Second edition Oxford Practice Notes | EduRev

: Second edition Oxford Practice Notes | EduRev

 Page 2


Second edition 
Oxford 
Practice
 
Grammar
 
with answers John Eastwood 
Oxford University Press 
Page 3


Second edition 
Oxford 
Practice
 
Grammar
 
with answers John Eastwood 
Oxford University Press 
Oxford University Press 
Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP 
Oxford New York 
Auckland Bangkok Buenos Aires Cape Town Chennai 
Dar es Salaam Delhi Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi 
Kolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico 
City Mumbai Nairobi Sao Paulo Shanghai Singapore 
Taipei Tokyo Toronto 
with an associated company in Berlin 
Oxford and Oxford English 
are trade marks of Oxford University Press. 
ISBN 0 19 431369 7 (with answers) 
ISBN 0 19 431427 8 (with answers with CD-ROM) 
ISBN 0 19 431370 0 (without answers) 
© Oxford University Press 1992, 1999 
First published 1992 (reprinted nine times) 
Second edition 1999 
Tenth impression 2002 
Printing ref. (last digit): 6 5 4 3 2  1 
No unauthorized photocopying 
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be 
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, 
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, 
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior 
written permission of Oxford University Press. 
This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall 
not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired 
out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior 
consent in any form of binding or cover other than that 
in which it is published and without a similar condition 
including this condition being imposed on the 
subsequent purchaser. 
Illustrated by Richard Coggan Designed by Richard 
Morris, Stonesfield Design Typeset by Tradespools 
Ltd., Frome, Somerset Printed in China 
Thanks 
The author and publisher would like to thank: 
all the teachers in the United Kingdom and Italy who 
discussed this book in the early stages of its 
development; 
the teachers and students of the following schools 
who used and commented on the pilot units of the 
first edition: 
The Bell School of Languages, Bowthorpe Hall, 
Norwich 
The Eckersley School of English, Oxford 
Eurocentre, Brighton Eurocentre, London 
Victoria King's School of English, 
Bournemouth Academia Lacunza - 
International House, San Sebastian, Spain 
the teachers and students of the following schools 
who used and commented on the first edition of this 
book: 
Anglo World, Oxford 
Central School of English, London 
Linguarama, Birmingham 
Thomas Lavelle for his work on the American 
English appendix; 
Rod Bolitho for his valuable advice on what students 
need from a grammar book. 
The author would also like to thank: 
Stewart Melluish, David Lott and Helen Ward of 
Oxford University Press for their expertise and their 
commitment in guiding this project from its earliest 
stages to the production of this new edition; 
Sheila Eastwood for all her help and encouragement. 
Page 4


