Scanner - Marketing Management Commerce Notes | EduRev

Business Studies (BST) Class 12

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(Q1) What information is generally placed on the package of the food product? Design a label for one of the product of your choice.

Hint: The following information is generally placed on the package of a food product: (i) Name of the product; (ii) Name of the manufacturer; (iii) Address of the manufacturer; (iv) Gross and net weight; (v) Manufacturing date; (vi) Expiry date; (vii) Maximum retail price (MRP); (viii)Batch number; (ix) Directions for use; (x) Contents; (xi) Green or red dot to differentiate between vegetarian and non-vegetarian products.

 

(Q2) For buyers of consumer durable products, what 'customer care services' would you plan as a manager of a firm marketing new brand of motorcycle, Discuss.

Hint: The following customer care services can be planned: (i) Exchange offer; (ii) Easy monthly installment scheme; (iii) 0% finance; (iv) Warranty for the specified period, (v) Free service up to a specified period or mileage, whichever is earlier.

 

(Q3) As marketing manager of a big hotel located at an important tourist destination, what societal concerns would be faced by you and what steps would you take care of these concerns? Discuss.

Ans.    (i) Proper drainage facility

            (ii) In-built plant for re-cycling the waste

            (iii) Solar geysers to be used

            (iv) Rain water harvesting

            (v) Proper maintenance of greenery-lawns, parks, gardens

            (vi) CNG based vehicles to be used to provide transport facility to the guests.

  

(Q4) Suppose you are the marketing vice president of an insurance company, planning to design a new mediclaim policy for senior citizens. What information would you like to collect to perform this task and how will you collect such information? Discuss.

Ans. The following information about the senior citizens should be collected

  1. Age of the senior citizen                 (ii) Their source of income

      (iii)       Medical background               (iv) Present working states

There are various sources of collecting the above information – personal visits, questionnaires, medical reports from nursing homes, doctor clinics etc.

 

(Q5) ‘It is necessary that goods and services must be made available to the customer at the right place, in right quantity and at the right time.'                                  (CBSE, Sample Paper 2008, 2015)

(a) Name and explain the concerned element of marketing-mix.

(b) Explain the components of this element.

Ans. (a) Place/physical distribution

The physical handling and movement of goods from place of production to the place of distribution is referred to as physical distribution.

Elements of Physical distribution/Place:

(i) Transportation :: It is the means of carrying goods and raw materials from the point of production to the point of sale. It is important because unless the goods are physically made available, the sale cannot be completed.

(ii) Warehousing :: It refers to the act of storing and assorting products in order to create time utility in them. Its purpose is to arrange placement of goods and provide facilities to store them. The need for warehousing arises because there is a time lag between the production (or procurement) of goods and their sale (or use).

(iii) Inventory control :: Managing the level of inventory (or stock) of goods is an important function. Higher the level of inventory, higher will be the level of service to customers but the cost of carrying the goods (i.e. storage cost, interest on capital, etc.) will also be high because of funds being blocked up in the stock.

(iv) Order Processing :: A good physical distribution system should provide for an accurate and speedy processing of orders, in the absence of which goods would reach the customers late or in wrong quantity or specifications

 

(Q6) ‘Automobiles Ltd. offered to sell their new bike at about 4,000 less than the usual price'.

This is an example of one of the techniques of Sales Promotion. Name the technique and explain two other techniques with examples.                                                              (CBSE, All India 2006)

Ans. Rebate. The two other techniques from are (a) Discount (b) ‘Quantity Gift’

 

(Q7) “Money spent on advertisement is not a waste but an investment.” Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer.                                  (CBSE, All India Compt. 2008)

Ans. Yes., benefits / advantage of advertisement 

 

(Q8) ‘Buy one get one free’ is an example of one of the techniques of Promotion mix. Name the technique. Explain any two other techniques of Promotion mix.       (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2004)

                                                                        OR

‘100 grams of extra material in a pack of one kg’ is an example of one of the techniques of Promotion Mix. Name the technique and explain two other techniques of promotion mix.

                                                                        OR                                        (CBSE, All India Compt. 2004)

‘50 grams extra’ with this pack of toothpaste is an example of one the techniques of Promotion Mix. Name the technique and explain two other techniques of Promotion Mix.

Ans. Quantity Gift.

