Science & Technology: Vision IAS March 2021 Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

UPSC Mains: International Relations, Social Issues & others

UPSC : Science & Technology: Vision IAS March 2021 Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


	
7.	SCIENCE	AND	TECHNOLOGY	
7.1.	ARTIFICIAL	INTELLIGENCE	(AI)	
Why in news? 
Recently, U.S. India Artificial Intelligence (USIAI) has launched for working in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). 
More about News 
• U.S. India Artificial Intelligence (USIAI) is an 
initiative of IUSSTF.  
• USIAI will serve as a platform to discuss 
opportunities, challenges, and barriers for 
bilateral Artificial Intelligence (AI) R&D 
collaboration, enabling AI innovation, share 
ideas for developing an AI workforce and 
recommend modes and mechanisms for 
catalyzing partnerships. 
• It will provide breakthrough solutions in a 
range of sectors, like agriculture, energy, 
climate change, affordable housing and 
smart cities etc.  
About Artificial Intelligence (AI) 
• Artificial intelligence is 
the branch of 
computer science 
concerned with 
making computers 
mimic human-like 
intelligence. In 
contrast to normal 
hardware and 
software, AI enables a 
machine to perceive 
and respond to its 
changing 
environment. 
• AI has the potential to 
boost the national 
growth rate by 1.3% 
and add $957 bn by 
2035 to India’s 
economy. 
• Human-AI 
Collaboration 
o Supportive Mode: 
AI performs 
alongside humans 
by facilitating human judgements by providing resources such as predictive outputs. 
o Reimagining the Business: AI performs activities that go beyond the cognitive abilities of humans. For e.g., 
large-scale genome study in bioinformatics. 
o AI replaces the Humans: This is especially useful in potentially harmful situations for humans such as 
environments and rapid system response in nuclear reactors. 
 
Indo-U.S. Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) 
• It was established under an agreement between the 
Governments of India and the United States of America in 
March 2000. 
• It is an autonomous bilateral organization jointly funded by 
both the Governments that promotes Science, Technology, 
Engineering and Innovation through substantive interaction 
among government, academia and industry.  
• It operates through two bilateral agreements: Indo-U.S. 
Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) and United States-
India Science and Technology Endowment Fund (USISTEF). 
o USISTEF seeks to support and foster joint applied R&D 
to generate public good through commercialization of 
jointly developed technology. 
• The Department of Science & Technology, Governments of 
India and the U.S. Department of States are respective 
nodal departments for IUSSTF. 
Page 2


	
7.	SCIENCE	AND	TECHNOLOGY	
7.1.	ARTIFICIAL	INTELLIGENCE	(AI)	
Why in news? 
Recently, U.S. India Artificial Intelligence (USIAI) has launched for working in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). 
More about News 
• U.S. India Artificial Intelligence (USIAI) is an 
initiative of IUSSTF.  
• USIAI will serve as a platform to discuss 
opportunities, challenges, and barriers for 
bilateral Artificial Intelligence (AI) R&D 
collaboration, enabling AI innovation, share 
ideas for developing an AI workforce and 
recommend modes and mechanisms for 
catalyzing partnerships. 
• It will provide breakthrough solutions in a 
range of sectors, like agriculture, energy, 
climate change, affordable housing and 
smart cities etc.  
About Artificial Intelligence (AI) 
• Artificial intelligence is 
the branch of 
computer science 
concerned with 
making computers 
mimic human-like 
intelligence. In 
contrast to normal 
hardware and 
software, AI enables a 
machine to perceive 
and respond to its 
changing 
environment. 
• AI has the potential to 
boost the national 
growth rate by 1.3% 
and add $957 bn by 
2035 to India’s 
economy. 
• Human-AI 
Collaboration 
o Supportive Mode: 
AI performs 
alongside humans 
by facilitating human judgements by providing resources such as predictive outputs. 
o Reimagining the Business: AI performs activities that go beyond the cognitive abilities of humans. For e.g., 
large-scale genome study in bioinformatics. 
o AI replaces the Humans: This is especially useful in potentially harmful situations for humans such as 
environments and rapid system response in nuclear reactors. 
 