Second edition 
Oxford 
Practice
 
Grammar
 
with answers John Eastwood 
Oxford University Press 
Oxford University Press 
Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP 
Oxford New York 
Auckland Bangkok Buenos Aires Cape Town Chennai 
Dar es Salaam Delhi Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi 
Kolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico 
City Mumbai Nairobi Sao Paulo Shanghai Singapore 
Taipei Tokyo Toronto 
with an associated company in Berlin 
Oxford and Oxford English 
are trade marks of Oxford University Press. 
ISBN 0 19 431369 7 (with answers) 
ISBN 0 19 431427 8 (with answers with CD-ROM) 
ISBN 0 19 431370 0 (without answers) 
© Oxford University Press 1992, 1999 
First published 1992 (reprinted nine times) 
Second edition 1999 
Tenth impression 2002 
Printing ref. (last digit): 6 5 4 3 2  1 
No unauthorized photocopying 
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be 
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, 
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, 
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior 
written permission of Oxford University Press. 
This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall 
not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired 
out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior 
consent in any form of binding or cover other than that 
in which it is published and without a similar condition 
including this condition being imposed on the 
subsequent purchaser. 
Illustrated by Richard Coggan Designed by Richard 
Morris, Stonesfield Design Typeset by Tradespools 
Ltd., Frome, Somerset Printed in China 
Thanks 
The author and publisher would like to thank: 
all the teachers in the United Kingdom and Italy who 
discussed this book in the early stages of its 
development; 
the teachers and students of the following schools 
who used and commented on the pilot units of the 
first edition: 
The Bell School of Languages, Bowthorpe Hall, 
Norwich 
The Eckersley School of English, Oxford 
Eurocentre, Brighton Eurocentre, London 
Victoria King's School of English, 
Bournemouth Academia Lacunza - 
International House, San Sebastian, Spain 
the teachers and students of the following schools 
who used and commented on the first edition of this 
book: 
Anglo World, Oxford 
Central School of English, London 
Linguarama, Birmingham 
Thomas Lavelle for his work on the American 
English appendix; 
Rod Bolitho for his valuable advice on what students 
need from a grammar book. 
The author would also like to thank: 
Stewart Melluish, David Lott and Helen Ward of 
Oxford University Press for their expertise and their 
commitment in guiding this project from its earliest 
stages to the production of this new edition; 
Sheila Eastwood for all her help and encouragement. 
Contents 
Introduction page vi 
Key to symbols vii 
Starting test viii 
Words and sentences 
1 Word classes: nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc 2 
2 Sentence structure: subject, verb, object, etc 4 
3 Direct and indirect objects 6 
Verbs 
4 The present continuous 8 
5 The present simple  10 
6 Present continuous or simple?  12 
7 State verbs and action verbs 14 
Test 1: Present tenses 16 
8 The past simple 18 
9 The past continuous 20 
10 Past continuous or simple? 22 
Test 2: Past simple and past continuous 24 
11 The present perfect (1) 26 
12 The present perfect (2): just, already, yet; 
for and since 28 
13 The present perfect (3): ever, this week, etc 30 
14 Present perfect or past simple? (1) 32 
15 Present perfect or past simple? (2) 34 
Test 3: Present perfect and past simple 36 
16 The present perfect continuous 38 
17 Present perfect continuous or simple? 40 
18 The past perfect 42 
19 Review of the past simple, continuous and 
perfect 44 
20 The past perfect continuous 46 
Test 4: Past and perfect tenses 48 
21 Review of present and past tenses 50 
Test 5: Present and past tenses 54 
22 Introduction to the future 56 
23 Will and shall 58 
24 Be going to 60 
25 Will and be going to 62 
26 Present tenses for the future 64 
27 When I get there, before you leave, etc 66 
Test 6: The future with will, be going to 
and present tenses 68 
 
28 Will be doing 70 
29 Will have done and was going to 72 
30 Review of the future 74 
Test 7: The future  76 
31 The verb have 78 
32 Short forms, e.g it's, don't 80 
33 Emphatic do 82 
Questions, negatives and answers 
34 Yes/no questions 84 
35 Short answers, e.g. Yes, it is. 86 
36 Wh-questions 88 
37 Subject/object questions 90 
38 Prepositions in wh-questions 92 
39 Who, what or which? 94 
Test 8: Questions 96 
40 Negative statements 98 
41 Negative questions 100 
42 Question tags, e.g. isn't it?  102 
43 So/Neither do I and I think so  104 
Test 9: Questions, negatives and answers 106 
Modal verbs 
44 Ability: can, could and be able to 108 
45 Permission: can, may, could and 
be allowed to  110 
46 Possibility and certainty: may, might, could, 
must, etc 112 
47 Necessity: must and have to  114 
48 Necessity: mustn't, needn't, etc  116 
49 Should, ought to, had better and 
be supposed to 118 
50 Asking people to do things 120 
51 Suggestions, offers and invitations 122 
52 Will, would, shall and should  124 
53 It may/could/must have been, etc 126 
Test 10: Modal verbs 128 
The passive 
54 Passive verb forms 130 
55 Active and passive (1)  132 
56 Active and passive (2)  134 
57 Special passive structures  136 
58 Have something done 73$ 
59 To be done and being done  140 
Test 11: The passive 142 
Page 5


