Security: January 2021 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly

Current Affairs : Security: January 2021 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
46                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
4. SECURITY 
4.1. INTELLIGENCE REFORMS  
Why in News? 
In the backdrop of repeated China’s incursions, experts have called for intelligence reforms. 
Intelligence Framework in India 
• India’s existing intelligence apparatus comprises an assortment of agencies that have specific mandates.  
• At the apex level, the National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS), headed by the National Security Advisor 
(NSA), was set up by the government following the 1998 Pokhran-II nuclear tests. 
o It operates within the executive office of the Prime Minister of India, liaising between the government’s 
executive branch and the intelligence services, advising leadership on intelligence and security issues. 
• In 2018, the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), a body created to aggregate and analyse all intelligence from 
the various agencies, was subsumed into the NSCS. 
• Various Intelligence agencies 
o IB, created in 1887, reports to the Ministry of Home Affairs and is responsible for India’s domestic 
intelligence, internal security, and counter-intelligence.  
? It was first named Indian Political Intelligence Office and it was given its current name after 
Independence.  
o Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), meanwhile, is the country’s foreign intelligence agency formed in 
1968.  
? It comes under the direct command of the prime minister. R&AW is a wing of the Cabinet Secretariat.  
o National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO; erstwhile National Technical Facilities Organisation): It 
was established in 2004 and is the technical intelligence agency of the Government of India.  
? NTRO comes under the National Security Advisor and is part of the Prime Minister’s Office.  
o Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI): It is tasked with anti-smuggling intelligence; it was set up in 
1957, and falls under the Ministry of Finance. 
• The “norms of conduct” of the IB, R&AW and NTRO are governed by the Intelligence Organisations 
(Restrictions of Rights) Act, 1985.  
o Additionally, employees of Indian intelligence agencies are subject to the Official Secrets Act (first 
enacted in 1923) that governs, among others, the sharing of classified information. 
• However, these various intelligence agencies tend to overlap in their functions, either by design or as a 
natural consequence of their activities. 
Need for Intelligence reforms 
• Diverse and complex national security threats: These threats range from nuclear-armed adversaries like China 
and Pakistan, to Maoists, and militancy and terrorism arising from within its borders and beyond. 
o Other threats include cyber intelligence, counterterrorism, counter proliferation, counter intelligence etc. 
• Shortage of personnel: Lack of intellectual capacity and investment in education system exacerbate 
recruitment shortfalls in intelligence agencies. 
• Oversight over intelligence agencies: as the risk of overstepping boundaries and violating the rights of citizens 
in a democracy for the sake of security is ever-present.  
Challenges faced by Intelligence agencies 
• Lack of coordination: Amongst intelligence agencies and between state and Central agencies. Also, 
Intelligence collection is ad-hoc in the absence of clear-cut requirements from the consumers of intelligence 
i.e. both civilian and defense institutions. 
• Sporadic and crisis-linked reforms:  Where as true reform would consider past experiences, present 
conditions and evolving threats to make a judgement on the kind of intelligence agency required, say, fifteen 
to twenty years from now. 
• Issue of overlapping functions of various agencies: such as whether the Defence Intelligence Agency had the 
same authority to conduct cross-border Human intelligence operations as Military Intelligence. 
Page 2


