Security: December 2020 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly

Current Affairs : Security: December 2020 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


	
35	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
4.	SECURITY	
4.1.	POLICE	REFORMS	
Why in News? 
Recently, Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPRD) has released data on police organisations. 
Key data on Police Organisations 
• Human resource strength: India’s actual Police-
population ratio (number of police personnel 
per lakh of population) is 195.39 and there are 
only 20,91,488 police personnel actually in 
service against the sanctioned strength 
of 26,23,225. 
o Best Police-population ratio states/UTs are Nagaland, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Manipur. While 
worst state/UTs are Bihar, Daman & Diu and West Bengal. 
• Vacancies: More than 5.31 lakh posts in different state police forces and 1.27 lakh posts in CAPF are lying 
vacant. 
• Women in police: It is just 10.30% of the total police force and only 2.98% of the total strength in Central 
Armed Police Forces (CAPF).There has been a 16.05% increase of women police over previous year. 
• Scheduled Castes (SCs)/ Scheduled Tribes (STs)/OBCs representation: SCs (who form 16.6% of population) 
have 14% representation and STs (who form 8.6% of population) have 12% representation in the police forces. 
OBCs constitute only 25% of the police forces. 
Data suggests a need for overhauling Indian Police because of issues like 
• Lack of accountability: While exercising force to enforce laws and maintain law and order in a state, Police 
face various kinds of complaints including unwarranted arrests, unlawful searches, torture and custodial rapes. 
•  Overburdened police force:  Because of high percentage of vacancies an average policeman ends up having 
an enormous workload and long working hours, which negatively affects his efficiency and performance.  
o United Nations recommended standard is 222 police per lakh persons. 
• Mismatch in constabulary’s skill set and responsibilities: Constabulary constitutes 86% of the state police 
forces with wide-ranging responsibilities. 
Various Committee on Police reforms 
Committee Year Notes 
National Police 
Commission (NPC) 
1977-81 Established after the Emergency, the NPC produced 8 reports suggesting major 
reforms across a range of police issues.  
Ribeiro Committee 1998 Established by the Supreme Court to review the lack of action taken to implement 
NPC recommendations and to re-frame a new police act 
Padmanabhaiah 
Committee 
2000 Dealt with the issues of politicization and criminalization of the police and police 
accountability.  
Malimath Committee 2002-03 Suggested changes to the Indian Penal Code and outlined ways of improving judicial 
proceedings. 
Police Act Drafting 
Committee 1 
2005 Drafted a new model Police Act to replace the 1861 Police Act. 
Supreme Court 
Directives 
2006 SC issued seven directives to state police forces including setting up State Security 
Commissions, Police Establishment Boards and a Police Complaints Authority. 
Second Administrative 
Reforms 
2007 Noted that police-public relations were unsatisfactory and suggested a range of 
reforms to change this. 
Justice Thomas 
Committee 
2010 Highlighted the total indifference of state governments to police reforms. 
Supreme Court 
Directives 
2018 New directives on police reforms and reviewed states progress in the 
implementation of the 2006 directives. 
About Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D) 
• BPR&D, under Ministry of Home Affairs, is mandated to  
o promote excellence in policing,  
o promote speedy and systematic study of police 
problems,  
o apply science and technology in method and 
techniques by Police. 
Page 2


	
35	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
4.	SECURITY	
4.1.	POLICE	REFORMS	
Why in News? 
Recently, Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPRD) has released data on police organisations. 
Key data on Police Organisations 
• Human resource strength: India’s actual Police-
population ratio (number of police personnel 
per lakh of population) is 195.39 and there are 
only 20,91,488 police personnel actually in 
service against the sanctioned strength 
of 26,23,225. 
o Best Police-population ratio states/UTs are Nagaland, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Manipur. While 
worst state/UTs are Bihar, Daman & Diu and West Bengal. 
• Vacancies: More than 5.31 lakh posts in different state police forces and 1.27 lakh posts in CAPF are lying 
vacant. 
