Science & Technology: September 2021 Current Affairs Notes | Study Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - UPSC

UPSC: Science & Technology: September 2021 Current Affairs Notes | Study Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - UPSC

The document Science & Technology: September 2021 Current Affairs Notes | Study Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Science & Technology for UPSC CSE.
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 Page 1


 
89                                                                                                                                                                       
7. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 
7.1. USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURE 
Why in news? 
It is being reported that use of drones and satellite imaging could be made mandatory for insurers to keep a check on 
fraudulent and false insurance claims. 
More on News 
• Centre and the Insurance Regulatory and 
Development Authority of India (IRDAI) are in 
discussions to adopt artificial intelligence and big 
data to identify manipulation of processes and 
reduce delays in settlement of claims. 
• It is being pushed to diagnose processes that are 
being manipulated, leading to fraudulent claims in 
agricultural as well as industrial insurance. 
Drivers of Agricultural technology growth in India 
• Increasing population, increasing average income 
and globalization effects in India will increase 
demand for quantity, quality and nutritious food, 
and variety of food.  
• To build an agriculture and food system that is efficient, environmentally sustainable, equitable, and able to link 
farms with consumers. 
• India is the third-largest nation in terms of funding received and start-ups in the agritech space. 
o Agritech is projected to grow to a $30-$35 billion market by 2025, with e-sales of produce, inputs and digitally 
enabled logistics as key segments. 
Page 2


 
89                                                                                                                                                                       
7. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 
7.1. USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURE 
Why in news? 
It is being reported that use of drones and satellite imaging could be made mandatory for insurers to keep a check on 
fraudulent and false insurance claims. 
More on News 
• Centre and the Insurance Regulatory and 
Development Authority of India (IRDAI) are in 
discussions to adopt artificial intelligence and big 
data to identify manipulation of processes and 
reduce delays in settlement of claims. 
• It is being pushed to diagnose processes that are 
being manipulated, leading to fraudulent claims in 
agricultural as well as industrial insurance. 
Drivers of Agricultural technology growth in India 
• Increasing population, increasing average income 
and globalization effects in India will increase 
demand for quantity, quality and nutritious food, 
and variety of food.  
• To build an agriculture and food system that is efficient, environmentally sustainable, equitable, and able to link 
farms with consumers. 
• India is the third-largest nation in terms of funding received and start-ups in the agritech space. 
o Agritech is projected to grow to a $30-$35 billion market by 2025, with e-sales of produce, inputs and digitally 
enabled logistics as key segments. 
 
90                                                                                                                                                                       
 
Advantage of using technology in agriculture 
• Better crop varieties: Use of biotechnology and breeding will help in developing eco-friendly and disease resistant, 
climate resilient, more nutritious and tastier crop varieties.  
Page 3


 
89                                                                                                                                                                       
7. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 
7.1. USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURE 
Why in news? 
It is being reported that use of drones and satellite imaging could be made mandatory for insurers to keep a check on 
fraudulent and false insurance claims. 
More on News 
• Centre and the Insurance Regulatory and 
Development Authority of India (IRDAI) are in 
discussions to adopt artificial intelligence and big 
data to identify manipulation of processes and 
reduce delays in settlement of claims. 
• It is being pushed to diagnose processes that are 
being manipulated, leading to fraudulent claims in 
agricultural as well as industrial insurance. 
Drivers of Agricultural technology growth in India 
• Increasing population, increasing average income 
and globalization effects in India will increase 
demand for quantity, quality and nutritious food, 
and variety of food.  
• To build an agriculture and food system that is efficient, environmentally sustainable, equitable, and able to link 
farms with consumers. 
• India is the third-largest nation in terms of funding received and start-ups in the agritech space. 
o Agritech is projected to grow to a $30-$35 billion market by 2025, with e-sales of produce, inputs and digitally 
enabled logistics as key segments. 
 
90                                                                                                                                                                       
 
Advantage of using technology in agriculture 
• Better crop varieties: Use of biotechnology and breeding will help in developing eco-friendly and disease resistant, 
climate resilient, more nutritious and tastier crop varieties.  
 