 
46                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
4. SECURITY 
4.1. INTELLIGENCE REFORMS  
Why in News? 
In the backdrop of repeated China’s incursions, experts have called for intelligence reforms. 
Intelligence Framework in India 
• India’s existing intelligence apparatus comprises an assortment of agencies that have specific mandates.  
• At the apex level, the National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS), headed by the National Security Advisor 
(NSA), was set up by the government following the 1998 Pokhran-II nuclear tests. 
o It operates within the executive office of the Prime Minister of India, liaising between the government’s 
executive branch and the intelligence services, advising leadership on intelligence and security issues. 
• In 2018, the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), a body created to aggregate and analyse all intelligence from 
the various agencies, was subsumed into the NSCS. 
• Various Intelligence agencies 
o IB, created in 1887, reports to the Ministry of Home Affairs and is responsible for India’s domestic 
intelligence, internal security, and counter-intelligence.  
? It was first named Indian Political Intelligence Office and it was given its current name after 
Independence.  
o Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), meanwhile, is the country’s foreign intelligence agency formed in 
1968.  
? It comes under the direct command of the prime minister. R&AW is a wing of the Cabinet Secretariat.  
o National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO; erstwhile National Technical Facilities Organisation): It 
was established in 2004 and is the technical intelligence agency of the Government of India.  
? NTRO comes under the National Security Advisor and is part of the Prime Minister’s Office.  
o Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI): It is tasked with anti-smuggling intelligence; it was set up in 
1957, and falls under the Ministry of Finance. 
• The “norms of conduct” of the IB, R&AW and NTRO are governed by the Intelligence Organisations 
(Restrictions of Rights) Act, 1985.  
o Additionally, employees of Indian intelligence agencies are subject to the Official Secrets Act (first 
enacted in 1923) that governs, among others, the sharing of classified information. 
• However, these various intelligence agencies tend to overlap in their functions, either by design or as a 
natural consequence of their activities. 
Need for Intelligence reforms 
• Diverse and complex national security threats: These threats range from nuclear-armed adversaries like China 
and Pakistan, to Maoists, and militancy and terrorism arising from within its borders and beyond. 
o Other threats include cyber intelligence, counterterrorism, counter proliferation, counter intelligence etc. 
• Shortage of personnel: Lack of intellectual capacity and investment in education system exacerbate 
recruitment shortfalls in intelligence agencies. 
• Oversight over intelligence agencies: as the risk of overstepping boundaries and violating the rights of citizens 
in a democracy for the sake of security is ever-present.  
Challenges faced by Intelligence agencies 
• Lack of coordination: Amongst intelligence agencies and between state and Central agencies. Also, 
Intelligence collection is ad-hoc in the absence of clear-cut requirements from the consumers of intelligence 
i.e. both civilian and defense institutions. 
• Sporadic and crisis-linked reforms:  Where as true reform would consider past experiences, present 
conditions and evolving threats to make a judgement on the kind of intelligence agency required, say, fifteen 
to twenty years from now. 
• Issue of overlapping functions of various agencies: such as whether the Defence Intelligence Agency had the 
same authority to conduct cross-border Human intelligence operations as Military Intelligence. 
 