 

(Q9) "An important task in the marketing of goods relates to designing the label as it provides useful and detailed information about the product." In the light of the above statement draw a label for ‘Tea' and highlight the important information to be provided on it.               (CBSE, Foreign 2010)

 

(Q10) Find wants and fill them', 'Create products and sell them’ are the two important concepts of marketing management. Identify and differentiate between the concepts.

    (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2009)

Ans. The first concept is 'Marketing Concept' and second one is ‘selling concept’.

 

(Q11) ‘Advertising encourages sale of inferior and dubious products' and 'Advertising confuses rather than helps’. Do you agree? Give reasons.                                              (CBSE, Delhi 2004)

 

(Q12) You have been appointed as a Brand Manager of Ford Motors. The Company is to introduce a Compact small car in the Indian Market. The name of the car is yet to be decided. You have been asked to chair a Brain Storming Session. Before the suggestions come forward, you have to briefly explain the participants as to what constitutes a good brand name with the help of suitable examples.                                                                                            (CBSE, Sample Paper 2010)

Ans. Characteristics of good Brand Name'.

 

(Q13) A toy car free with “Maggi Noodles” is an example of one of the techniques of Sales Promotion. Name the technique and explain two other techniques with examples.

Ans. 'Product Combinations'.                                                                             (CBSE, Delhi 2006)

 

(Q14) ‘Various tools of communication are used by the marketers to promote their products.’

 

(Q15) Answer the following questions:                                                   (CBSE, Sample Paper 2014)

(a) Why do companies use all tools at the same time?

(b) Name and explain the most commonly used non-personal tool of promotion which is paid for by the marketer.

(c) Which tool of promotion will primarily be used for the following:

(i) To promote or protect a company's image or its individual products;

(ii) An existing product meant for mass usage by literate people,

(iii) To introduce a new product to a particular class of people through door-to-door visits.

Ans.    (a) The companies use all tools at the same time because of the nature of market, nature of product, promotion budget and objectives of promotion being different at different times.

(b) The most commonly used non-personal tool of promotion which is paid for by the marketer is advertising. The explanation should include: It is a paid and non-personal form having an identified sponsor to promote an idea.

(c) The tools of promotion used are: (i) Public Relations; (ii) Advertisements; (iii) Personal Selling.

 

(Q16) Nisha, a school bag manufacturer decided to improve the product for profit maximization and thus added a water bottle holder to the existing design.                               (CBSE, Delhi 2012)

(i) Identify the marketing management philosophy adopted by Nisha; and

(ii) Explain the philosophy on the basis of: (a) Main focus and (b) Means and ends.

Ans.    (i) Product Concept.

(ii)        (a) Main focus of this concept is on product quality

(b) Means: Through better quality; Ends: Profit through product quality.

 

(Q17) Identify the method of sales-promotion in the following cases:                                                 (CBSE, Sample Paper 2014)

            (i) A mobile company offers a discount of Rs. 1000 to clear off excess inventory.

(ii) A customer gets & 5 off on return of an empty wrapper while making a new purchase of the same product.

(iii) A Company offers a pack of 1/2 kg. of sugar with the purchase of a 5 kg. bag of wheat flour.

(iv) A company offers 40% extra shaving cream in a pack of 500 gms.

(v) Scratch a card and get a gold coin with the purchase of a cold drink.

(vi) Purchase goods worth 50,000 and get a holiday package worth & 10,000 free.

Ans. (i) Rebate; (ii) Refund; (iii) Product combination; (iv) Quantity gift; (v) Instant draws and assigned gift; (vi) Usable benefit.

 

(Q18) Mansi, a shoe manufacturer for school students, decided to maximise her profit by producing and distributing at large scale and thereby reducing the average cost of production.                                                                                                                                        (CBSE, All India 2012)

  1. Identify the Marketing Management philosophy adopted by Mansi.
  2. Explain this philosophy on the basis of: (a) Main Focus; (b) Means and Ends.

Ans.                (i) Production Concept.

(ii)        (a) Main focus of this concept is on quantity of product.

 (b) Means: Through availability and affordability of product; Ends: Profit through mass production.

 

(Q19) Jasdeep, a dealer in school uniforms, decided to maximize his profit by using different aggressive promotional efforts.                                                                          (CBSE, Foreign 2012)

  1. Identify the market management philosophy by Jasdeep.
  2. Explain this philosophy on the basis of : (a) Main focus; (b) Means and Ends.