Indo-U.S. Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) 
• It was established under an agreement between the 
Governments of India and the United States of America in 
March 2000. 
• It is an autonomous bilateral organization jointly funded by 
both the Governments that promotes Science, Technology, 
Engineering and Innovation through substantive interaction 
among government, academia and industry.  
• It operates through two bilateral agreements: Indo-U.S. 
Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) and United States-
India Science and Technology Endowment Fund (USISTEF). 
o USISTEF seeks to support and foster joint applied R&D 
to generate public good through commercialization of 
jointly developed technology. 
• The Department of Science & Technology, Governments of 
India and the U.S. Department of States are respective 
nodal departments for IUSSTF. 
	
Benefits and applications of AI 
 
Page 3


	
7.	SCIENCE	AND	TECHNOLOGY	
7.1.	ARTIFICIAL	INTELLIGENCE	(AI)	
Why in news? 
Recently, U.S. India Artificial Intelligence (USIAI) has launched for working in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). 
More about News 
• U.S. India Artificial Intelligence (USIAI) is an 
initiative of IUSSTF.  
• USIAI will serve as a platform to discuss 
opportunities, challenges, and barriers for 
bilateral Artificial Intelligence (AI) R&D 
collaboration, enabling AI innovation, share 
ideas for developing an AI workforce and 
recommend modes and mechanisms for 
catalyzing partnerships. 
• It will provide breakthrough solutions in a 
range of sectors, like agriculture, energy, 
climate change, affordable housing and 
smart cities etc.  
About Artificial Intelligence (AI) 
• Artificial intelligence is 
the branch of 
computer science 
concerned with 
making computers 
mimic human-like 
intelligence. In 
contrast to normal 
hardware and 
software, AI enables a 
machine to perceive 
and respond to its 
changing 
environment. 
• AI has the potential to 
boost the national 
growth rate by 1.3% 
and add $957 bn by 
2035 to India’s 
economy. 
• Human-AI 
Collaboration 
o Supportive Mode: 
AI performs 
alongside humans 
by facilitating human judgements by providing resources such as predictive outputs. 
o Reimagining the Business: AI performs activities that go beyond the cognitive abilities of humans. For e.g., 
large-scale genome study in bioinformatics. 
o AI replaces the Humans: This is especially useful in potentially harmful situations for humans such as 
environments and rapid system response in nuclear reactors. 
 
Indo-U.S. Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) 
• It was established under an agreement between the 
Governments of India and the United States of America in 
March 2000. 
• It is an autonomous bilateral organization jointly funded by 
both the Governments that promotes Science, Technology, 
Engineering and Innovation through substantive interaction 
among government, academia and industry.  
• It operates through two bilateral agreements: Indo-U.S. 
Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) and United States-
India Science and Technology Endowment Fund (USISTEF). 
o USISTEF seeks to support and foster joint applied R&D 
to generate public good through commercialization of 
jointly developed technology. 
• The Department of Science & Technology, Governments of 
India and the U.S. Department of States are respective 
nodal departments for IUSSTF. 
	