• Women in police: It is just 10.30% of the total police force and only 2.98% of the total strength in Central 
Armed Police Forces (CAPF).There has been a 16.05% increase of women police over previous year. 
• Scheduled Castes (SCs)/ Scheduled Tribes (STs)/OBCs representation: SCs (who form 16.6% of population) 
have 14% representation and STs (who form 8.6% of population) have 12% representation in the police forces. 
OBCs constitute only 25% of the police forces. 
Data suggests a need for overhauling Indian Police because of issues like 
• Lack of accountability: While exercising force to enforce laws and maintain law and order in a state, Police 
face various kinds of complaints including unwarranted arrests, unlawful searches, torture and custodial rapes. 
•  Overburdened police force:  Because of high percentage of vacancies an average policeman ends up having 
an enormous workload and long working hours, which negatively affects his efficiency and performance.  
o United Nations recommended standard is 222 police per lakh persons. 
• Mismatch in constabulary’s skill set and responsibilities: Constabulary constitutes 86% of the state police 
forces with wide-ranging responsibilities. 
Various Committee on Police reforms 
Committee Year Notes 
National Police 
Commission (NPC) 
1977-81 Established after the Emergency, the NPC produced 8 reports suggesting major 
reforms across a range of police issues.  
Ribeiro Committee 1998 Established by the Supreme Court to review the lack of action taken to implement 
NPC recommendations and to re-frame a new police act 
Padmanabhaiah 
Committee 
2000 Dealt with the issues of politicization and criminalization of the police and police 
accountability.  
Malimath Committee 2002-03 Suggested changes to the Indian Penal Code and outlined ways of improving judicial 
proceedings. 
Police Act Drafting 
Committee 1 
2005 Drafted a new model Police Act to replace the 1861 Police Act. 
Supreme Court 
Directives 
2006 SC issued seven directives to state police forces including setting up State Security 
Commissions, Police Establishment Boards and a Police Complaints Authority. 
Second Administrative 
Reforms 
2007 Noted that police-public relations were unsatisfactory and suggested a range of 
reforms to change this. 
Justice Thomas 
Committee 
2010 Highlighted the total indifference of state governments to police reforms. 
Supreme Court 
Directives 
2018 New directives on police reforms and reviewed states progress in the 
implementation of the 2006 directives. 
About Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D) 
• BPR&D, under Ministry of Home Affairs, is mandated to  
o promote excellence in policing,  
o promote speedy and systematic study of police 
problems,  
o apply science and technology in method and 
techniques by Police. 
	
36	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
o Padmanabhaiah Committee and the Second Administrative Reforms Commission have noted that the 
entry level qualifications (completion of class 10
th
 or 12
th
 in many states) and training of constables do not 
qualify them for their role. 
• Poor service conditions: High working hours, inadequate insurance coverage, lack of welfare measures etc. 
erodes their morale and motivation and also weakens incentive to perform well. 
• Need to separate law and order from investigation: Well over 50% of cases filed by the police (nearly 80% in 
rape cases) end up in acquittals. Crime investigation requires skills and training, time and resources, and 
adequate forensic capabilities and infrastructure, which is lacking in police force. 
• Improving Police-Public relations: Police requires the confidence, cooperation and support of the community 
to prevent crime and disorder. But relationship is in an unsatisfactory state because people view the police as 
corrupt, inefficient, politically partisan and unresponsive.  
• Newer Threats: With the advancement in technology, newer versions of threats are continuously arising in 
the form of cyber-attacks, bank frauds, organised crimes etc. which need to be tackled in a more specialised 
manner. 
• Lack of women representation: The skewed ratio leads to impediments in effective implementation of the 
legislations on crimes against women. According to the UN, women police officers correlates positively with 
reporting of sexual assault. 
• Shortage of weaponry: CAG audits have found shortages in weaponry with state police forces. For example, 
Rajasthan and West Bengal had shortages of 75% and 71% respectively. 
Suggested reforms areas can be: 
Boosting 
capacity and 
infrastructure 
• Increase in the number of police personnel: As per suggestions after 18 years of service, some 
CAPFs could switch to the Armed Police of the state. Another reform is using technology to 
supplement manpower. 