Ans. (i) Selling Concept.

(ii)      (a) Main focus of this concept is on selling existing product.

(b) Means : Through selling and promotional efforts; Ends: Profit through sales volume.

 

(Q20) Amar is engaged in manufacturing of refrigerators. He surveyed the market and found that customers need a refrigerator with a separate provision of water cooler in it. He decided and launched the same refrigerator in the market. Identify and explain the marketing philosophy involved.                                                                                                      (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2012)

Ans. “Marketing Concept".

 

(Q21) Ayesha is manufacturing lunch-boxes for school-going children. To maximise profit she decided to improve the quality and added a warmer for the lunch-boxes. Due to this improvement in the product, the sale is increasing day-by-day. Identify and explain the marketing philosophy involved.                                                                                                     (CBSE, All India Compt. 2012)

Ans.  ‘Product Concept’.

 

(Q22) Radha found a worm crawling out of newly opened tetra pack of a juice manufactured by a reputed company, Zest, Ltd. She went back to the shopkeeper from whom the pack was purchased who directed her to call up the customer care centre. When all her efforts failed, she went to a consumer activist group to seek help. The group decided to help Radha and take measures to impose restrictions on the sale of the firm's products of the particular batch and urge customers to refrain from buying the products of the company. Zest Ltd. lost its image in the market. The CEO gives the responsibility of bringing back the lost image of the company to a Manager.                                                                                                   (CBSE, Sample Paper 2015)

  1. Identify the concept of Marketing Management which will help the Manager getting the firm out of the above crisis.
  2. Also explain the role of above identified concept by stating any two points.

Ans. (a) Public Relations.

(i) Product Publicity: New products require special effort to publicise them. The public relations department advises the top management that the company can draw attention to new products by sponsoring sports and cultural events like news conferences, seminars and exhibitions.

(ii) Counselling. The public relations department advises the top management that the company can build goodwill by contributing money and time to certain causes like environment, wildlife, children's rights, education, etc.

 

(Q23) What is marketing management"?                                                            (CBSE Delhi 2004)

Ans. Marketing management refers to planning, organising, directing and control of activities which facilitate exchange of goods and services.

 

(Q24) What is meant by the societal concept of marketing?                            (CBSE, Delhi 2004)

Ans. Social marketing concept emphasise that along with customer's satisfaction, due importance should be given to welfare of the customer and the society.

 

(Q25) Which Concept of Marketing suggests that the organisation should earn profit through consumer satisfaction and social welfare?                                        (CBSE, Sample Paper 2008)

OR

Which marketing concept gives more importance to consumer welfare instead of consumer satisfaction?

Ans. Societal Marketing Concept.  

 

(Q26) Give any two advantages of branding to the marketer.              (CBSE, Sample Paper 2008)

Ans. (i) Branding enables marking product differentiation; (ii) Branding helps in differential pricing.

 

(Q27) At which level of packaging, the immediate container is referred to?

Ans. Primary Package.                                                                              (CBSE, Sample Paper 2008)

 

(Q28) State the meaning of ‘Product Promotion' function of packaging. (CBSE, All India 2013)

Ans. This function means that packaging is being used to attract attention and it can be used for to promoting the products.

 

(Q29) What is meant by Promotion Mix"?

Ans. Promotion mix refers to combination of promotion tools used by an organisation to achieve its objectives.                                                                                         (CBSE, Sample Paper 2014) 

 

(Q30) Enumerate any 2 qualities of a good Salesman.

Ans. (i) Good personality, (ii) Self-Confidence.

 

(Q31) Why is marketing called a social process?                                              (CBSE, Delhi 2013)

Ans. Marketing is called a social process because it involves the firm's interaction with people.

 

(Q32) Distinguish between ‘Selling Concept' and 'Marketing Concept of Marketing Management Philosophies on the basis of ‘main focus'.                                                         (CBSE, Delhi 2013)

Ans. Main focus of Selling concept is on “selling existing products" and main focus of marketing concept is on "customer satisfaction and social welfare".

 

(Q33) What is the advantage of registering ‘trade mark"?                                (CBSE, All India 2013)

Ans. The advantage of registering trade mark is to get an exclusive right to use it.

 

(Q34) State the meaning of ‘Product Identification' function of packaging.                                                (CBSE, All India 2013)

Ans. This function means that packaging helps in identifying a particular product because of its unique packaging.