Benefits and applications of AI 
 
	
Key challenges to adoption of AI in India 
Data Security Council of India (DSCI) has 
highlighted some of these key challenges in 
the way of extensive adoption of AI-driven 
solutions in India, as given follow:  
• Data security and privacy issues: AI 
solutions are based on a huge volume of 
confidential data, which are often 
sensitive and personal in nature. This 
brings a range of security and privacy 
vulnerabilities like exposure to cyber 
risk and geopolitical risk.  
• Limited AI expertise: AI requires highly 
trained and skilled professionals, but 
being an emerging technology, the 
talent pool is limited. As per McKinsey, 
“Talent is one of the biggest challenges 
to AI, no matter how advanced a 
company’s digital program. 
• Lack of investment: High 
implementation cost resists numerous 
organizations to implement AI 
solutions. For instance, transforming a 
manufacturing plant from manual 
operation to automated operation 
would require high capital investment 
to integrate Industrial Internet of Things 
(IIoT) and other components of industry 
4.0. 
• Lack of AI and cloud computing 
infrastructure: AI and cloud are inseparable because AI requires huge storage of data. However, despite the 
potential, India lacks access to specialised compute and storage facilities.  
• Lack of integrity and ethics: AI algorithms work based on training given to it and predicts solutions based on 
the data being fed into it and self-learning capability. However, in a few instances, the AI algorithm overlooks 
the correctness of the data and give an ambiguous result, which could be unethical. 
• Super-intelligence: A sufficiently intelligent AI system can redesign itself or can create a better successor 
system which creates fear and debate around whether super-intelligence will be good or evil to humans. 
Way forward 
• Applications and Infrastructure Development: There is need to create infrastructure to support development 
of AI applications with high computational power, large memory and storage space.  
o E.g., A chatbot can be developed to advise the patients on several health-related matters like HIV, STDs, 
tuberculosis in natural language, because such diseases are treated as untouchable in the society and AI 
can to address concern and advise patients in this case.  
• Regulations and Policy: AI applications touch several aspects of human life, regulations are needed to ensure 
safety of the people, protection of privacy for making people aware about this technology and create 
confidence in the people. 
• Research and Development: Government has a major role to play in funding R&D and innovation projects and 
India needs to initiate a Programme to support R&D and innovation in this area with International cooperation. 
o Involvement of industry is necessary while funding R&D projects and facilitate interaction between the 
R&D centres/academic institutions and industry to get the input from the industry and other stakeholders. 
• Human Resource Development: In order to cope up with the problems due to the loss of jobs, the workforce 
will have to be retrained to take up new types of jobs which may emerge with the automation of the processes.  
o For this both formal and informal education systems should be reviewed to produce the manpower who 
can deal with the changing needs of the society. 
Steps taken for AI in India 
• India is moving in the right direction with the Personal Data 
Protection Bill, 2019 to tackle cyber threats and data security, the 
bill is referred to Standing committee. 
o Also, India has adopted National Cyber Security Strategy 
2020 for ensuring a safe, secured, trusted and resilient cyber 
space. 
• Centre of Excellence for Artificial Intelligence was established by 
National Informatics Center for innovative new solutions in AI 
space, a gateway to test and develop solutions for projects 
undertaken at central and state level. 
• INDIAai is the National AI Portal of India - a central hub for 
everything AI in India and beyond was joint initiative of Ministry 
of Electronics and IT, National e-Governance Division and 
NASSCOM. 
• National Association of Software and Services Companies 
(NASSCOM) has started ‘Future Skills Prime initiative’ which aims 
to foster an ecosystem that enhances India’s digital talent with 
the right set of skills through remote and self-paced learning. 
• India’s own AI-first compute infrastructure, AI Research, 
Analytics and knowledge Assimilation platform (AIRAWAT) was 
developed to address issues of cloud computing for Big Data 
analytics with advanced AI processing capabilities. 
• To create a policy framework and to develop the ecosystem for 
Artificial Intelligence MeitY has constituted four committees 
covering all the aspects of AI: 
o Committee on platforms and data for AI 
o Committee on Leveraging AI for identifying National Missions 
in Key Sectors 
o Committee on Mapping Technological capabilities, Key policy 
enablers, Skilling, Re-skilling, R&D 
o Committee on Cybersecurity, Safety, Legal and Ethical issues. 
Page 4


	
7.	SCIENCE	AND	TECHNOLOGY	
7.1.	ARTIFICIAL	INTELLIGENCE	(AI)	
Why in news? 
Recently, U.S. India Artificial Intelligence (USIAI) has launched for working in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). 
More about News 
• U.S. India Artificial Intelligence (USIAI) is an 
initiative of IUSSTF.  
• USIAI will serve as a platform to discuss 
opportunities, challenges, and barriers for 
bilateral Artificial Intelligence (AI) R&D 
collaboration, enabling AI innovation, share 
ideas for developing an AI workforce and 
recommend modes and mechanisms for 
catalyzing partnerships. 
• It will provide breakthrough solutions in a 
range of sectors, like agriculture, energy, 
climate change, affordable housing and 
smart cities etc.  
About Artificial Intelligence (AI) 
• Artificial intelligence is 
the branch of 
computer science 
concerned with 
making computers 
mimic human-like 
intelligence. In 
contrast to normal 
hardware and 
software, AI enables a 
machine to perceive 
and respond to its 
changing 
environment. 
• AI has the potential to 
boost the national 
growth rate by 1.3% 
and add $957 bn by 
2035 to India’s 
economy. 
• Human-AI 
Collaboration 
o Supportive Mode: 
AI performs 
alongside humans 
by facilitating human judgements by providing resources such as predictive outputs. 
o Reimagining the Business: AI performs activities that go beyond the cognitive abilities of humans. For e.g., 
large-scale genome study in bioinformatics. 
o AI replaces the Humans: This is especially useful in potentially harmful situations for humans such as 
environments and rapid system response in nuclear reactors. 
 