• Improvement in recruitment and training: Raise the qualification for entry into the civil police to 
class 12
th
 or graduation, refresher courses should be made compulsory and a prerequisite for 
promotion etc. 
• Improvement in service conditions: Reducing working hours like Kerala has introduced eight-hour 
duty, Haryana has introduced shift system. Better remuneration, welfare service, transparent 
promotion avenues will boost morale of police force. 
• Improving the infrastructure: Transport and communication facilities need to be expanded and 
upgraded, augmenting forensic support etc. 
Legislative 
reforms 
• Enactment of the organized Crimes Act: In times of rising cases of money laundering; arms, drugs 
and human trafficking; expanding terror networks, etc, there is an urgent need to have a Central 
law to regulate the same. 
• Single police act for the country:  To have uniformity in basic features which are in tune with the 
present, experts suggest that Article 252 can be relied on to have a single police law if two or more 
states consent. 
o In this respect, the Model Police Act was prepared in 2006 which has now been revised to a 
Model Police Bill 2015. 
• Moving Police to the Concurrent List: To address growing threats to internal security, terrorism, 
Left Wing Extremism due to which policing only by the state without Central support will be difficult. 
• Declaration of Federal Crimes: What this means is that certain offence which have inter-state or 
national ramifications should be governed by a new law. State Police as well as the CBI could be 
given the concurrent jurisdiction over investigation of all such crimes. 
• Commissionerate system for large areas: to allow for quicker decision-making in response to 
complex law and order situations. 
Administrative 
Reforms 
• Separation of investigation from law and order: As suggested by the Supreme Court in Prakash 
Singh v. Union of India, “the investigating police shall be separated from the law and order police to 
ensure speedier investigation, better expertise and improved rapport with the people. 
• Specialized wings for Social and Cyber Crimes: specialized crimes require a specialized approach 
and personnel to deal with them. Experts suggest that it needs to be handled by a separate wing 
with people like students who have graduated in Social Science/Social Work, MCA or passed out 
from an IIT. 
Page 3


	
35	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
4.	SECURITY	
4.1.	POLICE	REFORMS	
Why in News? 
Recently, Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPRD) has released data on police organisations. 
Key data on Police Organisations 
• Human resource strength: India’s actual Police-
population ratio (number of police personnel 
per lakh of population) is 195.39 and there are 
only 20,91,488 police personnel actually in 
service against the sanctioned strength 
of 26,23,225. 
o Best Police-population ratio states/UTs are Nagaland, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Manipur. While 
worst state/UTs are Bihar, Daman & Diu and West Bengal. 
• Vacancies: More than 5.31 lakh posts in different state police forces and 1.27 lakh posts in CAPF are lying 
vacant. 
• Women in police: It is just 10.30% of the total police force and only 2.98% of the total strength in Central 
Armed Police Forces (CAPF).There has been a 16.05% increase of women police over previous year. 
• Scheduled Castes (SCs)/ Scheduled Tribes (STs)/OBCs representation: SCs (who form 16.6% of population) 
have 14% representation and STs (who form 8.6% of population) have 12% representation in the police forces. 
OBCs constitute only 25% of the police forces. 
Data suggests a need for overhauling Indian Police because of issues like 
• Lack of accountability: While exercising force to enforce laws and maintain law and order in a state, Police 
face various kinds of complaints including unwarranted arrests, unlawful searches, torture and custodial rapes. 
•  Overburdened police force:  Because of high percentage of vacancies an average policeman ends up having 
an enormous workload and long working hours, which negatively affects his efficiency and performance.  
o United Nations recommended standard is 222 police per lakh persons. 
• Mismatch in constabulary’s skill set and responsibilities: Constabulary constitutes 86% of the state police 
forces with wide-ranging responsibilities. 
Various Committee on Police reforms 
Committee Year Notes 
National Police 
Commission (NPC) 
1977-81 Established after the Emergency, the NPC produced 8 reports suggesting major 
reforms across a range of police issues.  