47                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• Weakness in information analysis: As intelligence is as good as the process that converts this information into 
knowledge and the ability of the ultimate user to assimilate this intelligence. 
• Inadequate intelligence technologies:  India’s domestic capability is sorely missing. The country is almost 
exclusively dependent on foreign imports from countries such as Israel and US. 
Way forward 
• Better coordination: Appoint a National Intelligence Coordinator/Director of National Intelligence to bring 
about better interagency coordination, remove overlaps and duplications, end ‘turf-wars’ and ensure better 
utilisation of national resources. 
• Providing legal status: That would give India’s intelligence community a statutory basis and a charter, and will 
provide it with institutional levels of accountability. 
• Improving accountability: Strengthen financial accountability by annual reports to Comptroller & Auditor 
General (CAG)/NSA, a separate intelligence ombudsman, Set up a Parliamentary Accountability Committee for 
oversight of intelligence agencies etc. 
• Robust base in technology and innovation: Such a framework will need a tripartite partnership between 
government, private sector and the academia. There is a need to identify specific technology pathways and 
create a concrete five-year plan to swiftly build local capacity. 
• Reforms in recruitment, deputation, promotion and training: By having open and separate direct recruitment 
mechanisms for different intelligence agencies, improving training modules, improving quality of trainers and  
in situ promotions to improve morale at middle, mid-senior levels. 
• Gathering information from open sources: Information is emanating not only from traditional media sources 
such as newspapers, magazines and television, but also social media like micro-blogs, Twitter and Facebook.  
• Capacity for analyzing gathered information: There is need for the system to separate collection and analysis 
of intelligence while strengthening both these functions. 
4.2. BODO PEACE ACCORD 
Why in News?  
First anniversary of the 3rd Bodo Peace Accord was 
celebrated in Assam recently. 
About Bodos 
• Bodoland is a state demanded by a tribal community 
called Bodos in Assam, who comprise of 5%-6% of the 
state’s population. 
• They are single largest tribal community in Assam. 
• It consists of regions located extreme north of north bank of Brahmaputra river in the state of Assam, by the 
foothills of Bhutan and Arunachal 
Pradesh. 
• The demand for a separate state for 
Bodos is rooted in reasons like 
administrative and development 
apathy of the state of Assam, and 
a feeling that identity, culture and 
language of the Bodo people were 
subsumed by the Assamese and 
migrants. 
About 3rd Bodo Peace Accord 
• 3rd Bodo Peace Accord as tripartite 
agreement between the Centre, 
Assam Government and the 
banned Assam- based insurgent 
Timeline of the Bodoland dispute  
1960s and 1970s - There were calls from Bodos and other tribes for a 
separate state of 'Udayachal' as immigrants were accused of illegally 
encroaching on Bodo-inhabited lands. Demand was raised under the banner 
of the Plains Tribals Council of Assam (PTCA), a political outfit.  
1993 - The Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC) was constituted after the 
Centre, the Assam government and the All-Bodo Students Union (ABSU) 
signed a tripartite agreement. However, BAC failed due to non-
implementation of various provisions of the Accord. 
 2003 - The Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) was formed after the Centre; 
the Assam government and the BLT sign a tripartite agreement. The BLT is 
disbanded.  
2005 – NDFB agreed to a ceasefire with the Assam government and the 
Centre. After the treaty was signed, the group splits into three factions. One 
of those factions, the NDFB (S) continued to carry out violent attacks. 
Page 3


 
46                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
4. SECURITY 
4.1. INTELLIGENCE REFORMS  
Why in News? 
In the backdrop of repeated China’s incursions, experts have called for intelligence reforms. 
Intelligence Framework in India 
• India’s existing intelligence apparatus comprises an assortment of agencies that have specific mandates.  
• At the apex level, the National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS), headed by the National Security Advisor 
(NSA), was set up by the government following the 1998 Pokhran-II nuclear tests. 
o It operates within the executive office of the Prime Minister of India, liaising between the government’s 
executive branch and the intelligence services, advising leadership on intelligence and security issues. 
• In 2018, the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), a body created to aggregate and analyse all intelligence from 
the various agencies, was subsumed into the NSCS. 
• Various Intelligence agencies 
o IB, created in 1887, reports to the Ministry of Home Affairs and is responsible for India’s domestic 
intelligence, internal security, and counter-intelligence.  
? It was first named Indian Political Intelligence Office and it was given its current name after 
Independence.  
o Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), meanwhile, is the country’s foreign intelligence agency formed in 
1968.  
? It comes under the direct command of the prime minister. R&AW is a wing of the Cabinet Secretariat.  
o National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO; erstwhile National Technical Facilities Organisation): It 
was established in 2004 and is the technical intelligence agency of the Government of India.  
? NTRO comes under the National Security Advisor and is part of the Prime Minister’s Office.  
o Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI): It is tasked with anti-smuggling intelligence; it was set up in 
1957, and falls under the Ministry of Finance. 
• The “norms of conduct” of the IB, R&AW and NTRO are governed by the Intelligence Organisations 
(Restrictions of Rights) Act, 1985.  
o Additionally, employees of Indian intelligence agencies are subject to the Official Secrets Act (first 
enacted in 1923) that governs, among others, the sharing of classified information. 
• However, these various intelligence agencies tend to overlap in their functions, either by design or as a 
natural consequence of their activities. 
Need for Intelligence reforms 
• Diverse and complex national security threats: These threats range from nuclear-armed adversaries like China 
and Pakistan, to Maoists, and militancy and terrorism arising from within its borders and beyond. 
o Other threats include cyber intelligence, counterterrorism, counter proliferation, counter intelligence etc. 
• Shortage of personnel: Lack of intellectual capacity and investment in education system exacerbate 
recruitment shortfalls in intelligence agencies. 
• Oversight over intelligence agencies: as the risk of overstepping boundaries and violating the rights of citizens 
in a democracy for the sake of security is ever-present.  
Challenges faced by Intelligence agencies 
• Lack of coordination: Amongst intelligence agencies and between state and Central agencies. Also, 
Intelligence collection is ad-hoc in the absence of clear-cut requirements from the consumers of intelligence 
i.e. both civilian and defense institutions. 
• Sporadic and crisis-linked reforms:  Where as true reform would consider past experiences, present 
conditions and evolving threats to make a judgement on the kind of intelligence agency required, say, fifteen 
to twenty years from now. 
• Issue of overlapping functions of various agencies: such as whether the Defence Intelligence Agency had the 
same authority to conduct cross-border Human intelligence operations as Military Intelligence. 
 