Indo-U.S. Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) 
• It was established under an agreement between the 
Governments of India and the United States of America in 
March 2000. 
• It is an autonomous bilateral organization jointly funded by 
both the Governments that promotes Science, Technology, 
Engineering and Innovation through substantive interaction 
among government, academia and industry.  
• It operates through two bilateral agreements: Indo-U.S. 
Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) and United States-
India Science and Technology Endowment Fund (USISTEF). 
o USISTEF seeks to support and foster joint applied R&D 
to generate public good through commercialization of 
jointly developed technology. 
• The Department of Science & Technology, Governments of 
India and the U.S. Department of States are respective 
nodal departments for IUSSTF. 
	
Benefits and applications of AI 
 
	
Key challenges to adoption of AI in India 
Data Security Council of India (DSCI) has 
highlighted some of these key challenges in 
the way of extensive adoption of AI-driven 
solutions in India, as given follow:  
• Data security and privacy issues: AI 
solutions are based on a huge volume of 
confidential data, which are often 
sensitive and personal in nature. This 
brings a range of security and privacy 
vulnerabilities like exposure to cyber 
risk and geopolitical risk.  
• Limited AI expertise: AI requires highly 
trained and skilled professionals, but 
being an emerging technology, the 
talent pool is limited. As per McKinsey, 
“Talent is one of the biggest challenges 
to AI, no matter how advanced a 
company’s digital program. 
• Lack of investment: High 
implementation cost resists numerous 
organizations to implement AI 
solutions. For instance, transforming a 
manufacturing plant from manual 
operation to automated operation 
would require high capital investment 
to integrate Industrial Internet of Things 
(IIoT) and other components of industry 
4.0. 
• Lack of AI and cloud computing 
infrastructure: AI and cloud are inseparable because AI requires huge storage of data. However, despite the 
potential, India lacks access to specialised compute and storage facilities.  
• Lack of integrity and ethics: AI algorithms work based on training given to it and predicts solutions based on 
the data being fed into it and self-learning capability. However, in a few instances, the AI algorithm overlooks 
the correctness of the data and give an ambiguous result, which could be unethical. 
• Super-intelligence: A sufficiently intelligent AI system can redesign itself or can create a better successor 
system which creates fear and debate around whether super-intelligence will be good or evil to humans. 
Way forward 
• Applications and Infrastructure Development: There is need to create infrastructure to support development 
of AI applications with high computational power, large memory and storage space.  
o E.g., A chatbot can be developed to advise the patients on several health-related matters like HIV, STDs, 
tuberculosis in natural language, because such diseases are treated as untouchable in the society and AI 
can to address concern and advise patients in this case.  
• Regulations and Policy: AI applications touch several aspects of human life, regulations are needed to ensure 
safety of the people, protection of privacy for making people aware about this technology and create 
confidence in the people. 
• Research and Development: Government has a major role to play in funding R&D and innovation projects and 
India needs to initiate a Programme to support R&D and innovation in this area with International cooperation. 
o Involvement of industry is necessary while funding R&D projects and facilitate interaction between the 
R&D centres/academic institutions and industry to get the input from the industry and other stakeholders. 
• Human Resource Development: In order to cope up with the problems due to the loss of jobs, the workforce 
will have to be retrained to take up new types of jobs which may emerge with the automation of the processes.  
o For this both formal and informal education systems should be reviewed to produce the manpower who 
can deal with the changing needs of the society. 
Steps taken for AI in India 
• India is moving in the right direction with the Personal Data 
Protection Bill, 2019 to tackle cyber threats and data security, the 
bill is referred to Standing committee. 
o Also, India has adopted National Cyber Security Strategy 
2020 for ensuring a safe, secured, trusted and resilient cyber 
space. 
• Centre of Excellence for Artificial Intelligence was established by 
National Informatics Center for innovative new solutions in AI 
space, a gateway to test and develop solutions for projects 
undertaken at central and state level. 
• INDIAai is the National AI Portal of India - a central hub for 
everything AI in India and beyond was joint initiative of Ministry 
of Electronics and IT, National e-Governance Division and 
NASSCOM. 
• National Association of Software and Services Companies 
(NASSCOM) has started ‘Future Skills Prime initiative’ which aims 
to foster an ecosystem that enhances India’s digital talent with 
the right set of skills through remote and self-paced learning. 
• India’s own AI-first compute infrastructure, AI Research, 
Analytics and knowledge Assimilation platform (AIRAWAT) was 
developed to address issues of cloud computing for Big Data 
analytics with advanced AI processing capabilities. 
• To create a policy framework and to develop the ecosystem for 
Artificial Intelligence MeitY has constituted four committees 
covering all the aspects of AI: 
o Committee on platforms and data for AI 
o Committee on Leveraging AI for identifying National Missions 
in Key Sectors 
o Committee on Mapping Technological capabilities, Key policy 
enablers, Skilling, Re-skilling, R&D 
o Committee on Cybersecurity, Safety, Legal and Ethical issues. 
	