Ribeiro Committee 1998 Established by the Supreme Court to review the lack of action taken to implement 
NPC recommendations and to re-frame a new police act 
Padmanabhaiah 
Committee 
2000 Dealt with the issues of politicization and criminalization of the police and police 
accountability.  
Malimath Committee 2002-03 Suggested changes to the Indian Penal Code and outlined ways of improving judicial 
proceedings. 
Police Act Drafting 
Committee 1 
2005 Drafted a new model Police Act to replace the 1861 Police Act. 
Supreme Court 
Directives 
2006 SC issued seven directives to state police forces including setting up State Security 
Commissions, Police Establishment Boards and a Police Complaints Authority. 
Second Administrative 
Reforms 
2007 Noted that police-public relations were unsatisfactory and suggested a range of 
reforms to change this. 
Justice Thomas 
Committee 
2010 Highlighted the total indifference of state governments to police reforms. 
Supreme Court 
Directives 
2018 New directives on police reforms and reviewed states progress in the 
implementation of the 2006 directives. 
About Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D) 
• BPR&D, under Ministry of Home Affairs, is mandated to  
o promote excellence in policing,  
o promote speedy and systematic study of police 
problems,  
o apply science and technology in method and 
techniques by Police. 
	
36	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
o Padmanabhaiah Committee and the Second Administrative Reforms Commission have noted that the 
entry level qualifications (completion of class 10
th
 or 12
th
 in many states) and training of constables do not 
qualify them for their role. 
• Poor service conditions: High working hours, inadequate insurance coverage, lack of welfare measures etc. 
erodes their morale and motivation and also weakens incentive to perform well. 
• Need to separate law and order from investigation: Well over 50% of cases filed by the police (nearly 80% in 
rape cases) end up in acquittals. Crime investigation requires skills and training, time and resources, and 
adequate forensic capabilities and infrastructure, which is lacking in police force. 
• Improving Police-Public relations: Police requires the confidence, cooperation and support of the community 
to prevent crime and disorder. But relationship is in an unsatisfactory state because people view the police as 
corrupt, inefficient, politically partisan and unresponsive.  
• Newer Threats: With the advancement in technology, newer versions of threats are continuously arising in 
the form of cyber-attacks, bank frauds, organised crimes etc. which need to be tackled in a more specialised 
manner. 
• Lack of women representation: The skewed ratio leads to impediments in effective implementation of the 
legislations on crimes against women. According to the UN, women police officers correlates positively with 
reporting of sexual assault. 
• Shortage of weaponry: CAG audits have found shortages in weaponry with state police forces. For example, 
Rajasthan and West Bengal had shortages of 75% and 71% respectively. 
Suggested reforms areas can be: 
Boosting 
capacity and 
infrastructure 
• Increase in the number of police personnel: As per suggestions after 18 years of service, some 
CAPFs could switch to the Armed Police of the state. Another reform is using technology to 
supplement manpower. 
• Improvement in recruitment and training: Raise the qualification for entry into the civil police to 
class 12
th
 or graduation, refresher courses should be made compulsory and a prerequisite for 
promotion etc. 
• Improvement in service conditions: Reducing working hours like Kerala has introduced eight-hour 
duty, Haryana has introduced shift system. Better remuneration, welfare service, transparent 
promotion avenues will boost morale of police force. 
• Improving the infrastructure: Transport and communication facilities need to be expanded and 
upgraded, augmenting forensic support etc. 
Legislative 
reforms 
• Enactment of the organized Crimes Act: In times of rising cases of money laundering; arms, drugs 
and human trafficking; expanding terror networks, etc, there is an urgent need to have a Central 
law to regulate the same. 
• Single police act for the country:  To have uniformity in basic features which are in tune with the 
present, experts suggest that Article 252 can be relied on to have a single police law if two or more 
states consent. 
o In this respect, the Model Police Act was prepared in 2006 which has now been revised to a 
Model Police Bill 2015. 
• Moving Police to the Concurrent List: To address growing threats to internal security, terrorism, 
Left Wing Extremism due to which policing only by the state without Central support will be difficult. 