47                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• Weakness in information analysis: As intelligence is as good as the process that converts this information into 
knowledge and the ability of the ultimate user to assimilate this intelligence. 
• Inadequate intelligence technologies:  India’s domestic capability is sorely missing. The country is almost 
exclusively dependent on foreign imports from countries such as Israel and US. 
Way forward 
• Better coordination: Appoint a National Intelligence Coordinator/Director of National Intelligence to bring 
about better interagency coordination, remove overlaps and duplications, end ‘turf-wars’ and ensure better 
utilisation of national resources. 
• Providing legal status: That would give India’s intelligence community a statutory basis and a charter, and will 
provide it with institutional levels of accountability. 
• Improving accountability: Strengthen financial accountability by annual reports to Comptroller & Auditor 
General (CAG)/NSA, a separate intelligence ombudsman, Set up a Parliamentary Accountability Committee for 
oversight of intelligence agencies etc. 
• Robust base in technology and innovation: Such a framework will need a tripartite partnership between 
government, private sector and the academia. There is a need to identify specific technology pathways and 
create a concrete five-year plan to swiftly build local capacity. 
• Reforms in recruitment, deputation, promotion and training: By having open and separate direct recruitment 
mechanisms for different intelligence agencies, improving training modules, improving quality of trainers and  
in situ promotions to improve morale at middle, mid-senior levels. 
• Gathering information from open sources: Information is emanating not only from traditional media sources 
such as newspapers, magazines and television, but also social media like micro-blogs, Twitter and Facebook.  
• Capacity for analyzing gathered information: There is need for the system to separate collection and analysis 
of intelligence while strengthening both these functions. 
4.2. BODO PEACE ACCORD 
Why in News?  
First anniversary of the 3rd Bodo Peace Accord was 
celebrated in Assam recently. 
About Bodos 
• Bodoland is a state demanded by a tribal community 
called Bodos in Assam, who comprise of 5%-6% of the 
state’s population. 
• They are single largest tribal community in Assam. 
• It consists of regions located extreme north of north bank of Brahmaputra river in the state of Assam, by the 
foothills of Bhutan and Arunachal 
Pradesh. 
• The demand for a separate state for 
Bodos is rooted in reasons like 
administrative and development 
apathy of the state of Assam, and 
a feeling that identity, culture and 
language of the Bodo people were 
subsumed by the Assamese and 
migrants. 
About 3rd Bodo Peace Accord 
• 3rd Bodo Peace Accord as tripartite 
agreement between the Centre, 
Assam Government and the 
banned Assam- based insurgent 
Timeline of the Bodoland dispute  
1960s and 1970s - There were calls from Bodos and other tribes for a 
separate state of 'Udayachal' as immigrants were accused of illegally 
encroaching on Bodo-inhabited lands. Demand was raised under the banner 
of the Plains Tribals Council of Assam (PTCA), a political outfit.  
1993 - The Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC) was constituted after the 
Centre, the Assam government and the All-Bodo Students Union (ABSU) 
signed a tripartite agreement. However, BAC failed due to non-
implementation of various provisions of the Accord. 
 2003 - The Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) was formed after the Centre; 
the Assam government and the BLT sign a tripartite agreement. The BLT is 
disbanded.  
2005 – NDFB agreed to a ceasefire with the Assam government and the 
Centre. After the treaty was signed, the group splits into three factions. One 
of those factions, the NDFB (S) continued to carry out violent attacks. 
 