7.2.	LARGE	HADRON	COLLIDER	BEAUTY	EXPERIMENT	(LHCB)	
Why in news? 
Researchers at University of Zurich and 
European Organization for Nuclear 
Research (CERN) have found new results at 
Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) 
experiment. 
About Large Hadron Collider beauty 
experiment (LHCb) 
• The LHCb experiment is one of the four 
large experiments at the Large Hadron 
Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva.  
• It is designed to study decays of 
particles containing a beauty quark, 
the quark with the highest mass 
forming bound states.  
o Beauty quarks are produced during 
the collision of high-energy proton 
beams in the Large Hadron Collider the particle accelerator at CERN. 
ü Quark are elementary subatomic particles that interact by means of the strong force and are believed 
to be among the fundamental constituents of matter.  
ü There are six types of quarks that differ from one another in their mass and charge characteristics, 
that are grouped in three pairs: up and down, charm and strange, and top and bottom.  
ü Beauty quarks (bottom quark) are much heavier than the up and down quarks and particles 
containing b quarks are also unusually long-lived, which make them very useful to physicists looking 
for physics beyond the standard mode. 
• As per Standard Model the decay process involves the conversion of a beauty quark into a strange quark with 
the production of an electron and antielectron or a muon and antimuon.  
o Electrons are the subatomic particles that orbit the nucleus of an atom and generally negative in charge. 
While antielectron is positively charged also called as positron. 
o Muon is elementary subatomic particle similar to the electron but 207 times heavier. It has two forms, 
the negatively charged muon and its positively charged antimuon. 
• But results at Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment (LHCb) shows anomalies in decaying process than 
standard model with new fundamental force in addition to four fundamental ones. 
o Four fundamental forces of standard model are Gravity, electromagnetism, weak nuclear interactions 
responsible for radioactivity and strong nuclear forces that hold matter together. 
• This anomalies in result gives hint of the possible existence of a hypothetical particle called a leptoquark has 
appeared as an unexpected difference in how beauty quarks decay to create electrons or muons. 
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 
• The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator at CERN’s 
accelerator complex.  
• The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures 
to boost the energy of the particles along the way. 
• The beams inside the LHC are made to collide at four locations around the accelerator ring, corresponding to 
the positions of four particle detectors ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb. 
• The project was officially approved in 1997, and construction began on a 16.5-mile-long (27 kilometers) ring 
that passed beneath the French-Swiss border capable of accelerating particles up to 99.99 percent the speed 
of light and smashing them together.  
• In 2012, the researchers at the LHC announced the discovery of the Higgs boson, particle named after physicist 
Peter Higgs. 
o Hoggs boson is an elementary particle gain their mass from a fundamental field (Higgs field) through its 
interactions. 
About CERN 
• European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is one of the 
world's largest centres for scientific research uses complex 
scientific instruments to study the basic constituents of matter – 
fundamental particles.  
• Here, subatomic particles are made to collide together at close to 
the speed of light and their interaction is studied to provide 
insights into the fundamental laws of nature.  
• The instruments used at CERN are like 
o accelerators to boost beams of particles to high energies 
before the beams are made to collide with each other 
o detectors to observe and record the results of these 
collisions. 
• It is founded in 1954, the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva.  
• Currently CERN have 23 member states, while India is an 
associate member state. 
• Japan, Russian Federation, United States of America, European 
Union and UNESCO currently have Observer status. 
Page 5