• Declaration of Federal Crimes: What this means is that certain offence which have inter-state or 
national ramifications should be governed by a new law. State Police as well as the CBI could be 
given the concurrent jurisdiction over investigation of all such crimes. 
• Commissionerate system for large areas: to allow for quicker decision-making in response to 
complex law and order situations. 
Administrative 
Reforms 
• Separation of investigation from law and order: As suggested by the Supreme Court in Prakash 
Singh v. Union of India, “the investigating police shall be separated from the law and order police to 
ensure speedier investigation, better expertise and improved rapport with the people. 
• Specialized wings for Social and Cyber Crimes: specialized crimes require a specialized approach 
and personnel to deal with them. Experts suggest that it needs to be handled by a separate wing 
with people like students who have graduated in Social Science/Social Work, MCA or passed out 
from an IIT. 
	
37	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
• Restricting the police to core functions: Functions like serving court’s summons, antecedents and 
addresses verification for passport applications or job verifications etc. can be outsourced to private 
agents or government departments. 
• Setting up authorities as directed by the Supreme Court: Setting up of State Security Commission 
(laying down broad policies and directions for police functioning), Police Establishment Board (to 
decide on transfers, postings, promotions, and other service related issues), Police Complaints 
Authorities (at state and district levels as redressal mechanisms for complaints against police) etc. 
4.2.	NATIONAL	SECURITY	DIRECTIVE	ON	THE	TELECOM	SECTOR	
Why in news? 
Considering the need to ensure India’s national security, 
the Cabinet Committee on Security has accorded approval 
for the National Security Directive on the Telecom Sector. 
Background 
• Indian directives for telecom security come amid 
global security concerns raised against Chinese 
equipment maker Huawei. 
• India has restricted investments from Huawei for the 
rollout of 5G networks, which was also banned by UK 
and US government for on ground of national security. 
• India has also banned over 200 Chinese mobile apps under Section 69A of the Information Technology Act.  
• With rising such security concerns in telecom industry National Security Directive on the Telecom sector has 
been approved. 
About National Security Directive on the Telecom Sector 
NSDTS is India’s first and biggest framework to protect itself from cyber-attacks, data theft and other virtual 
vulnerabilities threatening its national security. 
• National Security Committee on Telecom (NSCT) headed by the deputy National Security Advisor will identify 
trusted sources of telecom equipment that can be used by India’s cellular operators on their networks. 
o It will also release the names of the firms whose equipment cannot be used. 
• The directive has provisions that to qualify as domestic players in the trusted category they should meet the 
criteria of the Department of Telecommunications' preferential market access (PMA) scheme. 
o PMA scheme is for providing preference to domestically manufactured electronic products, in 
procurement of those electronic products which have security implications for the country. 
• New devices have to mandatorily procure from trusted sources while directives will not affect annual 
maintenance contracts or updates to existing equipment already inducted in the network. 
• Department of Telecom will make appropriate modifications in the licence conditions for the 
implementations of the provisions of the directive and policy will come into operation after 180 days from the 
date of approval. 
Why there is need to have telecom security?  
Rising telecom industry in India with globalisation and digitisation has created many security concerns in field of 
telecom industry as given follow. 
• Cyber security: With development of IoT & Big Data, security challenges in telecom industry, banking and 
financial transactions have increased manifold like data protection, architecture, email security, web security, 
information security, cloud security etc. 
o According to the industry report, only 50% of Indian companies have their security strategy for cloud 
computing. 
• National security: Data sovereignty of defence sector and other strategic sectors are much important in 
respect of national security.  
o Virtual world is increasingly being targeted in covert state-sponsored attacks and actions of non-state 
actors, which creates threat to the sovereignty and integrity of India. 
About telecom industry in India 
• Currently, India is the world’s second-largest 
telecommunications market with a subscriber 
base of 1.16 billion and tele-density of 87.37% in 
FY20. 
• India also ranks as the world’s second largest 
market in terms of total internet users with 
subscribers at 743.19 million in FY20.  