48                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
group National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) was signed on 27th January 2020, for bringing a lasting 
peace in Bodo-dominated areas in Assam.  
• Key highlights of the accord 
o Bodo Territorial Areas District (BTAD) was reorganized by including new Bodo-dominated villages 
contiguous to the existing BTAD and excluding villages with a predominantly non-tribal population.  
o BTAD renamed as Bodoland Territorial Region with more executive, administrative, legislative and 
financial powers. 
o A commission, headed by a neutral person and represented by stakeholders, will be constituted by the 
central government for the demarcation and reorganisation of the BTR 
o Bodos living in hills districts of Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao would be conferred Scheduled Hill Tribe 
status.  
o Number of seats in Bodoland Territorial Council will be increased from 40 to 60. 
o Bodo with Devnagri script would be associate official language for entire Assam. 
o Deputy Commissioners and Superintendents of Police will be posted in consultation with the Chief 
Executive Member (CEM) of the BTC. 
o A Special Development Package of Rs. 1500 crores over three years were provided. 
Significance of 3
rd
 Bodo Peace accord 
• Ensuring peace and harmony in the BTAD: It is the first peace agreement in the Northeast where all the 
existing insurgent groups in a particular area have put their signatures, with a joint commitment to end 
violence. 
• Satisfying the identity and aspirations of the Bodo people: The change of Bodoland Territorial Area Districts 
to Bodoland Territorial Region (from districts to 
region) is significant as it acknowledges a Bodo 
homeland within the state of Assam, without 
separating from Assam and also satisfying the 
identity and aspirations of the Bodo people. 
o The accord has provided for setting up of a 
BodoKachari Welfare Council for 
‘development’ of Bodo villages located outside 
the Bodo Council area, and declaring Bodo 
language in Devnagri script as an associate 
official language of Assam 
• Democratic decentralisation: Accord has provided 
more legislative, executive, administrative and 
financial powers to BTC. 
o In Northeast, Panchayati Raj institutions, Autonomous District Councils, and Sub-State Regional 
Development Councils have not been able to achieve the objective of decentralization in decision-making 
process as they have lacked real power and modern outlook and efficiency 
• Brings development: Economic package that forms part of the accord, is expected to usher in a new era of 
development in the BTR region.  
o The package includes a Central university, a national sports university, a North East Regional Institute of 
Medical Sciences and a National Institute of Technology. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Progress so far 
• Boundary commission has been formulated to give a 
new shape to the BTR,  
• Development work for the residents of the Bodo 
region is being done through various commissions and 
advisory committees. 
o 65 schemes worth Rs. 750 crore have been 
commissioned, and a separate allocation of 
Rs. 565 crore has also been done. 
• Assam Official Language (Amendment) Bill, 2020 
passed to give due respect to the Bodo language,  
• Assistance of Rs. 4 lakh has been started for all 
surrendered militants.  
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Viva Questions

,

study material

,

Security: January 2021 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

,

pdf

,

Sample Paper

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

mock tests for examination

,

video lectures

,

practice quizzes

,

Security: January 2021 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

,

past year papers

,

Security: January 2021 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

,

Exam

,

MCQs

,

Extra Questions

,

ppt

,

Semester Notes

,

Important questions

,

Objective type Questions

,

Summary

,

Free

;