	
7.	SCIENCE	AND	TECHNOLOGY	
7.1.	ARTIFICIAL	INTELLIGENCE	(AI)	
Why in news? 
Recently, U.S. India Artificial Intelligence (USIAI) has launched for working in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). 
More about News 
• U.S. India Artificial Intelligence (USIAI) is an 
initiative of IUSSTF.  
• USIAI will serve as a platform to discuss 
opportunities, challenges, and barriers for 
bilateral Artificial Intelligence (AI) R&D 
collaboration, enabling AI innovation, share 
ideas for developing an AI workforce and 
recommend modes and mechanisms for 
catalyzing partnerships. 
• It will provide breakthrough solutions in a 
range of sectors, like agriculture, energy, 
climate change, affordable housing and 
smart cities etc.  
About Artificial Intelligence (AI) 
• Artificial intelligence is 
the branch of 
computer science 
concerned with 
making computers 
mimic human-like 
intelligence. In 
contrast to normal 
hardware and 
software, AI enables a 
machine to perceive 
and respond to its 
changing 
environment. 
• AI has the potential to 
boost the national 
growth rate by 1.3% 
and add $957 bn by 
2035 to India’s 
economy. 
• Human-AI 
Collaboration 
o Supportive Mode: 
AI performs 
alongside humans 
by facilitating human judgements by providing resources such as predictive outputs. 
o Reimagining the Business: AI performs activities that go beyond the cognitive abilities of humans. For e.g., 
large-scale genome study in bioinformatics. 
o AI replaces the Humans: This is especially useful in potentially harmful situations for humans such as 
environments and rapid system response in nuclear reactors. 
 
Indo-U.S. Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) 
• It was established under an agreement between the 
Governments of India and the United States of America in 
March 2000. 
• It is an autonomous bilateral organization jointly funded by 
both the Governments that promotes Science, Technology, 
Engineering and Innovation through substantive interaction 
among government, academia and industry.  
• It operates through two bilateral agreements: Indo-U.S. 
Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) and United States-
India Science and Technology Endowment Fund (USISTEF). 
o USISTEF seeks to support and foster joint applied R&D 
to generate public good through commercialization of 
jointly developed technology. 
• The Department of Science & Technology, Governments of 
India and the U.S. Department of States are respective 
nodal departments for IUSSTF. 
	