Second edition 
Oxford 
Practice
 
Grammar
 
with answers John Eastwood 
Oxford University Press 
Oxford University Press 
Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP 
Oxford New York 
Auckland Bangkok Buenos Aires Cape Town Chennai 
Dar es Salaam Delhi Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi 
Kolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico 
City Mumbai Nairobi Sao Paulo Shanghai Singapore 
Taipei Tokyo Toronto 
with an associated company in Berlin 
Oxford and Oxford English 
are trade marks of Oxford University Press. 
ISBN 0 19 431369 7 (with answers) 
ISBN 0 19 431427 8 (with answers with CD-ROM) 
ISBN 0 19 431370 0 (without answers) 
© Oxford University Press 1992, 1999 
First published 1992 (reprinted nine times) 
Second edition 1999 
Tenth impression 2002 
Printing ref. (last digit): 6 5 4 3 2  1 
No unauthorized photocopying 
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be 
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, 
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, 
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior 
written permission of Oxford University Press. 
This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall 
not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired 
out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior 
consent in any form of binding or cover other than that 
in which it is published and without a similar condition 
including this condition being imposed on the 
subsequent purchaser. 
Illustrated by Richard Coggan Designed by Richard 
Morris, Stonesfield Design Typeset by Tradespools 
Ltd., Frome, Somerset Printed in China 
Thanks 
The author and publisher would like to thank: 
all the teachers in the United Kingdom and Italy who 
discussed this book in the early stages of its 
development; 
the teachers and students of the following schools 
who used and commented on the pilot units of the 
first edition: 
The Bell School of Languages, Bowthorpe Hall, 
Norwich 
The Eckersley School of English, Oxford 
Eurocentre, Brighton Eurocentre, London 
Victoria King's School of English, 
Bournemouth Academia Lacunza - 
International House, San Sebastian, Spain 
the teachers and students of the following schools 
who used and commented on the first edition of this 
book: 
Anglo World, Oxford 
Central School of English, London 
Linguarama, Birmingham 
Thomas Lavelle for his work on the American 
English appendix; 
Rod Bolitho for his valuable advice on what students 
need from a grammar book. 
The author would also like to thank: 
Stewart Melluish, David Lott and Helen Ward of 
Oxford University Press for their expertise and their 
commitment in guiding this project from its earliest 
stages to the production of this new edition; 
Sheila Eastwood for all her help and encouragement. 
Contents 
Introduction page vi 
Key to symbols vii 
Starting test viii 
Words and sentences 
1 Word classes: nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc 2 
2 Sentence structure: subject, verb, object, etc 4 
3 Direct and indirect objects 6 
Verbs 
4 The present continuous 8 
5 The present simple  10 
6 Present continuous or simple?  12 
7 State verbs and action verbs 14 
Test 1: Present tenses 16 
8 The past simple 18 
9 The past continuous 20 
10 Past continuous or simple? 22 
Test 2: Past simple and past continuous 24 
11 The present perfect (1) 26 
12 The present perfect (2): just, already, yet; 
for and since 28 
13 The present perfect (3): ever, this week, etc 30 
14 Present perfect or past simple? (1) 32 
15 Present perfect or past simple? (2) 34 
Test 3: Present perfect and past simple 36 
16 The present perfect continuous 38 
17 Present perfect continuous or simple? 40 
18 The past perfect 42 
19 Review of the past simple, continuous and 
perfect 44 
20 The past perfect continuous 46 
Test 4: Past and perfect tenses 48 
21 Review of present and past tenses 50 
Test 5: Present and past tenses 54 
22 Introduction to the future 56 
23 Will and shall 58 
24 Be going to 60 
25 Will and be going to 62 
26 Present tenses for the future 64 
27 When I get there, before you leave, etc 66 
Test 6: The future with will, be going to 
and present tenses 68 
 