• It is expected that over the next five years, rise in 
mobile-phone penetration and decline in data 
costs will add 500 million new internet users in 
India, creating opportunities for new businesses. 
Page 4


	
35	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
4.	SECURITY	
4.1.	POLICE	REFORMS	
Why in News? 
Recently, Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPRD) has released data on police organisations. 
Key data on Police Organisations 
• Human resource strength: India’s actual Police-
population ratio (number of police personnel 
per lakh of population) is 195.39 and there are 
only 20,91,488 police personnel actually in 
service against the sanctioned strength 
of 26,23,225. 
o Best Police-population ratio states/UTs are Nagaland, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Manipur. While 
worst state/UTs are Bihar, Daman & Diu and West Bengal. 
• Vacancies: More than 5.31 lakh posts in different state police forces and 1.27 lakh posts in CAPF are lying 
vacant. 
• Women in police: It is just 10.30% of the total police force and only 2.98% of the total strength in Central 
Armed Police Forces (CAPF).There has been a 16.05% increase of women police over previous year. 
• Scheduled Castes (SCs)/ Scheduled Tribes (STs)/OBCs representation: SCs (who form 16.6% of population) 
have 14% representation and STs (who form 8.6% of population) have 12% representation in the police forces. 
OBCs constitute only 25% of the police forces. 
Data suggests a need for overhauling Indian Police because of issues like 
• Lack of accountability: While exercising force to enforce laws and maintain law and order in a state, Police 
face various kinds of complaints including unwarranted arrests, unlawful searches, torture and custodial rapes. 
•  Overburdened police force:  Because of high percentage of vacancies an average policeman ends up having 
an enormous workload and long working hours, which negatively affects his efficiency and performance.  
o United Nations recommended standard is 222 police per lakh persons. 
• Mismatch in constabulary’s skill set and responsibilities: Constabulary constitutes 86% of the state police 
forces with wide-ranging responsibilities. 
Various Committee on Police reforms 
Committee Year Notes 
National Police 
Commission (NPC) 
1977-81 Established after the Emergency, the NPC produced 8 reports suggesting major 
reforms across a range of police issues.  
Ribeiro Committee 1998 Established by the Supreme Court to review the lack of action taken to implement 
NPC recommendations and to re-frame a new police act 
Padmanabhaiah 
Committee 
2000 Dealt with the issues of politicization and criminalization of the police and police 
accountability.  
Malimath Committee 2002-03 Suggested changes to the Indian Penal Code and outlined ways of improving judicial 
proceedings. 
Police Act Drafting 
Committee 1 
2005 Drafted a new model Police Act to replace the 1861 Police Act. 
Supreme Court 
Directives 
2006 SC issued seven directives to state police forces including setting up State Security 
Commissions, Police Establishment Boards and a Police Complaints Authority. 
Second Administrative 
Reforms 
2007 Noted that police-public relations were unsatisfactory and suggested a range of 
reforms to change this. 
Justice Thomas 
Committee 
2010 Highlighted the total indifference of state governments to police reforms. 
Supreme Court 
Directives 
2018 New directives on police reforms and reviewed states progress in the 
implementation of the 2006 directives. 
About Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D) 
• BPR&D, under Ministry of Home Affairs, is mandated to  
o promote excellence in policing,  
o promote speedy and systematic study of police 
problems,  
o apply science and technology in method and 
techniques by Police. 
	
36	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
o Padmanabhaiah Committee and the Second Administrative Reforms Commission have noted that the 
entry level qualifications (completion of class 10
th
 or 12
th
 in many states) and training of constables do not 
qualify them for their role. 
• Poor service conditions: High working hours, inadequate insurance coverage, lack of welfare measures etc. 
erodes their morale and motivation and also weakens incentive to perform well. 
• Need to separate law and order from investigation: Well over 50% of cases filed by the police (nearly 80% in 
rape cases) end up in acquittals. Crime investigation requires skills and training, time and resources, and 
adequate forensic capabilities and infrastructure, which is lacking in police force. 