 

(Q35) What is meant by trademark?                                                                                                 (CBSE, 2013)

Ans. A brand that is given legal protection against its use by other firms is called trademark

 

(Q36) Zoom Udyog, a car manufacturing Co., has started its business with Zoom 800 and slowly launched Zoom-1000, Wagon-Z, Swift etc. and offered various services like after sale service, availability of spare parts etc. Identify the element of marketing mix referred here.

Hint: Product.                                                                                              (CBSE, Sample Paper 2015)

 

(Q37) Ajay was appointed a marketing head of ‘Alfa Enterprise' manufacturers of toothpaste and toothbrushes. His target sale was 2,000 units a month. Apart from thinking about various channels of distribution to achieve the target he himself started visiting schools in backward areas. He found that even after taking various steps and counseling, some school children had not started brushing their teeth. He investigated and found that they could not afford to buy toothbrush and toothpaste. So with due permission he started donating 200 toothbrushes and toothpastes every month to the school.                                                                                          (CBSE, Delhi 2013)

(i) Identify the channel of distribution Ajay' would adopt for distribution of toothpaste and toothbrushes and justify it by giving one reason.

(ii) State any two values which Ajay wants to communicate to the society.

Ans.       (i) The channel of distribution Ajay would adopt is Two level channel, i.e., Manufacturer Wholesaler – Retailer — Customer, because he is distributing consumer goods.

   (ii) Values which Ajay wants to communicate to the society are:

• Charity • Concern for the underprivileged • Hygiene • Sensitivity towards health (any two)

 

(Q38) Crackers Ltd., a fire cracker manufacturing company launched some new products on eve of Diwali which attracted many buyers. To meet the increased demand, the company employed children from nearby villages. Although the product was in great demand, appropriate safety warnings for use were not mentioned on the packets that led to many accidents.

(i) Identify and explain the important product related decision that was not taken into consideration by the company.

(ii) Also, identify any two values which were violated by the company.    (CBSE, Delhi 2014)

Ans. (i) Labeling: It is the process of designing the label and putting it on the package to provide information regarding the product, its contents, methods of use, etc.

(ii) Values violated by the company: • Concern for safety of human beings. • Respect for law (employing children as labour). • Concern/sensitivity for the environment. (Any two)

 

(Q39) Identity and explain the marketing management philosophy which implies that products and services are bought not merely because of their quality ore brand name, but because they satisfy a specific need of a customer.                                                 (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2014)

Hint: Marketing Concept.

 

(Q40) "You don't close a sale, you open a relationship, if you want to build a long-term successful enterprise. Identify the communication tool used by the marketer. State any two features of this communication tool.                                                                 (CBSE, All India Compt. 2014)

Hint: Personal Selling.

 

(Q41) ‘Generally consumer prefer to buy goods directly from the producers but it is not always possible.’ Give reasons, why is it so by explaining four different factors responsible for this.                                                                                                  (CBSE, Delhi 2010, 2012)

Hint: Factors affecting channel of distribution.

 

(Q42) ‘Bending the customer according to the Product’ and ‘Developing the product according to customer's needs' are the two important concepts of marketing management. Identify the concept and differentiate between the two.                                                                   (CBSE, Delhi 2009)

Hint: Selling Concept; Marketing Concept.

 

(Q43) Identify and explain the promotional tool of Marketing-mix which plays a persuasive, service and informative role and thereby links a business firm to its customers.

OR

A salesman approaches you to promote the sale of a Water Purifier. Which communication tool is the marketer using by sending a salesman at your doorstep?

OR

Identify and explain the promotional tool of marketing mix which involves oral presentation of message with one or more prospective customers for the purpose of making sales.

Hint: The tool used is "Personal Selling".

