Security: May 2021 Current Affair Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

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Current Affairs : Security: May 2021 Current Affair Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


	
44	 																																																																								
Threats to cyberspace 
• Cyberthreats can be disaggregated into following baskets 
based on the perpetrators and their motives: 
o Cyber Crime/ Cyber Attacks: Any type of offensive 
maneuver employed by individuals or whole organizations 
that targets computer information systems, 
infrastructures, computer networks with an intention to 
damage or destroy targeted computer network or system. 
o Cyber terrorism: Acts of Terrorism related to cyber space 
or act of terrorism executed using Cyber technologies is 
popularly known as 'cyber terrorism'. It is the convergence 
of terrorism and cyber space. 
o Cyberwarfare: It is the use of computer technology to 
disrupt the activities of a state or organization, especially 
the deliberate attacking of information systems for 
strategic or military purposes. 
o Cyber espionage: Use of computer networks to gain illicit 
access to confidential information, typically that held by a 
government or other organization. 
4.	SECURITY	
4.1.	CYBER	SECURITY	IN	INDIA	
Why in News? 
Recently, Air India disclosed that a cyber-attack on its data servers affected about 4.5 million customers around 
the world. 
About Cyber Security 
• Cyber security means protecting information, equipment, computer resource, communication device and 
information stored therein from unauthorised access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or 
destruction. 
• It is the process of securing information or assets that are contained in cyberspace. 
o Cyberspace comprises interaction between people, software and services, supported by worldwide 
distribution of information and communication technology devices and networks. 
Cyber Security has assumed strategic and critical importance because of following reasons 
• National Security: Several states are developing the capabilities in cyberattacks which can alter outcomes in 
the battlefield. For ex: several reports have suggested China’s role in Mumbai Power Outage (2020). 
• Used in Public Policies: Cyberspace has 
become key component in the 
formulation and execution of public 
policies. It is used by government to 
process and store sensitive and critical 
data which if compromised can have 
devastating impact.  
• Safeguarding private sector: In India, the 
private sector has started playing a 
significant role in operating critical 
information infrastructure, particularly in 
power, transportation and healthcare 
highlighting need for cyber resilience. 
• Protecting service delivery: Taking down 
cyberspace will result into disruption of 
many critical public services like railways, 
defense systems, communication system, 
banking and other financial system etc.  
• Rise in Digitalization: Individuals are using internet-based services at a growing pace making them 
vulnerable to cybercrimes, such as- online bank frauds, surveillance, profiling, violation of privacy etc. 
o The average data consumption per person a year is in the range of 15-20 gigabits. The growth rate in 
data generation is more than 35%. 
• Increasing role of advanced technology: With more inclusion of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning 
(ML), data analytics, cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), cyberspace will become a complex 
domain. 
o COVID-19 induced advancement in technology and push in work from home has further increased 
dependence on cyberspace.  
Page 2


	
44	 																																																																								
Threats to cyberspace 
• Cyberthreats can be disaggregated into following baskets 
based on the perpetrators and their motives: 
o Cyber Crime/ Cyber Attacks: Any type of offensive 
maneuver employed by individuals or whole organizations 
that targets computer information systems, 
infrastructures, computer networks with an intention to 
damage or destroy targeted computer network or system. 
o Cyber terrorism: Acts of Terrorism related to cyber space 
or act of terrorism executed using Cyber technologies is 
popularly known as 'cyber terrorism'. It is the convergence 
of terrorism and cyber space. 
o Cyberwarfare: It is the use of computer technology to 
disrupt the activities of a state or organization, especially 
the deliberate attacking of information systems for 
strategic or military purposes. 
o Cyber espionage: Use of computer networks to gain illicit 
access to confidential information, typically that held by a 
government or other organization. 
4.	SECURITY	
4.1.	CYBER	SECURITY	IN	INDIA	
Why in News? 
Recently, Air India disclosed that a cyber-attack on its data servers affected about 4.5 million customers around 
the world. 
About Cyber Security 
• Cyber security means protecting information, equipment, computer resource, communication device and 
information stored therein from unauthorised access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or 
destruction. 
• It is the process of securing information or assets that are contained in cyberspace. 
o Cyberspace comprises interaction between people, software and services, supported by worldwide 
distribution of information and communication technology devices and networks. 
Cyber Security has assumed strategic and critical importance because of following reasons 
• National Security: Several states are developing the capabilities in cyberattacks which can alter outcomes in 
the battlefield. For ex: several reports have suggested China’s role in Mumbai Power Outage (2020). 
• Used in Public Policies: Cyberspace has 
become key component in the 
formulation and execution of public 
policies. It is used by government to 
process and store sensitive and critical 
data which if compromised can have 
devastating impact.  
• Safeguarding private sector: In India, the 
private sector has started playing a 
significant role in operating critical 
information infrastructure, particularly in 
power, transportation and healthcare 
highlighting need for cyber resilience. 
• Protecting service delivery: Taking down 
cyberspace will result into disruption of 
many critical public services like railways, 
defense systems, communication system, 
banking and other financial system etc.  
• Rise in Digitalization: Individuals are using internet-based services at a growing pace making them 
vulnerable to cybercrimes, such as- online bank frauds, surveillance, profiling, violation of privacy etc. 
o The average data consumption per person a year is in the range of 15-20 gigabits. The growth rate in 
data generation is more than 35%. 
• Increasing role of advanced technology: With more inclusion of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning 
(ML), data analytics, cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), cyberspace will become a complex 
domain. 
o COVID-19 induced advancement in technology and push in work from home has further increased 
dependence on cyberspace.  
	