• Improving Police-Public relations: Police requires the confidence, cooperation and support of the community 
to prevent crime and disorder. But relationship is in an unsatisfactory state because people view the police as 
corrupt, inefficient, politically partisan and unresponsive.  
• Newer Threats: With the advancement in technology, newer versions of threats are continuously arising in 
the form of cyber-attacks, bank frauds, organised crimes etc. which need to be tackled in a more specialised 
manner. 
• Lack of women representation: The skewed ratio leads to impediments in effective implementation of the 
legislations on crimes against women. According to the UN, women police officers correlates positively with 
reporting of sexual assault. 
• Shortage of weaponry: CAG audits have found shortages in weaponry with state police forces. For example, 
Rajasthan and West Bengal had shortages of 75% and 71% respectively. 
Suggested reforms areas can be: 
Boosting 
capacity and 
infrastructure 
• Increase in the number of police personnel: As per suggestions after 18 years of service, some 
CAPFs could switch to the Armed Police of the state. Another reform is using technology to 
supplement manpower. 
• Improvement in recruitment and training: Raise the qualification for entry into the civil police to 
class 12
th
 or graduation, refresher courses should be made compulsory and a prerequisite for 
promotion etc. 
• Improvement in service conditions: Reducing working hours like Kerala has introduced eight-hour 
duty, Haryana has introduced shift system. Better remuneration, welfare service, transparent 
promotion avenues will boost morale of police force. 
• Improving the infrastructure: Transport and communication facilities need to be expanded and 
upgraded, augmenting forensic support etc. 
Legislative 
reforms 
• Enactment of the organized Crimes Act: In times of rising cases of money laundering; arms, drugs 
and human trafficking; expanding terror networks, etc, there is an urgent need to have a Central 
law to regulate the same. 
• Single police act for the country:  To have uniformity in basic features which are in tune with the 
present, experts suggest that Article 252 can be relied on to have a single police law if two or more 
states consent. 
o In this respect, the Model Police Act was prepared in 2006 which has now been revised to a 
Model Police Bill 2015. 
• Moving Police to the Concurrent List: To address growing threats to internal security, terrorism, 
Left Wing Extremism due to which policing only by the state without Central support will be difficult. 
• Declaration of Federal Crimes: What this means is that certain offence which have inter-state or 
national ramifications should be governed by a new law. State Police as well as the CBI could be 
given the concurrent jurisdiction over investigation of all such crimes. 
• Commissionerate system for large areas: to allow for quicker decision-making in response to 
complex law and order situations. 
Administrative 
Reforms 
• Separation of investigation from law and order: As suggested by the Supreme Court in Prakash 
Singh v. Union of India, “the investigating police shall be separated from the law and order police to 
ensure speedier investigation, better expertise and improved rapport with the people. 
• Specialized wings for Social and Cyber Crimes: specialized crimes require a specialized approach 
and personnel to deal with them. Experts suggest that it needs to be handled by a separate wing 
with people like students who have graduated in Social Science/Social Work, MCA or passed out 
from an IIT. 
	
37	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
• Restricting the police to core functions: Functions like serving court’s summons, antecedents and 
addresses verification for passport applications or job verifications etc. can be outsourced to private 
agents or government departments. 
• Setting up authorities as directed by the Supreme Court: Setting up of State Security Commission 
(laying down broad policies and directions for police functioning), Police Establishment Board (to 
decide on transfers, postings, promotions, and other service related issues), Police Complaints 
Authorities (at state and district levels as redressal mechanisms for complaints against police) etc. 
4.2.	NATIONAL	SECURITY	DIRECTIVE	ON	THE	TELECOM	SECTOR	
Why in news? 
Considering the need to ensure India’s national security, 
the Cabinet Committee on Security has accorded approval 
for the National Security Directive on the Telecom Sector. 
Background 
• Indian directives for telecom security come amid 
global security concerns raised against Chinese 
equipment maker Huawei. 
• India has restricted investments from Huawei for the 
rollout of 5G networks, which was also banned by UK 
and US government for on ground of national security. 
• India has also banned over 200 Chinese mobile apps under Section 69A of the Information Technology Act.  