 

VERY SHORT ANSWER 

 

(Q1) Distinguish between the concepts ‘product’ and ‘production' in marketing keeping following as the base: (i) Focus; (ii) Means; (iii) Ends.    (CBSE, Sample Paper 2010, Delhi Compt. 2013)

 

(Q2) Explain any two functions of marketing'.                                                    (CBSE, Delhi 2011)

 

(Q3) What is meant by ‘Product concept’ of marketing?                                   (CBSE, Delhi 2010)

 

(Q4) Differentiate between marketing and selling on any three basis.          (CBSE Delhi 2011)

 

(Q5) Kumar Ltd. decided to produce a liquid soap for cleaning the utensils under the brand name 'SHINE’. State three characteristics which are being fulfilled by the brand decided by this brand name.                                                                                     (CBSE, Sample Paper 2014)

 

(Q6) What is meant by 'selling concept’ of marketing?                                                 (CBSE, Delhi 2010)

 

(Q7) Explain any three advantages of ‘branding’ to marketer.                                    (CBSE, Delhi 2008)

OR

“Though branding adds to cost, it provides several advantages to the marketers." In the light of statement state any 3 advantages of branding to marketers?                                (CBSE, Delhi 2013)

 

(Q8) Explain any three advantages of ‘labelling'.                                              (CBSE, Delhi 2008)

 

(Q9) Enumerate any three market related factors that should be kept in view while taking decision on the choice of channels of distribution of any product.                                (CBSE, Delhi 2005)

 

(Q10) What is meant by ‘direct channels of distribution'? List any four methods of direct distribution.                                                                                                               (CBSE, Delhi 2009)

 

(Q11) What is meant by ‘Indirect channels of distribution'? Explain any two indirect channels of distribution.                                                                                                               (CBSE, Delhi 2009)

 

(Q12) Explain briefly any three techniques of sales promotion commonly used by marketers to attract the customers towards the product.                                                    (CBSE, Delhi 2004)

 

(Q13) Explain briefly any three features of personal selling.                          (CBSE, Delhi 2004)

 

(Q14) Explain any three functions of ‘packaging'.                                            (CBSE, Delhi 2008)

OR

‘Packaging has acquired great significance in the marketing of goods. In the light of this statement, state any three functions of packaging.                                                (CBSE, Delhi 2013)

 

(Q15) Differentiate between "Marketing Concept Philosophy" and "Selling Concept Philosophy" on the basis of: (a) Meaning; (b) Main focus; (c) Means.                                  (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2013)

 

(Q16) Explain briefly any three features of advertising.                                   (CBSE, Delhi 2004)

 

(Q17) Explain briefly any three factors that are considered while fixing the price of a product.

(CBSE, Delhi 2004)

(Q18) Explain the following two functions of Marketing: (i) Product Designing and Development; (ii) Marketing Planning.                                                                                    (CBSE, Sample Paper 2014)

 

(Q19) Though branding adds to the cost, it provides several advantages to the consumers'. In the light of the statement, state any three advantages of branding to customers.

(CBSE, Delhi 2013)

(Q20) Differentiate between ‘Marketing Concept Philosophy' and 'Production Concept Philosophy' on the basis of: (a) Meaning; (b) Main focus; (c) Means;               (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2013)

 

(Q21) ‘Choice of an appropriate channel of distribution is very important marketing decision which affects the performance of an organisation'. Explain any two factors on which the choice of an appropriate channel depends.                                              (CBSE, Sample Paper 2015)

 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 

 

(Q1) Explain ‘Market Planning' and Product Designing and Development as functions of Marketing.                                                                                                             (CBSE, Delhi 2012)

 

Ans. (i) Marketing Planning :: One important area of work of a marketer is to develop appropriate marketing plans so that the marketing objectives of the organisation can be achieved. For example, a marketer of colour TV having 10% of the current market share aims at enhancing his market share to 20% in the next three years. He will have to develop a complete marketing plan covering various important aspects including the plan for increasing the level of production, promotion of products etc. and specify the action programmes to achieve these objectives.

 

(ii) Product Designing and Development :: The decision of the product contributes to making the product attractive to the target customers. A good design can improve performance of a product and also give it a competitive advantage in the market. For example, when we plan to buy any product say a motorbike, we not only see its features like cost, mileage etc. but also the design aspects like shape, style etc

 

(Q2) State any five functions of marketing from the management viewpoint.

(CBSE, Sample Paper 2010)

(Q3) Explain the following functions of marketing (i) Gathering and analyzing market information; (ii) Market Planning; (iii) Product designing and development; (iv) Customer support services.