45	 																																																																										
	
 
Page 3


	
44	 																																																																								
Threats to cyberspace 
• Cyberthreats can be disaggregated into following baskets 
based on the perpetrators and their motives: 
o Cyber Crime/ Cyber Attacks: Any type of offensive 
maneuver employed by individuals or whole organizations 
that targets computer information systems, 
infrastructures, computer networks with an intention to 
damage or destroy targeted computer network or system. 
o Cyber terrorism: Acts of Terrorism related to cyber space 
or act of terrorism executed using Cyber technologies is 
popularly known as 'cyber terrorism'. It is the convergence 
of terrorism and cyber space. 
o Cyberwarfare: It is the use of computer technology to 
disrupt the activities of a state or organization, especially 
the deliberate attacking of information systems for 
strategic or military purposes. 
o Cyber espionage: Use of computer networks to gain illicit 
access to confidential information, typically that held by a 
government or other organization. 
4.	SECURITY	
4.1.	CYBER	SECURITY	IN	INDIA	
Why in News? 
Recently, Air India disclosed that a cyber-attack on its data servers affected about 4.5 million customers around 
the world. 
About Cyber Security 
• Cyber security means protecting information, equipment, computer resource, communication device and 
information stored therein from unauthorised access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or 
destruction. 
• It is the process of securing information or assets that are contained in cyberspace. 
o Cyberspace comprises interaction between people, software and services, supported by worldwide 
distribution of information and communication technology devices and networks. 
Cyber Security has assumed strategic and critical importance because of following reasons 
• National Security: Several states are developing the capabilities in cyberattacks which can alter outcomes in 
the battlefield. For ex: several reports have suggested China’s role in Mumbai Power Outage (2020). 
• Used in Public Policies: Cyberspace has 
become key component in the 
formulation and execution of public 
policies. It is used by government to 
process and store sensitive and critical 
data which if compromised can have 
devastating impact.  
• Safeguarding private sector: In India, the 
private sector has started playing a 
significant role in operating critical 
information infrastructure, particularly in 
power, transportation and healthcare 
highlighting need for cyber resilience. 
• Protecting service delivery: Taking down 
cyberspace will result into disruption of 
many critical public services like railways, 
defense systems, communication system, 
banking and other financial system etc.  
• Rise in Digitalization: Individuals are using internet-based services at a growing pace making them 
vulnerable to cybercrimes, such as- online bank frauds, surveillance, profiling, violation of privacy etc. 
o The average data consumption per person a year is in the range of 15-20 gigabits. The growth rate in 
data generation is more than 35%. 
• Increasing role of advanced technology: With more inclusion of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning 
(ML), data analytics, cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), cyberspace will become a complex 
domain. 
o COVID-19 induced advancement in technology and push in work from home has further increased 
dependence on cyberspace.  
	
45	 																																																																										
	
 
	
46	 																																																																								
 Way forward 
• A mechanism for information sharing and coordination between government agencies should be 
developed. In keeping with current needs, the Defence forces, DRDO, NTRO, CERT-In, RAW, IB, C-DAC, 
Ministries, NIC, NASSCOM, private industry et al. must work in concert.  
• India can raise a cyber command with responsibility of combating cyberwarfare. 
• Government can put in place a regulatory mechanism to ensure protection of private sector Critical 
Information Infrastructure and should also provide incentives for adhering to such norms. 
• PPP Model for Cybersecurity: As the private sector is an equally important partner in providing critical 
information infrastructure, there is a need to work with the private sector. 
• There is a need for Human resources to assist the academic staff and graduates to understand the needed 
skills and opportunities. Courses on Computer Science, IT etc can be offered over government platforms. 
• Indian government along with NASSCOM should promote startups working in the field of digital security. 
• India can follow international best practices such as Tallinn Manual which is an academic work related to 
laws that apply to cyber-crimes which developed nations such as the USA are following. 
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
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