91                                                                                                                                                                       
Initiatives taken in India for promotion of technology in agriculture 
sector 
• Government’s free app, Kisan Suvidha, provides farmers information 
on current weather, market price, dealer info, plant protection, and 
more.  
• ISRO’s Geo-platform, Bhuvan, which provides valuable data on the 
plantation, pest surveillance and weather.  
• Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has established a 
network of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) in the country mandated 
with Technology Assessment and Demonstration for its Application 
and Capacity Development (TADA-CD).  
o KVKs organize demonstrations, training programs and skill 
development programs for the benefit of farmers and farm 
women, rural youth and in-service extension personnel. 
• e-sagu: It provide expert suggestions to the farmers. With the use of 
the internet and audio-visual communication facility, the advice is 
provided to the farmers regularly regarding the various techniques to 
increase farm productivity. 
• Improving productivity: Use of satellites, IoT, drones for better collection of data regarding soil health, crop area 
and yield can make agriculture be more profitable, easy and environmentally friendly and can also make cost for 
insurers less with better estimations. 
• Environmental sustainability: Precision farming systems improve environmental sustainability as the natural 
resources are being continuously 
monitored, and actions are taken 
accordingly, before nutrition depletion or 
drought takes place. 
• Lower cost of production: Farm 
mechanization can help in 20-30 per cent 
savings in time, 20- 30 per cent reduction 
in manual labour and 10- 15 per cent 
overall increase in farm productivity. 
• Improving water use efficiency: 
Compared with conventional flood or 
furrow irrigation, modern methods of 
irrigation like drip and sprinkler irrigation 
can reduce the volume of water applied to 
fields by up to 70 percent. 
• Reduce farmer’s effort: Use of GPS 
technology, drones, robots etc controlled 
by smart phones etc can make life of 
farmers easy with good results. These advanced devices will make agriculture be more profitable, easy and 
environmentally friendly. 
• Improved decision making through the acquisition and leveraging of granular data about their fields and animals in 
combination with timely, accurate, and location-specific weather and agronomic data. 
• Climate/ weather prediction: Drones, remote sensors, and satellites gather 24/7 data on weather patterns in and 
around the fields, providing farmers with vital information on temperature, rainfall, soil, humidity, etc. 
Challenges in adopting technology in Agriculture  
• High transaction cost: Because of small-scale farm structures, poor public infrastructure, and insufficient human 
capital investments, there are higher transaction costs of providing relevant technological advice and services. 
• Reluctance from Farmers: It is not easy to convince farmers to invest in tech solutions without overwhelming 
evidence of an adequate return. 
• Lack of Research & Development (R&D): Public sector R&D in the country is showing a fatigue and suffering from 
resource constraint, disciplinary fragmentations, and lack of drive and inspiration.  
o Private sector investment in agri R&D is also low due to nature of IPR regime in the country. 
• Digital divide: Small and marginal farmers may lack the skills and knowledge to reap the benefits of digital 
applications. Consequently, the benefits might accrue disproportionately to farmers positioned to take advantage of 
such opportunities. 
• Unskilled labour: Digital technologies increase the demand for skilled labor while decreasing it for unskilled labor, 
so they can exacerbate and perpetuate labor market inequalities and further widen the gender gap in rural areas. 
Way forward 
• Strengthen access to foundational data and promote data sharing by digitizing existing public agriculture records 
and data on soil quality, weather conditions and pest and disease surveillance. 
• Review regulations that may constrain the adoption of technologies such as the use of internet of things, drones, 
and global positioning systems to collect data for precision agriculture. 
• Support digital entrepreneurship ecosystems which are a key driver behind the increased supply of digital solutions 
in the agriculture. Adopting e-agriculture strategies, ag-tech start-up policies, regulatory sandboxes to test new 
technologies are some steps that can be taken. 
Page 4


 
89                                                                                                                                                                       
7. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 
7.1. USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURE 
Why in news? 
It is being reported that use of drones and satellite imaging could be made mandatory for insurers to keep a check on 
fraudulent and false insurance claims. 
More on News 
• Centre and the Insurance Regulatory and 
Development Authority of India (IRDAI) are in 
discussions to adopt artificial intelligence and big 
data to identify manipulation of processes and 
reduce delays in settlement of claims. 
• It is being pushed to diagnose processes that are 
being manipulated, leading to fraudulent claims in 
agricultural as well as industrial insurance. 
Drivers of Agricultural technology growth in India 
• Increasing population, increasing average income 
and globalization effects in India will increase 
demand for quantity, quality and nutritious food, 
and variety of food.  
• To build an agriculture and food system that is efficient, environmentally sustainable, equitable, and able to link 
farms with consumers. 
• India is the third-largest nation in terms of funding received and start-ups in the agritech space. 
o Agritech is projected to grow to a $30-$35 billion market by 2025, with e-sales of produce, inputs and digitally 
enabled logistics as key segments. 
 
