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(Q1) ‘If planning is done carefully and accordingly other functions of management are going in the right direction, then there is no need of the controlling function of management. Do you agree with the statement? Give reasons in support of your answer.     (CBSE, All India Compt. 2004)


"Like a traffic signal, control system guides and directs various departments of an organisation." Do you agree?

Ans. Importance of Controlling.


(Q2) K & K Co. Ltd. is engaged in manufacturing of machine components. The target of production is 200 units daily. The company had been successfully attaining this target until two months ago. Over the last two months it has been observed that daily production varies between 150-170 units. Identify the possible causes for the decline in production and the steps to be taken to achieve the desired targets.                                                                                                (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2003)

Ans.    (1) Defective materials: Change the quality specification for the materials used

(2) Defective Machinery: Repair the existing machine or replace the machine if it cannot be repaired

(3) Obsolete machinery: Undertake technological upgradation of machinery

(4) Defective process: Modify the existing process

(5) Defective physical conditions of work - Improve the physical conditions of work

(6) lack of Motivation - Providing suitable incentive


(Q3) Kanu is appointment as a Factory Manager in a gel-pen manufacturing company. He was given a target of producing one lackh gel-pens per month. He knew that the ‘essence of management is to achieve desired results' but he does not know how to ensure that the work goes on according to plans'. Guide him by explaining the process so that he is able to achieve the desired results.                                                                                                                                                                                                 (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2009)

Ans. Discuss Controlling Process'.






(Q1) Mr. Nath, a recently appointed production manager of Suntech Ltd. has decided to produce jute bags instead of plastic bags as these are banned by the government. He set a target of producing 1000 jute bags a day. It was reported that the employees were notable to achieve the target. After analysis he found that employees were demotivated and not putting in their best for achieving the target. Mr. Nath's behavior is good towards the employees. His attitude is always positive. So he announced various incentive schemes for the employees like:

  • Installing award or certificate for best performance.
  • Rewarding an employee forgiving valuable suggestions.
  • Congratulating the employees for good performance.

(a) Identify the functions of management highlighted in the above paragraph.

(b) State the incentive' under which the employees are motivated.

(c) State any two values which the production manager wants to communicate to the society by his work and behaviour.                                                                     (CBSE, Sample Question Paper 2015)

Ans.    (a) Controlling and Directing

(b) Employee recognition programme (non-monetary incentive)

(c) Values: • Sensitivity to environment • Good behavior towards employees • Teamwork with employees


(Q2) “Controlling helps in achieving objectives of the organisation and improving employee's morale." Explain this statement, in brief.

                                                                (CBSE, Delhi 2005)


(Q3) Taking corrective/remedial action is the last step in the process of one of the functions of management. (a) Name the function; (b) Explain the other steps of the abovementioned function. Ans. (a) Controlling. (b) Controlling Process'.                                 (CBSE, Sample Paper 2008)


(Q4) Rajeev and Sanjeev are managers in the same organisation having different units. While discussing about the function of management, Rajeev says "Planning is looking ahead whereas controlling is looking back." But Sanjeev says, "Planning is looking back whereas controlling is looking ahead." Both are giving reasons in favour of their statements. Explain the possible reasons given by both and justify who is correct.

Ans. Rajeev who says, "Planning is looking ahead whereas controlling is looking back" must be giving the following reasons:

  • Plans are prepared for future and are based on forecasts about future conditions. Therefore, planning is looking ahead.
  • On the contrary, controlling is like a post-mortem of past activities to find out deviations. In this sense, controlling is looking back.

Sanjeev who says, “Planning is looking back whereas controlling is looking ahead" must be giving the following reasons:

  • Planning is also looking back because future planning is guided by past experiences.
  • Controlling is looking ahead because the corrective action initiated by control function seeks to improve future performance or to revise future plans.

Conclusion: Planning and controlling are both backward looking and forward looking functions. Hence, both of them are partially correct.

(Q5) Explain how 'Management by Exception' helps in controlling process.                                                     (CBSE, All India 2013)

Ans. Management by Exception helps in the controlling process by identifying only significant deviations, which go beyond the permissible limits and bringing them to the notice of the management. Management by Exception emphasises that a manager who tries to control everything may end up controlling nothing.


(Q6) Which function of management ensures that actual activities confirm to planned activities?                                                                                 OR                                          (CBSE, Delhi 2008)

Name the function which reviews the operations in a business unit.                       (CBSE, All India 2008)

Ans. Controlling


(Q7) In controlling, why is actual performance compared with standards?

(CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2009)

Ans. Actual performance is compared with standards to find out deviations.


(Q8) Why it is said that “controlling is a continuous activity"?                                     (CBSE, Delhi 2011)

Ans. Controlling is a continuous activity because it involves a constant review of actual performance for taking; corrective action, if any.


