elected government, by a military coup and declared himself Chief Executive of the country.
(iii) Elections were held to the national and provincial assemblies.
(iv) Musharraf changed his designation to President.
(a) (iv), (iii), (i), (ii)
(b) (ii), (iv), (iii), (i)
(c) (ii), (i), (iii), (iv)
(d) (ii), (iv), (i), (iii)
Q.19. What is the total land mass of India ?
Ans. The land mass of India has an area of 3.28 million square km.
Q.20. The loss of finest grazing lands and water resources created pressure on the small area of land that the Maasai were confined within. Continuous grazing within a small area inevitably meant a deterioration of the quality of pastures.
What is the consequence of this restriction?
(a) Feeding the cattle became a persistent problem.
(b) Large number of Maasai cattle died of starvation.
(c) The Maasai tribes agitated and complained against the government's policy.
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Q.21. Describe the events from the Tennis Court Oath on 20 June 1789 to the abolition of feudal system of obligations and taxes on 4 August 1789.
Ans. The events took place as mentioned below :
(i) National Assembly remained busy in drafting the Constitution.
(ii) There was a severe winter and a bad harvest.
(iii) Prices rose. Bakers exploited the situation leading to increase in the sufferings of the people.
(iv) King ordered his troops to control the situation.
(v) People were agitated and they attacked and destroyed the Bastille - The fortress prison.
(vi) Nobles fled from their homes for safety.
(vii) As a result of this situation Louis XVI recognised National Assembly and accepted powers as per Constitution.
Q.22. In which field do you think India can build maximum employment opportunities?
How is human resource different from other resources viz, land and capital resources?
Ans. India can build maximum employment opportunities in the service sector. Land has its limitations. It cannot be increased and nor can its productivity be increased beyond a certain limit. Industry requires vast resources, which we cannot easily afford. We have got a large population, which needs to be properly educated and developed into a professionally qualified and skilled work force. Such people will have a high demand in international job market and can be;absorbed in any country. This will also help us to earn foreign exchange.
Due to the following reasons human resource is different from other resources:
(i) Only human resource is the living, active and sensitive factor of production.
(ii) Human resource only can think, analyse and take decisions.
(iii) Human resource adds to productive power of a country.
Q.23. What do you understand by segregation? What role did African National Congress played in reducing segregation?
Ans. Segregation was the term refered to separate the blacks from the whites by prohibiting their entry into the public places like hospitals, library, hotels in South Africa. The African National Congress led the movement against Apartheid and Segregation.
The Congress launched marches, movements and strikes to put pressure on the government to change its discriminatory laws. Several countries denounced apartheid as unjust and racist. In South Africa, the white racist government continued to rule by detaining, torturing and killing thousands of black and coloured people.
After many years of struggle, segregation came to an end and paved the way for multi-racial government.
Q.24. Explain the features of the hot weather season (summer).
Ans. The main features of the hot weather season are as follows :
(1) The hot weather season remains from March to May.
(ii) The temperature rises at different latitudes i.e., in March highest is about 38° Celsius on the Deccan Plateau, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh 42° Celsius in April and 45° Celsius in May in northwestern parts of the country.
(Hi) In peninsular India, temperatures remain lower due to the moderating influence of the oceans.
(iv) There is rising temperature and falling air pressure in the northern part of the country.
(v) A striking feature is the ‘loo’ These are strong, gusty, hot and dry winds.
(vi) Dust storms are very common during the month of May in northern India.
Q.25. Highlight the features of active and passive citizens of France.
Write any three features of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen.
Ans. The features of active and passive citizens of France were as follows :
(i) In France, only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to atleast 3 days of a labourer’s wage were given The status of ‘active citizen’. They were entitled to vote.
(ii) The remaining men and women who were not entitled to vote were called ‘passive citizens’.
(iii) In 1791, to become an elector or a member of the National Assembly, citizen had to fulfill certain criteia. This criteria specified that citizen had to become a taxpayer.
The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen suggests that :
(i) Man are born and remain free and equal in rights.
(ii) The aim of every political association is preservation of the natural and inalienable rights of man. These are liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression.
(iii) Liberty consists of the power to do whatever which is not injurious to others.
Q.26. Explain this statement, “There is a general consensus that high level of buffer stock of foodgrains is very undesirable and can be wasteful.”
Ans. A high level of buffer stock of foodgrains has the following undesirable problems :
(i) Since these foodgrains are procured by the government at a high Minimum Support Price (government keeps the price high to give incentive to the farmers to grow more), it means more carrying costs for the government.
(ii) As storage space is inadequate, many times the excess procured grain is stored in the open, causing deterioration in quality and infestation by rodents, which can cause diseases in people after consuming this grain. In this way lots of grains are destroyed or wasted.
Q.27. Explain the employment scenario in the three sectors of economic activities.