(CBSE, Delhi 2008)

(Q4) Marketing and selling are two different concepts. Distinguish between the two on any five basis.                                                                                                                        (CBSE, Sample Paper 2008)

                                                                        OR

The aim of Marketing and “Selling' is to maximise profit. Yet they differ in their approach. Differentiate between the two by giving any six differences.             (CBSE, All India 2008)

                                                                        OR

Differentiate between ‘Marketing’ and ‘Selling’ on any five basis.    (CBSE, Delhi 2012)

 

(Q5) Explain 4 important elements of marketing mix.    (CBSE, Delhi 2008, Delhi compt. 2014)

 

(Q6) Determination of the Price of a Product’ is influenced by many factors.  Explain any five factors that have an influence on price.                                                           (CBSE, Sample Paper 2010)

                                                                        OR

Name that element of marketing-mix which affects the revenue and profits of a firm. Explain any five factors which help in determining this elements.                                              (CBSE, Delhi 2010, 14)

OR

Explain any four factors which affect the determination of price of a product. (CBSE, Delhi 2013)

 

(Q7) What is meant by Packaging? State any four functions of Packaging.               (CBSE, Delhi 2011)

 

(Q8) What are the characteristics of a good Brand name? Explain.                  (CBSE, Delhi 2009)

                                                                        OR

What is meant by ‘Brand Name’? State any four characteristics of a good ‘Brand Name’.

 

(Q9) What is meant by ‘Labelling’? State any four function of ‘Labelling’.       (CBSE, Delhi 2011)

 

(Q10) Explain, in brief, the factors, on which the choice of channels of distribution depends.

OR                                                 (CBSE, Delhi 2004, 2014)

‘Choice of an appropriate channel of distribution is a very important marketing decision which depends on various factors’ Explain any 3 such factors.                         (CBSE, All India 2013)

 

(Q11) “Advertising misleads customers and increases the cost of products."Do you agree with o this statement? Give reasons in support of your answer.                            (CBSE, Delhi 2007)

 

(Q12) Explain the following sales promotion activities: (i) Discount; (ii) Product combination; (iii) Financing; (iv) Lucky draw.                                                                                    (CBSE, Delhi 2009)

 

(Q13) ‘An important task in the marketing of goods relates to designing the label as it provides useful and detailed information about the product. In the light of the above statement, draw a label for a liquid soap' and highlight the important information to be provided on it. (CBSE, Delhi 2010)

 

(Q14) 'Advertising and Personal Selling both are communication tools used by the marketers to promote their products. Yet they differ in their approach. Differentiate between the two by giving any six differences.                                                                     (CBSE, All India 2008)

OR

Differentiate between Advertising' and 'Personal Selling' on any five basis. (CBSE, Delhi 2012)

 

(Q15) Explain the following functions of Marketing: (a) Gathering and analysing Market Information; (b) Standardisation and Grading.                                                       (CBSE, Foreign 2012)

 

(Q16) Physical distribution includes some components for physically moving the goods from manufacturers to the consumers. Explain these components.                       (CBSE, All India 2012)

 

(Q17) The elements of marketing mix are popularly known as 4Ps of marketing Explain briefly these elements of marketing mix.                                                                            (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2012)

 

(Q18) Explain the role of Public-Relations' in marketing management         (CBSE, All India 2013)

                                                                                    OR

Describe the role of ‘Public Relations' in the promotion of products and services.

          (CBSE, All India Compt. 2014)

(Q19) What is meant by ‘Sales Promotion'? Explain any five sales promotion techniques with an example of each.                                                                                              (CBSE Delhi Compt. 2013)

 

(Q20) Explain the role of ‘Advertising’ in marketing management.                (CBSE, All India 2013)

 

(Q21) Explain the concept of personal selling and any four qualities of a good salesman.

(CBSE, Delhi 2013, All India 2014)

(Q22) Explain the following functions of Marketing’: (a) Gathering and Analysing Market information; (b) Standardisation and Grading; (c) Customer Support Services.

 (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2013)

(Q23) Explain the following functions of ‘Marketing’: (a) Product Designing and Development; (b) Marketing Planning; (c) Physical Distribution.                                     (CBSE, All India Compt. 2013)

 

(Q24) Though advertising is one of the most frequently used medium of promotion of goods and services, yet it attracts lot of objections. Explain any four such objections. ". (CBSE, Delhi 2014)

 

(Q25) Explain the following functions of marketing: (i) Product designing and development (ii) Standardization and Grading: (iii) Customer Support Services and (iv) Pricing of products.

                                                                                                                                    (CBSE, All India 2014)

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