(Q9) Is controlling ‘the end’ of management functions cycle? Give reason in support of your answer.                                                                                                                         (CBSE, Sample paper 2010)

Ans. No controlling is not the end of management functions cycle because it brings back the management cycle to planning function.


(Q10) Which two steps in the process of control are concerned with compelling events to conform to the plan?                                                                                                  (CBSE, Sample Paper 2014)

Ans. (i) Comparison of actual performance with standards; (ii) Taking corrective action.


(Q11) Give the meaning of ‘Critical Point Control'.                                (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2014)

Ans. Critical point control means that control system should focus on key result areas which are

Critical to organisation's success.


(Q12) What is meant by Management by Exception' in the process of controlling?

(CBSE, All India Compt. 2014)

Ans. Management by exception means that manager should give attention to significant deviations, which go beyond the permissible limit.


(Q13) Give meaning of the term ‘Deviation' as used in the control function of management.

(CBSE, Sample Paper 2010)

Ans. Deviation refers to difference between actual performance and standard performance.


(Q14) Why is it said that planning is a pre-requisite for controlling? (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2009)

Ans. Planning is a pre-requisite because planning provides standards against which actual performance is compared under controlling.


(Q15) What is important while analysing deviations in controlling?              (CBSE, Delhi 2011)

Ans. While analysing deviations, it is important to determine the acceptable range of deviations/Key Result areas.


(Q16) What should be the “focus point” for a manager while controlling, as controlling at each and every step is not possible?

Hint: Key Result areas


(Q17) Standards are set in quantitative as well as in qualitative terms. Identify the type of standards when it is set in terms of time to be spent'.                                              (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2012)

Ans. Quantitative Standard. 


(Q18) What should be done while taking corrective action' in the process of controlling when especially in the important areas deviations go beyond the acceptable age? (CBSE, Delhi 2013)

Ans. When deviations go beyond the acceptable range especially in important areas, then it requires immediate managerial attention so that deviations do not occur again.


(Q19) How is controlling a forward-looking function? State                (CBSE, Delhi Compt. 2013)

Ans. Controlling is a forward-looking function as it aims to improve future performance, based on experience gained in the past. 


(Q20) Why is it said that controlling is "looking back"? State             (CBSE, All India Compt. 2013)

Ans. Controlling is a backward-looking function as it measures and compares actual performance with standards fixed in the past.




(Q1) Controlling is forward looking.' Explain.                                                                                     (CBSE, Delhi 2009)


(Q2) Does control help in' judging the accuracy of standards' and ‘improving motivation of the employees'? Explain.                                                                                                                                                                                             (CBSE, Sample Paper 2008)


(Q3) You are a management guru. You have been asked by a business firm to make its managers understand the importance of controlling. Give any four arguments.                                                                                                     (CBSE, Sample Paper 2014)


(Q4) Explain how controlling helps in 'achieving better coordination' and better planning"?                       (CBSE, Delhi 2009)

(Q5) Controlling is a pervasive function. Explain.                                             (CBSE, Delhi 2009)


(Q6) "There is a close and reciprocal relationship between planning and controlling" Explain the statement.                      (CBSE, Delhi 201)


(Q7) Explain how ‘Critical Point Control’ helps in controlling process.         (CBSE, All India 2013)


(Q8) After setting the performance standards the next step in the controlling process is the ‘measurement of actual performance'. Explain this step in the process of controlling.

(CBSE, All India 2013)

(Q9) Explain how controlling helps in: (i) accomplishing organisational goals; and (ii) judging accuracy of standards.                                                                                                 (CBSE, All India 2013)


(Q10) Explain how controlling helps in: (i) making efficient use of resources; and (ii) improving employees' motivation.                                                                                           (CBSE, All India 2013)




(Q1) What is meant by ‘controlling"? Briefly explain any three points of importance of controlling.                            (CBSE, Delhi 2007)

(Q2) “Controlling is an indispensable function of management" Do you agree? Give four reasons in support of your answer.                                                                                          (CBSE, Delhi 2008, 14)


Explain any four points highlighting the importance of controlling.                                        (CBSE, Delhi 2010, 2012, 2013)

(Q3) Explain the limitations of managerial control.


(Q4) Explain briefly the relationship between planning and controlling'.     (CBSE, Delhi 2004, 2012)


‘Planning and controlling are inter-dependent and inter-linked activities. Explain. (CBSE, Delhi 2006)


‘Planning and Controlling are inseparable twins of management. How?            (CBSE, Delhi 2013)


(Q5) “Controlling helps in achieving objectives of the organisation and improving employee's morale" Explain this statement, in brief.                                                                 (CBSE, Delhi 2005)


(Q6) Explain the process of controlling.                                                  (CBSE, Delhi 2010, 2014)


Explain the steps involved in the process controlling function of management.

(CBSE, sample Paper 2010, Foreign 2012, Delhi 2013)


A production-incharge was given a standard toy-train. He was asked to produce similar other toy-trains. What control process would he have followed?                                                (CBSE, All India 2002)

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