28 Will be doing 70 
29 Will have done and was going to 72 
30 Review of the future 74 
Test 7: The future  76 
31 The verb have 78 
32 Short forms, e.g it's, don't 80 
33 Emphatic do 82 
Questions, negatives and answers 
34 Yes/no questions 84 
35 Short answers, e.g. Yes, it is. 86 
36 Wh-questions 88 
37 Subject/object questions 90 
38 Prepositions in wh-questions 92 
39 Who, what or which? 94 
Test 8: Questions 96 
40 Negative statements 98 
41 Negative questions 100 
42 Question tags, e.g. isn't it?  102 
43 So/Neither do I and I think so  104 
Test 9: Questions, negatives and answers 106 
Modal verbs 
44 Ability: can, could and be able to 108 
45 Permission: can, may, could and 
be allowed to  110 
46 Possibility and certainty: may, might, could, 
must, etc 112 
47 Necessity: must and have to  114 
48 Necessity: mustn't, needn't, etc  116 
49 Should, ought to, had better and 
be supposed to 118 
50 Asking people to do things 120 
51 Suggestions, offers and invitations 122 
52 Will, would, shall and should  124 
53 It may/could/must have been, etc 126 
Test 10: Modal verbs 128 
The passive 
54 Passive verb forms 130 
55 Active and passive (1)  132 
56 Active and passive (2)  134 
57 Special passive structures  136 
58 Have something done 73$ 
59 To be done and being done  140 
Test 11: The passive 142 
The infinitive and the ing-form 
60 Verb + to-infinitive 144 
61 Verb + ing-form 146 
62 Verb + to-infinitive or verb + ing-form? 148 
63 Like, start, etc 150 
64 Remember, regret, try, etc 152 
Test 12: Verb + to-infinitive or ing-form 154 
65 Verb + object + to-infinitive or ing-form 156 
66 Question word + to-infinitive 158 
67 Adjective + to-infinitive 160 
68 For with the to-infinitive  162 
69 The infinitive with and without to 164 
70 Verb/Adjective + preposition + ing-form 166 
71 Afraid to do or afraid of doing? 168 
72 Used to do and be used to doing 170 
73 Preposition or linking word + ing-form 172 
74 See it happen or see it happening? 174 
75 Some structures with the ing-form 176 
Test 13: The infinitive and the ing-form 178 
Nouns and articles (a/an and the) 
76 Ship and water: countable and uncountable 
nouns 180 
77 A carton of milk, a piece of 
information, etc 182 
78 Nouns that can be either countable or 
uncountable 184 
79 Agreement 186 
80 Singular or plural?  188 
81 Pair nouns and group nouns  190 
82 Two nouns together  192 
Test 14: Nouns and agreement 194 
83 A/an and the (1)  196 
84 A/an and the (2)  198 
85 A/an, one and some 200 
86 Cars or the cars? 202 
87 Prison, school, bed, etc 204 
88 On Friday, for lunch, etc 206 
89 Quite a, such a, what a, etc 208 
90 Place names and the 210 
Test 15: A/an and the 214 
This, my, some, a lot of, all, etc 
91 This, that, these and those 216 
92 My, your, etc and mine, yours, etc 218 
93 The possessive form and of 220 
94 Some and any 222 
95 A lot of, many, much, (a) few 
and (a) little 224 
96 All, half, most, some, no and none 226 
97 Every, each, whole, both, either 
and neither 228 
Test 16: This, my, some, a lot of, all, etc 230 
Pronouns 
98 Personal pronouns, e.g. I, you 232 
99 There and it 234 
100 Reflexive pronouns 236 
10 1 Emphatic pronouns and each other 238 
102 The pronoun one/ones 240 
103 Everyone, something, etc 242 
Test 17: Pronouns 244 
Adjectives and adverbs 
104 Adjectives 246 
105 The order of adjectives 248 
106 The old, the rich, etc 250 
107 Interesting and interested 252 
108 Adjective or adverb? (1) 254 
109 Adjective or adverb? (2) 256 
Test 18: Adjectives and adverbs 258 
110 Comparative and superlative forms 260 
11 1 Comparative and superlative patterns (1) 264 
112 Comparative and superlative patterns (2) 266 
Test 19: Comparative and superlative 268 
11 3 Adverbs and word order 270 
114 Yet, still and already 274 
11 5 Adverbs of degree, e.g. very, quite 276 
11 6 Quite and rather 278 
117 Too and enough 280 
Test 20: Adverbs and word order 282 
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