Benefits and applications of AI 
 
	
Key challenges to adoption of AI in India 
Data Security Council of India (DSCI) has 
highlighted some of these key challenges in 
the way of extensive adoption of AI-driven 
solutions in India, as given follow:  
• Data security and privacy issues: AI 
solutions are based on a huge volume of 
confidential data, which are often 
sensitive and personal in nature. This 
brings a range of security and privacy 
vulnerabilities like exposure to cyber 
risk and geopolitical risk.  
• Limited AI expertise: AI requires highly 
trained and skilled professionals, but 
being an emerging technology, the 
talent pool is limited. As per McKinsey, 
“Talent is one of the biggest challenges 
to AI, no matter how advanced a 
company’s digital program. 
• Lack of investment: High 
implementation cost resists numerous 
organizations to implement AI 
solutions. For instance, transforming a 
manufacturing plant from manual 
operation to automated operation 
would require high capital investment 
to integrate Industrial Internet of Things 
(IIoT) and other components of industry 
4.0. 
• Lack of AI and cloud computing 
infrastructure: AI and cloud are inseparable because AI requires huge storage of data. However, despite the 
potential, India lacks access to specialised compute and storage facilities.  
• Lack of integrity and ethics: AI algorithms work based on training given to it and predicts solutions based on 
the data being fed into it and self-learning capability. However, in a few instances, the AI algorithm overlooks 
the correctness of the data and give an ambiguous result, which could be unethical. 
• Super-intelligence: A sufficiently intelligent AI system can redesign itself or can create a better successor 
system which creates fear and debate around whether super-intelligence will be good or evil to humans. 
Way forward 
• Applications and Infrastructure Development: There is need to create infrastructure to support development 
of AI applications with high computational power, large memory and storage space.  
o E.g., A chatbot can be developed to advise the patients on several health-related matters like HIV, STDs, 
tuberculosis in natural language, because such diseases are treated as untouchable in the society and AI 
can to address concern and advise patients in this case.  
• Regulations and Policy: AI applications touch several aspects of human life, regulations are needed to ensure 
safety of the people, protection of privacy for making people aware about this technology and create 
confidence in the people. 
• Research and Development: Government has a major role to play in funding R&D and innovation projects and 
India needs to initiate a Programme to support R&D and innovation in this area with International cooperation. 
o Involvement of industry is necessary while funding R&D projects and facilitate interaction between the 
R&D centres/academic institutions and industry to get the input from the industry and other stakeholders. 
• Human Resource Development: In order to cope up with the problems due to the loss of jobs, the workforce 
will have to be retrained to take up new types of jobs which may emerge with the automation of the processes.  
o For this both formal and informal education systems should be reviewed to produce the manpower who 
can deal with the changing needs of the society. 
Steps taken for AI in India 
• India is moving in the right direction with the Personal Data 
Protection Bill, 2019 to tackle cyber threats and data security, the 
bill is referred to Standing committee. 
o Also, India has adopted National Cyber Security Strategy 
2020 for ensuring a safe, secured, trusted and resilient cyber 
space. 
• Centre of Excellence for Artificial Intelligence was established by 
National Informatics Center for innovative new solutions in AI 
space, a gateway to test and develop solutions for projects 
undertaken at central and state level. 
• INDIAai is the National AI Portal of India - a central hub for 
everything AI in India and beyond was joint initiative of Ministry 
of Electronics and IT, National e-Governance Division and 
NASSCOM. 
• National Association of Software and Services Companies 
(NASSCOM) has started ‘Future Skills Prime initiative’ which aims 
to foster an ecosystem that enhances India’s digital talent with 
the right set of skills through remote and self-paced learning. 
• India’s own AI-first compute infrastructure, AI Research, 
Analytics and knowledge Assimilation platform (AIRAWAT) was 
developed to address issues of cloud computing for Big Data 
analytics with advanced AI processing capabilities. 
• To create a policy framework and to develop the ecosystem for 
Artificial Intelligence MeitY has constituted four committees 
covering all the aspects of AI: 
o Committee on platforms and data for AI 
o Committee on Leveraging AI for identifying National Missions 
in Key Sectors 
o Committee on Mapping Technological capabilities, Key policy 
enablers, Skilling, Re-skilling, R&D 
o Committee on Cybersecurity, Safety, Legal and Ethical issues. 
	