90                                                                                                                                                                       
 
Advantage of using technology in agriculture 
• Better crop varieties: Use of biotechnology and breeding will help in developing eco-friendly and disease resistant, 
climate resilient, more nutritious and tastier crop varieties.  
 
91                                                                                                                                                                       
Initiatives taken in India for promotion of technology in agriculture 
sector 
• Government’s free app, Kisan Suvidha, provides farmers information 
on current weather, market price, dealer info, plant protection, and 
more.  
• ISRO’s Geo-platform, Bhuvan, which provides valuable data on the 
plantation, pest surveillance and weather.  
• Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has established a 
network of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) in the country mandated 
with Technology Assessment and Demonstration for its Application 
and Capacity Development (TADA-CD).  
o KVKs organize demonstrations, training programs and skill 
development programs for the benefit of farmers and farm 
women, rural youth and in-service extension personnel. 
• e-sagu: It provide expert suggestions to the farmers. With the use of 
the internet and audio-visual communication facility, the advice is 
provided to the farmers regularly regarding the various techniques to 
increase farm productivity. 
• Improving productivity: Use of satellites, IoT, drones for better collection of data regarding soil health, crop area 
and yield can make agriculture be more profitable, easy and environmentally friendly and can also make cost for 
insurers less with better estimations. 
• Environmental sustainability: Precision farming systems improve environmental sustainability as the natural 
resources are being continuously 
monitored, and actions are taken 
accordingly, before nutrition depletion or 
drought takes place. 
• Lower cost of production: Farm 
mechanization can help in 20-30 per cent 
savings in time, 20- 30 per cent reduction 
in manual labour and 10- 15 per cent 
overall increase in farm productivity. 
• Improving water use efficiency: 
Compared with conventional flood or 
furrow irrigation, modern methods of 
irrigation like drip and sprinkler irrigation 
can reduce the volume of water applied to 
fields by up to 70 percent. 
• Reduce farmer’s effort: Use of GPS 
technology, drones, robots etc controlled 
by smart phones etc can make life of 
farmers easy with good results. These advanced devices will make agriculture be more profitable, easy and 
environmentally friendly. 
• Improved decision making through the acquisition and leveraging of granular data about their fields and animals in 
combination with timely, accurate, and location-specific weather and agronomic data. 
• Climate/ weather prediction: Drones, remote sensors, and satellites gather 24/7 data on weather patterns in and 
around the fields, providing farmers with vital information on temperature, rainfall, soil, humidity, etc. 
Challenges in adopting technology in Agriculture  
• High transaction cost: Because of small-scale farm structures, poor public infrastructure, and insufficient human 
capital investments, there are higher transaction costs of providing relevant technological advice and services. 
• Reluctance from Farmers: It is not easy to convince farmers to invest in tech solutions without overwhelming 
evidence of an adequate return. 
• Lack of Research & Development (R&D): Public sector R&D in the country is showing a fatigue and suffering from 
resource constraint, disciplinary fragmentations, and lack of drive and inspiration.  
o Private sector investment in agri R&D is also low due to nature of IPR regime in the country. 
• Digital divide: Small and marginal farmers may lack the skills and knowledge to reap the benefits of digital 
applications. Consequently, the benefits might accrue disproportionately to farmers positioned to take advantage of 
such opportunities. 
• Unskilled labour: Digital technologies increase the demand for skilled labor while decreasing it for unskilled labor, 
so they can exacerbate and perpetuate labor market inequalities and further widen the gender gap in rural areas. 
Way forward 
• Strengthen access to foundational data and promote data sharing by digitizing existing public agriculture records 
and data on soil quality, weather conditions and pest and disease surveillance. 
• Review regulations that may constrain the adoption of technologies such as the use of internet of things, drones, 
and global positioning systems to collect data for precision agriculture. 
• Support digital entrepreneurship ecosystems which are a key driver behind the increased supply of digital solutions 
in the agriculture. Adopting e-agriculture strategies, ag-tech start-up policies, regulatory sandboxes to test new 
technologies are some steps that can be taken. 
 