Ans. The employment scenario in the three sectors is as mentioned below :
(i) Agriculture sector :
(a) It is the most labour absorbing sector of the economy.
(b) In recent years, there has been a decline in the dependence of population on agriculture partly because of disguised employment.
(c) Some of the surplus labour in agriculture has moved to either the secondary or the tertiary sector.
(ii) Secondary sector : In it small scale manufacturing is the most labour absorbing.
(iii) Tertiary sector : In this sector various new services are appearing like bio-technology, information technology etc.
Q.28. Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follows :
Source A : Indian Judiciary
All the courts at different levels in a country put together are called the judiciary. The Indian judiciary consists of a Supreme Court for the entire nation, High Courts in the states, District Courts and the courts at local level. India has an integrated judiciary.
Source B : The Supreme Court as the Highest Court of Appeal
The Supreme Court controls the judicial administration in the country. Its decisions are binding on all other courts of the country. It can take up any dispute:
- between citizens of the country.
- between citizens and government.
- between two or more state governments.
- between governments at the union and state level.
It is the highest court of appeal in civil and criminal cases. It can hear appeals against the decisions of the High Courts.
Source C : Independence of Judiciary
Independence of the Judiciary means that it is not under the control of the legislature or the executive. The judges do not act on the direction of the government or according to the wishes of the party in power. That is why all modern democracies have courts that are independent of the legislature and the executive. India has achieved this.
(a) How does India have an integrated judiciary? (Source A : Indian Judiciary)
(b) What are the disputes taken up by the Supreme Court ? (Source B : The Supreme Court as the Highest Court of Appeal)
(c) Does India have independence of judiciary ? (Source C : Independence o f Judiciary)
Ans. (a) India has the apex court called the Supreme Court and all High Courts and District Courts under it make an integrated judiciary.
(b) The Supreme Court can take up any dispute between citizens of the country, between citizens and government, between two or more state governments and between governments at union and state level.
(c) Yes, India has independence of judiciary. Indian judiciary is not under the control of legislature is or the executive.
Section - C
Q.29. Which groups of French society benefited from the revolution ? Which groups were forced to relinquish power ? Which sections of society were disappointed with the outcome of the revolution ?
Ans. (a) Groups benefited from the revolution were peasants and middle classes as mentioned below :
(i) Tithes from peasants was abolished.
(ii) The obligations and taxes under the feudal system were abolished. As a result of it peasants were benefited.
(iii) Eight to vote was granted on limited scale but other rights were included in the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen,
(b) The groups forced to relinquish power were as given below :
(i) Members of the clergy were forced to give up their privileges.
(ii) The land owned by the Church was confiscated.
(iii) On 4 August 1789, the Assembly abolished the feudal system of obligation and taxes,
(c) On the whole clergy and nobility were disappointed with the outcome of the revolution.
How would you explain the rise of Napoleon ?
Ans. After the fall of the Jacobin government, a new constitution was introduced. The new constitution denied the vote to non-propertied sections of the society. It, therefore, allowed the wealthier middle classes to seize power. It provided for two elected legislative councils. These then appointed a Directory, an executive made up of five members. This was meant as a safeguard against the concentration of power in a one-man executive as under the Jacobins. However, the Directors often clashed with the legislative councils, who then sought to dismiss them. The political instability of the Directory paved the way for the rise of a military dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte.
Q.30. Read the extract and answer the questions that follows :
Our Constitution entitles every citizen to elect her/his representative and to be elected as a representative. The Constitution makers, however, were worried that in an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies.
They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against others Those who are influential and resourceful may prevent them from winning elections. If that happens, our Parliament and Assemblies would be deprived of the voice of a significant section of our population. That would make out democracy less representative and less democratic.
So, the makers of our Constitution thought of a special system of reserved constituencies for the weaker sections. Some constituencies are reserved for people who belong to the Scheduled Castes [SCs] and Scheduled Tribes [STs], In a SC reserved constituency, only someone who belongs to the Scheduled Castes a can stand for election.
Similarly; only those belonging to the Scheduled Tribes can contest an election from a constituency reserved for STs. Currently, in the Lok Sabha, 84 seats are reserved for the Scheduled Castes and 47 for the Scheduled Tribes (as on 26 January 2019). This number is in proportion to their share in the total population.
(a) Name the most significant feature of election procedure given by our Constitution.
(b) Why the weaker sections in our society cannot get a good chance to win the election?
(c) Explain the special system of reserval constituencies for SCs and STs in our Constitution.
Ans. (a) Our Constitution entitles every citizen to elect his/her representative and also to be elected as a representative.
(b) The weaker sections do not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win election against others. So generally, they cannot get a chance to win the election,
(c) In the Lok Sabha 84, seats are reserved for the Scheduled Castes and 47 for the Scheduled Tribes. This number is in proportion of their share in the total population of our country.
Q.31. State any three ill-effects of poverty. Also mention some solutions to remove this.