• With rising such security concerns in telecom industry National Security Directive on the Telecom sector has 
been approved. 
About National Security Directive on the Telecom Sector 
NSDTS is India’s first and biggest framework to protect itself from cyber-attacks, data theft and other virtual 
vulnerabilities threatening its national security. 
• National Security Committee on Telecom (NSCT) headed by the deputy National Security Advisor will identify 
trusted sources of telecom equipment that can be used by India’s cellular operators on their networks. 
o It will also release the names of the firms whose equipment cannot be used. 
• The directive has provisions that to qualify as domestic players in the trusted category they should meet the 
criteria of the Department of Telecommunications' preferential market access (PMA) scheme. 
o PMA scheme is for providing preference to domestically manufactured electronic products, in 
procurement of those electronic products which have security implications for the country. 
• New devices have to mandatorily procure from trusted sources while directives will not affect annual 
maintenance contracts or updates to existing equipment already inducted in the network. 
• Department of Telecom will make appropriate modifications in the licence conditions for the 
implementations of the provisions of the directive and policy will come into operation after 180 days from the 
date of approval. 
Why there is need to have telecom security?  
Rising telecom industry in India with globalisation and digitisation has created many security concerns in field of 
telecom industry as given follow. 
• Cyber security: With development of IoT & Big Data, security challenges in telecom industry, banking and 
financial transactions have increased manifold like data protection, architecture, email security, web security, 
information security, cloud security etc. 
o According to the industry report, only 50% of Indian companies have their security strategy for cloud 
computing. 
• National security: Data sovereignty of defence sector and other strategic sectors are much important in 
respect of national security.  
o Virtual world is increasingly being targeted in covert state-sponsored attacks and actions of non-state 
actors, which creates threat to the sovereignty and integrity of India. 
About telecom industry in India 
• Currently, India is the world’s second-largest 
telecommunications market with a subscriber 
base of 1.16 billion and tele-density of 87.37% in 
FY20. 
• India also ranks as the world’s second largest 
market in terms of total internet users with 
subscribers at 743.19 million in FY20.  
• It is expected that over the next five years, rise in 
mobile-phone penetration and decline in data 
costs will add 500 million new internet users in 
India, creating opportunities for new businesses. 
	
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• Dubious suppliers: There are dubious telecom equipment suppliers, whose products have been suspected of 
being misused.  
o Hence, identifying trusted source and negative list of vendors by govt will make procurement more 
transparent and eliminate dubious foreign suppliers. 
• Realizing Self-reliance (Atmanirbhar Bharat mission): Currently, India is heavily dependent on import of 
telecom equipment at Rs 1.30 trillion and China is biggest exporter.  
o Hence, steps towards telecom security with given directives will help to include more domestic trusted 
sources, which ultimately helps in boosting India’s domestic capacities and reduce reliance on foreign 
equipment. 
Ways to address challenges in telecom security 
It is said that with list of banned sources and limited trusted sources makes price of telecom equipment higher or 
uncompetitive. E.g. Equipment sold by Ericsson, Nokia and Samsung are relatively expensive and may add to input 
cost. Hence, security in telecom industry can be improved by other measures as well. 
• Technological advancements: Effective security can be maintained by keeping pace with the technological 
advancements in the world of data security, and by adhering to the rapidly evolving compliance landscape.  
o For this the C-DOT, telecom research and development arm of govt should work for development of 
technology and products 
• Strategy and approach: Adopting a holistic and strategic approach to cyber security, telecom providers would 
be more able to mitigate the threats posed by the security vulnerabilities as given below. 
o Threat detection: It is the practice of analyzing the entirety of a security ecosystem to identify any 
malicious activity that could compromise the network and help neutralize the threat before it can exploit 
any present vulnerabilities. 
o Prevention measures: Here the legal frameworks come into force and legal security measures are created 
by the regulators and the sectors, in order to overcome security concerns. 
o Incident response methods: It is structured methodology for handling security incidents, breaches, and 
cyber threats with well-defined incident response plan (IRP). 
	
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