92                                                                                                                                                                       
• Technology transfer needs effective interactive groups like Self Help Groups and Farmers Clubs which should 
become tools of disseminating information about various government sponsored schemes. 
• Technologies that are developed and promoted must result not only in increased productivity level but also ensure 
that the quality of natural resource base is preserved and enhanced. 
• Innovative financial arrangements and micro-loans might be required to increase adoption, which is currently 
absent. 
7.2. COAL BASED HYDROGEN 
Why in news? 
Recently, the Ministry of Coal constituted a Task Force and Expert Committee to prepare the roadmap for Coal based 
Hydrogen production. 
More on news 
The broad terms of reference of Task Force and the Expert Committee include: 
• Identifying the experts and roles: Identification of role to be played by each stakeholder Ministry and also the 
associated experts for co-opting them as members.  
• Monitoring of activities towards achieving coal-based Hydrogen production and usage 
• Coordinate with Coal Gasification Mission, NITI Aayog and other national/international technology institutions in 
hydrogen. 
• Prepare a road map for coal-based Hydrogen production and usage including economic viability, environmental 
sustainability and policy enablers required.  
Global status of Hydrogen 
• At present, the current global demand for hydrogen is 70 million metric tons, most of which is being produced from 
fossil fuels– 76% from natural gas and 23% from coal and remaining from the electrolysis of water.  
o This results in CO2 emissions of around 830Mt/year out of which only 130Mt/year is being captured and used in 
the fertilizer industry. 
• Much of the hydrogen produced is used for oil refining, ammonia, methanol production, steel production. 
What is Coal based Hydrogen? 
• Hydrogen is considered a secondary source of energy, commonly referred to as an energy carrier. It can be stored 
physically as a gas or liquid. 
• Coal is a mixture of two components i.e., Carbon-based matter (the decayed remains of prehistoric vegetation), 
and Mineral matter (which comes from 
the ground from which the coal is dug).  
o The carbon-based matter is 
composed of five main elements 
i.e., carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, 
nitrogen, and sulfur. (Refer 
infographic) 
• Coal is one of the important sources of hydrogen making (Brown Hydrogen) apart from Natural Gas (Grey 
hydrogen) and renewable energy (Green Hydrogen) through electrolysis. In case of renewable energy (Green 
Hydrogen) surplus solar power is used to electrolyze water into hydrogen and oxygen.  
• The global emphasis is on substituting liquid fuels with hydrogen (as fuel in vehicles), storage of surplus renewable 
power as hydrogen (as power cannot be stored at a cost effective price), and cutting down emission. 
 
 
 
Page 5


 
89                                                                                                                                                                       
7. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 
7.1. USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURE 
Why in news? 
It is being reported that use of drones and satellite imaging could be made mandatory for insurers to keep a check on 
fraudulent and false insurance claims. 
More on News 
• Centre and the Insurance Regulatory and 
Development Authority of India (IRDAI) are in 
discussions to adopt artificial intelligence and big 
data to identify manipulation of processes and 
reduce delays in settlement of claims. 
• It is being pushed to diagnose processes that are 
being manipulated, leading to fraudulent claims in 
agricultural as well as industrial insurance. 
Drivers of Agricultural technology growth in India 
• Increasing population, increasing average income 
and globalization effects in India will increase 
demand for quantity, quality and nutritious food, 
and variety of food.  
• To build an agriculture and food system that is efficient, environmentally sustainable, equitable, and able to link 
farms with consumers. 
• India is the third-largest nation in terms of funding received and start-ups in the agritech space. 
o Agritech is projected to grow to a $30-$35 billion market by 2025, with e-sales of produce, inputs and digitally 
enabled logistics as key segments. 
 
90                                                                                                                                                                       
 
Advantage of using technology in agriculture 
• Better crop varieties: Use of biotechnology and breeding will help in developing eco-friendly and disease resistant, 
climate resilient, more nutritious and tastier crop varieties.  
 