7.2.	LARGE	HADRON	COLLIDER	BEAUTY	EXPERIMENT	(LHCB)	
Why in news? 
Researchers at University of Zurich and 
European Organization for Nuclear 
Research (CERN) have found new results at 
Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) 
experiment. 
About Large Hadron Collider beauty 
experiment (LHCb) 
• The LHCb experiment is one of the four 
large experiments at the Large Hadron 
Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva.  
• It is designed to study decays of 
particles containing a beauty quark, 
the quark with the highest mass 
forming bound states.  
o Beauty quarks are produced during 
the collision of high-energy proton 
beams in the Large Hadron Collider the particle accelerator at CERN. 
ü Quark are elementary subatomic particles that interact by means of the strong force and are believed 
to be among the fundamental constituents of matter.  
ü There are six types of quarks that differ from one another in their mass and charge characteristics, 
that are grouped in three pairs: up and down, charm and strange, and top and bottom.  
ü Beauty quarks (bottom quark) are much heavier than the up and down quarks and particles 
containing b quarks are also unusually long-lived, which make them very useful to physicists looking 
for physics beyond the standard mode. 
• As per Standard Model the decay process involves the conversion of a beauty quark into a strange quark with 
the production of an electron and antielectron or a muon and antimuon.  
o Electrons are the subatomic particles that orbit the nucleus of an atom and generally negative in charge. 
While antielectron is positively charged also called as positron. 
o Muon is elementary subatomic particle similar to the electron but 207 times heavier. It has two forms, 
the negatively charged muon and its positively charged antimuon. 
• But results at Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment (LHCb) shows anomalies in decaying process than 
standard model with new fundamental force in addition to four fundamental ones. 
o Four fundamental forces of standard model are Gravity, electromagnetism, weak nuclear interactions 
responsible for radioactivity and strong nuclear forces that hold matter together. 
• This anomalies in result gives hint of the possible existence of a hypothetical particle called a leptoquark has 
appeared as an unexpected difference in how beauty quarks decay to create electrons or muons. 
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 
• The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator at CERN’s 
accelerator complex.  
• The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures 
to boost the energy of the particles along the way. 
• The beams inside the LHC are made to collide at four locations around the accelerator ring, corresponding to 
the positions of four particle detectors ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb. 
• The project was officially approved in 1997, and construction began on a 16.5-mile-long (27 kilometers) ring 
that passed beneath the French-Swiss border capable of accelerating particles up to 99.99 percent the speed 
of light and smashing them together.  
• In 2012, the researchers at the LHC announced the discovery of the Higgs boson, particle named after physicist 
Peter Higgs. 
o Hoggs boson is an elementary particle gain their mass from a fundamental field (Higgs field) through its 
interactions. 
About CERN 
• European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is one of the 
world's largest centres for scientific research uses complex 
scientific instruments to study the basic constituents of matter – 
fundamental particles.  
• Here, subatomic particles are made to collide together at close to 
the speed of light and their interaction is studied to provide 
insights into the fundamental laws of nature.  
• The instruments used at CERN are like 
o accelerators to boost beams of particles to high energies 
before the beams are made to collide with each other 
o detectors to observe and record the results of these 
collisions. 
• It is founded in 1954, the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva.  
• Currently CERN have 23 member states, while India is an 
associate member state. 
• Japan, Russian Federation, United States of America, European 
Union and UNESCO currently have Observer status. 
	
7.3.	BLACK	HOLE’S	MAGNETIC	FIELD		
Why in news? 
The scientists have first time observed magnetic field around a 
Black Hole. 
More about news 
• Astronomers working in collaboration between the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and Harvard 
College Observatory have obtained a new view of the 
supermassive black hole at the center of galaxy M87 or 
Messier 87, some 55 million light years away from Earth. 
• Images of polarized light were released by the Event 
Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration, a network of radio 
telescopes. 
• In 2019 the EHT captured the first image of the shadow 
dark region of a black hole, that is expected to be about 
three times the diameter of the black hole’s event horizon. 
About Black Hole’s magnetic field 
• A black hole is a place in space where gravity pulls so much 
that even light cannot get out as gravity is so strong 
because matter has been squeezed into a tiny space.  
o They are invisible and observed through space 
telescopes with special tools. 
o Black holes can be big or small, the smallest black holes 
are as small as just one atom.  
• Now, new image from Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) shows polarised light, waves oscillating in only one 
direction produced by matter at the edge of the black hole.  
o While, unpolarised light is made up of light waves oscillating in many different directions.  
• Light becomes polarized when it goes through certain filters like, for instance, the lenses of polarized 
sunglasses, or when it is emitted in hot regions of space that are magnetized, hence it suggests that presence 
of strong magnetic fields around the black hole. 
• New polarised image also gives compelling evidence for how strong magnetic fields around black holes can 
launch and sustain bright jet of matter and energy that emerges from its core and extends at least 100,000 
light years away. 
• Research suggests that the magnetic fields are strong enough to push back on the hot gas and help it resist 
gravity’s pull. 
o Only the gas that slips through the field can start flowing inwards to the event horizon. 
 
 
 
 
 
Event horizon 
• The event horizon of a black hole is linked 
to the object's escape velocity the speed 
that one would need to exceed to escape the 
black hole's gravitational pull.  
• The event horizon is the threshold around 
the black hole where the escape velocity 
surpasses the speed of light.  
• According to Einstein's theory of special 
relativity, nothing can travel faster through 
space than the speed of light.  
• This means a black hole's event horizon is 
essentially the point from which nothing 
can return and said to be the ultimate prison 
wall one can get in but never get out. 
Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 
• The EHT is an international collaboration 
that has formed to continue the steady long-
term progress on improving the capability 
of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) 
at short wavelengths. 
• This links radio dishes across the globe to 
create an Earth-sized interferometer, to 
measure the size of the emission regions of 
the two supermassive black holes with the 
event horizons. 
Read More
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