What is poverty line'? Write about the group vulnerable to poverty in our country
Ans. The state or condition of having little or no money, goods or means of support and deficiency of necessary or desirable ingredients is known as poverty.
Poverty has its ill effects which as follows :
(i) Malnutrition and Insufficient Diet Poverty is the leading cause of insufficient diet and inadequate nutrition. The resources of poor people are very limited, and its effect can be seen in their diet.
(ii) Poor Living Condition They do not get proper living conditions, “ hey have to fight the hardship of poverty to secure food, clothes and shelter. A large number of poor families live in houses with one room only.
(iii) Unemployment Since poor people are mostly illiterate and unskilled, there are very few employment opportunities open for them. Due to unemployment, many poor people are forced to live an unfulfilled life.
Measures to Remove Poverty Measures to remove poverty are as follows:
(i) Farmers should be given agricultural inputs to increase productivity as large number of farmers are poor.
(ii) Family planning schemes should be introduced as small family leads to better living conditions.
(iii) Corruption must end and our offices should work efficiently so that poor people could enjoy government facilities.
Poverty line is an imaginary line used by any country to determine its poverty. It varies from time to time, place to place and country to country. In India, a subsistence level or minimum level of food requirement (as determined by its calorie value), clothing, footwear, fuel, lighting, educational and medical requirements etc are determined for estimating poverty line.
Poverty among social groups and economic categories varies widely in India. Here, socially vulnerable groups include the households of the Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs).
Economically vulnerable groups comprise rural landless labour households and urban casual labour households.
During the last few years, all these groups except the Scheduled Tribes group have witnessed a decline in poverty. In poor families all suffer but some like women, elderly people and female infants suffer more and are regarded as the poorest of the poor in our society.
Q.32. What is political competition ? What are its merits and demerits ?
Ans. (a) Political competition means competition among political parties at the time of elections. At the constituency level, there is competition among several candidates. The competition makes the elections interesting and useful. If there is no competition, elections will become pointless.
(b) Merits : It is good to have political competition on the following grounds :
(i) Political competition enables the people to reward political leaders for serving them and to punish for not doing so.
(ii) Regular electoral competition provides incentives to political parties and leaders because if they raise issues of public interest, their chances of victory increase in the next elections. But if they are not able to satisfy the voters with their work, they will loose in the next elections.
Describe any five demerits of political com petition.
Ans. Political competition has following disadvantages or demerits :
(i) It creates a sense of disunity and factionalism in every locality. People get divided on the basis of their loyalty towards a political party.
(ii) Different political parties and leaders start levelling allegations against each other.
(iii) Dirty tricks are used by the candidates and parties to win elections.
(iv) Sometimes the pressure to win elections does not allow sensible long-term policies to be formulated.
(v) Eminent people such as scientists, educationists do not join politics due to political competition. They do not like this unhealthy competition.
Q.33. Elucidate the peculiar features of Nazi thinking that made it different from any other organisation of that time.
Ans. The peculiar features of Nazi thinking were as follows :
(i) Nazism was a system of ideas about the world and politics which was synonymous with Hitler’s word view that only believed in racial hierarchy. Nazi was against equality among people and supported hatred on the basis of race.
(ii) Nazi considered Nordic German Aryans as the best and Jews as the worst race. All other people were placed in between depending upon their external features.
(iii) From a very young age, children were indoctrinated both inside and outside school with Nazi ideology of nationalism and war. Women were seen as mere bearers of the Aryan culture ane race.
(iv) Nazi believed in the geopolitical concept of Lebensraum or living space, i.e. new territories had to be acquired for settlement, it would enhance the area of the mother country as well as the material resources and power of the German nation.
(v) Nazism was strongly opposed to democracy, liberalism and internationalism. Nazism was aggressive, expansionist and imperialistic
Q.34. Which was the important law that came into effect soon after the storming of the Bastille in the summer of 1789? How did it change the lives of the common people? Explain
Ans. After the fail of Bastille in the summer of 1789, one important law that came into effect was the abolition of censorship. Before French Revolution, all written material and cultural activities, books, newspapers, plays could be published or performed only after they have been approved by the censors of the king.
This law changed the lives of the common people in the following ways:
(i) The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen proclaimed freedom of speech and expression to be a natural right.
(ii) Newspapers, pamphlets, books and printed pictures flooded the towns of France, from where they could rapidly reach to the countryside.
(iii) Freedom of press meant that opposing views of events could be expressed.
(iv) Plays, songs and festive procession attracted common men through which they could identify the ideas of liberty or justice of the political philosophers.
Section - D
Q.35. Three places (a), (b) and (c) are shown on the given political outline map of the world. Identify them and write their correct name on the line marked on the map with the help of information given :
(а) One Allied Power Country in World War I.
(b) One Allied Power in World War II.
(c) A Territory under German Occupation.
Ans. (a) England