91                                                                                                                                                                       
Initiatives taken in India for promotion of technology in agriculture 
sector 
• Government’s free app, Kisan Suvidha, provides farmers information 
on current weather, market price, dealer info, plant protection, and 
more.  
• ISRO’s Geo-platform, Bhuvan, which provides valuable data on the 
plantation, pest surveillance and weather.  
• Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has established a 
network of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) in the country mandated 
with Technology Assessment and Demonstration for its Application 
and Capacity Development (TADA-CD).  
o KVKs organize demonstrations, training programs and skill 
development programs for the benefit of farmers and farm 
women, rural youth and in-service extension personnel. 
• e-sagu: It provide expert suggestions to the farmers. With the use of 
the internet and audio-visual communication facility, the advice is 
provided to the farmers regularly regarding the various techniques to 
increase farm productivity. 
• Improving productivity: Use of satellites, IoT, drones for better collection of data regarding soil health, crop area 
and yield can make agriculture be more profitable, easy and environmentally friendly and can also make cost for 
insurers less with better estimations. 
• Environmental sustainability: Precision farming systems improve environmental sustainability as the natural 
resources are being continuously 
monitored, and actions are taken 
accordingly, before nutrition depletion or 
drought takes place. 
• Lower cost of production: Farm 
mechanization can help in 20-30 per cent 
savings in time, 20- 30 per cent reduction 
in manual labour and 10- 15 per cent 
overall increase in farm productivity. 
• Improving water use efficiency: 
Compared with conventional flood or 
furrow irrigation, modern methods of 
irrigation like drip and sprinkler irrigation 
can reduce the volume of water applied to 
fields by up to 70 percent. 
• Reduce farmer’s effort: Use of GPS 
technology, drones, robots etc controlled 
by smart phones etc can make life of 
farmers easy with good results. These advanced devices will make agriculture be more profitable, easy and 
environmentally friendly. 
• Improved decision making through the acquisition and leveraging of granular data about their fields and animals in 
combination with timely, accurate, and location-specific weather and agronomic data. 
• Climate/ weather prediction: Drones, remote sensors, and satellites gather 24/7 data on weather patterns in and 
around the fields, providing farmers with vital information on temperature, rainfall, soil, humidity, etc. 
Challenges in adopting technology in Agriculture  
• High transaction cost: Because of small-scale farm structures, poor public infrastructure, and insufficient human 
capital investments, there are higher transaction costs of providing relevant technological advice and services. 
• Reluctance from Farmers: It is not easy to convince farmers to invest in tech solutions without overwhelming 
evidence of an adequate return. 
• Lack of Research & Development (R&D): Public sector R&D in the country is showing a fatigue and suffering from 
resource constraint, disciplinary fragmentations, and lack of drive and inspiration.  
o Private sector investment in agri R&D is also low due to nature of IPR regime in the country. 
• Digital divide: Small and marginal farmers may lack the skills and knowledge to reap the benefits of digital 
applications. Consequently, the benefits might accrue disproportionately to farmers positioned to take advantage of 
such opportunities. 
• Unskilled labour: Digital technologies increase the demand for skilled labor while decreasing it for unskilled labor, 
so they can exacerbate and perpetuate labor market inequalities and further widen the gender gap in rural areas. 
Way forward 
• Strengthen access to foundational data and promote data sharing by digitizing existing public agriculture records 
and data on soil quality, weather conditions and pest and disease surveillance. 
• Review regulations that may constrain the adoption of technologies such as the use of internet of things, drones, 
and global positioning systems to collect data for precision agriculture. 
• Support digital entrepreneurship ecosystems which are a key driver behind the increased supply of digital solutions 
in the agriculture. Adopting e-agriculture strategies, ag-tech start-up policies, regulatory sandboxes to test new 
technologies are some steps that can be taken. 
 
92                                                                                                                                                                       
• Technology transfer needs effective interactive groups like Self Help Groups and Farmers Clubs which should 
become tools of disseminating information about various government sponsored schemes. 
• Technologies that are developed and promoted must result not only in increased productivity level but also ensure 
that the quality of natural resource base is preserved and enhanced. 
• Innovative financial arrangements and micro-loans might be required to increase adoption, which is currently 
absent. 
7.2. COAL BASED HYDROGEN 
Why in news? 
Recently, the Ministry of Coal constituted a Task Force and Expert Committee to prepare the roadmap for Coal based 
Hydrogen production. 
More on news 
The broad terms of reference of Task Force and the Expert Committee include: 
• Identifying the experts and roles: Identification of role to be played by each stakeholder Ministry and also the 
associated experts for co-opting them as members.  
• Monitoring of activities towards achieving coal-based Hydrogen production and usage 
• Coordinate with Coal Gasification Mission, NITI Aayog and other national/international technology institutions in 
hydrogen. 
• Prepare a road map for coal-based Hydrogen production and usage including economic viability, environmental 
sustainability and policy enablers required.  
Global status of Hydrogen 
• At present, the current global demand for hydrogen is 70 million metric tons, most of which is being produced from 
fossil fuels– 76% from natural gas and 23% from coal and remaining from the electrolysis of water.  
o This results in CO2 emissions of around 830Mt/year out of which only 130Mt/year is being captured and used in 
the fertilizer industry. 
• Much of the hydrogen produced is used for oil refining, ammonia, methanol production, steel production. 
What is Coal based Hydrogen? 
• Hydrogen is considered a secondary source of energy, commonly referred to as an energy carrier. It can be stored 
physically as a gas or liquid. 
• Coal is a mixture of two components i.e., Carbon-based matter (the decayed remains of prehistoric vegetation), 
and Mineral matter (which comes from 
the ground from which the coal is dug).  
o The carbon-based matter is 
composed of five main elements 
i.e., carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, 
nitrogen, and sulfur. (Refer 
infographic) 
• Coal is one of the important sources of hydrogen making (Brown Hydrogen) apart from Natural Gas (Grey 
hydrogen) and renewable energy (Green Hydrogen) through electrolysis. In case of renewable energy (Green 
Hydrogen) surplus solar power is used to electrolyze water into hydrogen and oxygen.  
• The global emphasis is on substituting liquid fuels with hydrogen (as fuel in vehicles), storage of surplus renewable 
power as hydrogen (as power cannot be stored at a cost effective price), and cutting down emission. 
 
 
 
 
93                                                                                                                                                                       
Types of hydrogen: 
 
How is Coal based Oxygen produced?  
The partial oxidation process is used to produce 
hydrogen from coal, which means some air is added 
to the coal, which generates carbon dioxide gas 
through traditional combustion. (refer infographic for 
the process of coal based hydrogen) 
• The partial oxidation also makes its own 
gasification agent, carbon dioxide. 
• Carbon dioxide reacts with the rest of the carbon 
in the coal to form carbon monoxide (this is the 
endothermic gasification reaction, which needs 
heat input). 
• Carbon monoxide in the gas stream is now 
further reacted with steam, generating hydrogen and carbon dioxide. 
How does the picture look for India in this sector?  
• In India, Hydrogen demand could increase 5-fold by 2050, with use in industry being the major driver. 
• In industry, steel and ammonia will drive growth in hydrogen demand, followed by refineries and methanol.  
• By 2030, costs of hydrogen from renewables will fall more than 50% and will start to compete with hydrogen 
produced from fossil fuels. 
• Almost 100% of Hydrogen produced in India is through Natural Gas (Grey Hydrogen). 
In this context, pursuing Coal based hydrogen could enable following for India-  
Benefits of Coal Based Hydrogen Challenges of Coal Based Hydrogen 
• Since India has the world’s fourth-
largest coal reserves, Cost of 
Hydrogen produced from coal can 
be cheaper and less sensitive to 
production through electrolysis 
and Natural Gas respectively. 
• Effective way to develop clean 
energy. 
• As current technology hydrogen is made primarily from fossil fuel reformation, this 
would lead to a higher rate of carbon dioxide emissions. 
• Coal has not been encouraged elsewhere because of the fear that while extracting 
hydrogen via coal (from the moisture embedded in coal) there may be carbon 
emission. 
• Safety and storage problem. 
• Issue of building much-needed infrastructure and developing consumer markets 
(that is, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles) for a truly clean future fuel. 
Road Ahead 
The clean hydrogen has the potential to be traded as a new commodity. A lot of work will be required to lay down 
standards for large-scale use of hydrogen besides framing safety regulations. India should be proactive in developing 
and deploying hydrogen technologies, to indigenize manufacturing and maximize domestic benefits, and introduce 
penalty on carbon dioxide emission.  
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